LECTURA 4 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
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María Aperador Montoya
READING 4. A DIFFERENTIAL
THEORY OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
1. ¿Qué aporta la teoría del Refuerzo Diferencial de los autores a la teoría de la Asociación
The