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What makes a good teacher?
Children need a person who has a big heart and he can use different teaching techniques that
ensure success for learners.
They need to feel that the teacher is a little strict so students respect him but also he is friendly and interested in their pupils wishes and feelings and enjoy seeing the children learning.
A good teacher have to try to do his job the best he can and think always about what can be the best for their students.
When we teach we have to follow some advices: Don't stress; do relax and enjoy their spontaneity and candor - teaching young children may be frustrating and stressful.
Don't get mad; do understand - instead of getting angry at a child for an inappropriate behavior, try to understand why he or she acted a certain way.
Don't punish; do reward - use positive reinforcement to encourage good behavior. If you use punishment to correct bad behavior, the child will only turn against you. Mistakes are always necessary.
Don't correct; encourage - if a child makes a mistake, instead of saying "that's wrong", try saying "that was good, but let's try it this way".
Don't frown; do smile.
Treat every child equally. Try to make everyone feel that they are all equally important.
Establish routines so that your students know what to do and what to expect in the class.
Establish the rules and the parameters so that your students know what you expect and what the limits are at the beginning and then be consistent.
Make them responsible for everyday actions and activities that keep the class chaos at the adequate level: i.e. attendance, handing out and collecting.
Don’t give it –get it, elicit what they know to discover what they need to know.
Personalize learning as much as possible Predict and prepare your classes Importance of the praises to child: Praise is one of the most influential tools a teacher or tutor can use. It encourages students to develop good study habits, utilize productive thinking and reasoning skills, and learn course content.
To encourage a good Classroom behavior Teachers can use some expressions which can help them to get that children have a good behaviour in class.
It isn’t necessary teacher raise his voice and loud in order to captain the attention because he can scare the children.
Example: Hands free! Means that pupils have to leave on the table what they have on hand and pay attention.
The classroom layout is very important The horseshoe: It is ideal if the teacher is talking and doing speaking activities. He can see all children faces.
Chairs in a circle: Tables pushed to the walls and just the chairs in a circle. It is usual if they are doing games or discussions.
Traditional rows: They are ideal if pupils have to work individually, for example in an exam.
Nested tables in groups: It is used when children have to work together and to improve the communication between them.
TEACHERS GOOD PRACTICES Pupils’ view: A good teacher … • is kind • is generous • encourages us • takes time to explain • makes things easier to understand • likes teaching the subject • doesn’t give up on us • makes us feel clever • treats us equally • makes us think in different ways • listens to us • has faith in us • keeps confidence • likes teaching students • helps us when we are stuck • tells us how we are doing • cares about our opinion • makes allowances • stands up for us • enjoys his/her job Teachers’ repertoires of best practices • Provide learners with clear tasks, goals. (Ability to explain and describe things clearly) • Encourage pupils to think, to make connections, to practise and reinforce, to learn from other learners and to feel that if they make mistakes they will not be ridiculed or treated negatively.
• Promote pupil participation through problem solving, questioning and discussion activities.
• Treat all pupil questions seriously and do not intimidate or ridicule.
• Understand that, since individuals learn at different rates and in different ways, we need to provide a variety of activities, tasks and pace of work, and monitor and evaluate children’s progress.
Any teaching event will be more successful if the teacher: • is enthusiastic.
• has organised the session well.
• has a feeling for the subject.
• can conceptualise the topic.
• has empathy with the learners.
• understands how people learn.
• has skills in teaching and managing learning.
• is alert to context and ‘classroom’ events.
• is teaching with their preferred teaching style.
• has a wide range of skills in their teaching repertoire, including ‘questioning, listening, reinforcing, reacting, summarising and leadership’.
BLOCK 2 How to teach vocabulary? 7 factors to take into account: 1. Demonstrability: Is it easy to convey the meaning of the word? Using pictures, objects 2. Similarity to L1 3. Brevity: Is it a short or long word? 4. Regularity of form: apple/apples-foot/feet 5. Learning load: Is part of a word already known? bedroom 6. Opportunism: Is the word relevant to the child’s immediate situation? 7. Centres of interest: Are the words likely to be of relevance of or interest to children? 5 stages of learning vocabulary: Stage 1: Understanding and learning the meaning of new words.
-Vocabulary should be presented in a context which is familiar to the child.
-Visual support helps convey meaning and memorizing.
-Words are often remembered in groups which have something in common, so it is helpful to introduce them in: • • • • • • Lexical sets: e.g. shops, fruit, rooms in a house Rhyming sets: e.g. bat, rat, hat, mat Colour sets: e.g. things that are Green: a pea, a leaf, an apple Grammatical sets: e.g. adjectives, verbs, prepositions, nouns Partners, or collocations: e.g. ride a bike (verb+noun) or easy class (adjective+noun) Opposites or male and female: e.g. hot/cold, boy/girl Stage 2: Attending to form Depending on the age and level of your pupils, this can involve all or some of the following: • • • • • Listening and repeating Listening for specific phonological information (consonant and vowel sounds, number of syllables, stress pattern) Looking at/observing the written form (spelling, letter clusters) Noticing gramatical information: an apple / a lion Copying and organizing Stage 3: Vocabulary practising, memorizing and checking activities This involves children in activities requiring them to do things with the words in order to make strong memory connections: • • • • • • • Classifying/sorting into categories: cold things, farm animals.
Giving instructions: Touch the green book, go to the door.
Picture dictation: draw a circle, he’s wearing blue jeans.
What’s missing? It can also be played as a team game Wordsearches Sequencing: Put the chocolate cake first.
Labelling Stage 4: Consolidating, recycling, extending, organizing, recording and personalizing vocabulary • • • • • Vocabulary books Collages Word networks/webs/tres Clines or steps Word stars Stage 5: developing strategies for vocabulary learning Children are usually very good at guessing or inferring meaning from context in L1 and often transfer these strategies spontaneously to the L2. What knowledge contributes to this? Linguistic knowledge • Grammatical clues: prior knowledge of the language, links and similarities to L1 • Textual clues: punctuation, use of capitals, speech marks Extra-linguistic/world knowledge • Visual clues: illustrations, mime, gestures, expressions • Audio clues: sound effects, onomatopoeic words, word and sentence stress, pace, volumen, pauses, disguised voices • World knowledge: prior knowledge of the situation, the topic, the culture Teaching pronunciation Good pronunciation is very important for communication.
It’s important that you speak clearly and that you don’t prevent other people from understanding what you want to say. (intelligibility).
Songs, rhymes and jazz chants are an excellent illustration of the way in which stress and rhythm work in English.
Pronunciation is not just about individual sounds: -Individual sounds /i:/ /i/ -Consonant clusters -Syllables and stress (eighteen / elephant) -Weakly and strongly stressed syllables -How stressed is used to contrast things, to change the meaning of the sentences.
-Sounds in connected speech: (Put on the hat /take off your shoes) -Intonation (falling: My name is Laura. Rising: Can I open it?) Teaching grammar Approaches to teaching grammar 1. DEDUCTIVE APPROACH (RULE-DRIVEN LEARNING) Starts with the presentation of a rule and is followed by examples in which the rule is applied.
2. INDUCTIVE APPROACH (DISCOVERY LEARNING) Starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred. Students are given a sample and the teacher guides them in discovering the grammar rules used in the sample.
3. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning.
4. THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD: In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and the native language.
BLOCK 3: Developing the language skills Learning to read in English Developing good levels of literacy in the L1 and good oral skills in the L2 are THE MOST IMPORTANT OBJECTIVES.
Teaching methods • • • • PHONICS: Sound/letter correspondences to develop “Word attack” skills.
The Look and Say Method: use pictures of words to recognize them.
The Language Experience Approach: use a picture and write down something about it.
The Context Support Method: Choose books and topic that interests them. Personalized method. You read the longer sentence, they read the simpler version.
Why should I use English in class? -It will help your learners to hear clear pronunciation and intonation.
-It will help your learners to focus on the lesson because they have to listen carefully if they want to understand.
When you use English you are: Showing children that this new language is another form of expression.
When should I use English? Other teachers use mainly English and just give a word or explanation in mother tongue if some children really need to hear this of feel uneasy.
If the teachers are good communicators, the children quickly get used to hearing only English and gradually learn to understand more and more.
When should I use children’s first language? An activity may be too complicated to explain clearly in English, for example the rules for a game. You can explain in the mother tongue and afterwards explain again in English and model the activity with some students if possible.
How do I teach classroom English? When you teach learners a new classroom English expression, it has to be taught the same way as we would teach any new vocabulary. This will mean making the meaning clear to the learners and practising the expression and the learner’s response. practising new language through TPR or other games is always advisable to make it more memorable. Don’t expect the learners to learn all the expressions at the same speed. Some they will learn very quickly, others will take longer.
How do I check understanding? The main way is through observation. If not all the learners have understood, try repeating the instruction more slowly, using body movements or demonstration to remind them of the meaning and give them time to think what to do or to say. Only when they have fully understood, the responses will be immediate.
How do I treat errors? We may help a child to correct what they have said as well.
Teacher talking time versus student talking time If teachers take a dominant role, then the students’ role is only that of respondent and the opportunities for developing the speaking skill are severely limited. There are some strategies for reducing TTT: Use pair work or group work instead of teacher-led activities.
Optimising classroom communication: Make it an outcome to get the attention of everyone before you start the lesson. To maintain focusing you can use your communication carefully, especially your language.
BLOCK 4 What is a lesson plan? Before you plan your lesson, you will first need to identify the learning objectives for the class meeting. Then, you can design appropriate learning activities and develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning.
A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates these three key components: • Objectives for student learning • Teaching/learning activities • Strategies to check student understanding Steps for preparing a lesson plan 1. Outline learning objectives 2. Develop the introduction 3. Plan the specific learning activities (the main body of the lesson) 4. Plan to check for understanding 5. Develop a conclusion and a preview 6. Create a realistic timeline Sequencing activities -Harder activities earlier in the lesson. Pupils will be fresher and more energetic.
-Transitions from one stage or activity cycle to the next. How? What language are you going to use? -End on a positive note. Sense of achievement and self-esteem, sum-up and praise, build in a short routine fun activity: a password or an instruction.
Assesment TYPES OF ASSESSMENT: -Formal: exams -Informal: Observations, interviews, anecdotal records, portfolios, work samples and self-reflections.
Difference between assesment and evaluation Students control their own learning process: EVALUATION The teacher controls the learning process: ASSESSMENT - Assessment of learning (product focused) - Assessment for learning (process focused) In a lesson not only knowledge but also understanding and skills have to be checked.
Evaluating involves these aspects: Observation grids and questionnaires Teacher/Student’s self-evaluation Assessing involves these aspects: Children’s learning encouragement An integral part of the learning experience Integrated tasks and self-made tests Portfolios and self-assessment tools WHAT DO WE WANT TO ASSESS? CONTENT or LANGUAGE? - If content… * Factual recall (details) * General understanding (major points) * Ability to interpret/analyse/apply data * Ability to research and extend the topic - If language… * Ability to recall subject specific vocabulary * Ability to operate functionally * Ability to listen or read for meaning * Ability to present or discuss * Ability to demonstrate reasoning in the FL * Grammatical awareness/capability WHY? WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT? - Summative assessment for the teacher or the learner (reporting purposes) - Formative assessment: * For the learner (to measure own progress, to set personal targets, to understand content issues and language via self-peer assessment) * For the teacher (to inform own planning, to enable reflection on the content-language dynamics, to set targets for learners, to raise learner’s awareness on knowledge and skills) HOW DO WE MANAGE THIS? Assessing CONTENT… • • • • • Consider the most direct way of finding out what you test (summarise into a table/diagram /bullet points, analyse parallel interpretations, correct false ones, gap-filling…) Assess through brainstorming (whole class) Offer appropriate frames and models Assess through classroom activities (F.A.) Involve learners in self and peer assessment Assessing LANGUAGE… • • Be sure you want to assess language Consider whether vocabulary testing format should be monolingual (definitions, drawings…) • • • Use tasks involving communicative function Point out how language use improves communication of content information Maintain context so factual information can also be consolidated IS THERE A UNIQUE ASSESSMENT FORMAT? Formal Testing or Portfolio Assessment? - Hard OR soft data - Emphasis on memory OR emphasis on application - Individual OR collaborative performance - Teacher’s responsibility OR learner’s responsibility WHICH ARE SOME BASIC ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES? - Examples of teacher assessment techniques: * Observation of general language issues (grid) * Oral/written work content (highlight successful ideas and the ones needing revision) * Oral/written work language (point out good uses and suggest rephrasing) * Use ‘Think, Pair, Share’ to precede assessment unless individual performance is crucial * Waiting long enough for oral responses - Examples of peer assessment techniques: * Use of success criteria (traffic light code in group or pairs) and grid ticking (to assess and then share) * Lists with patterns (From your work I learned…, Now I want to ask…) - Examples of self-evaluation techniques: * General prompt questions (What have you learned?, Problems?) * Grid of success criteria (I looked at your work and I realised…) ...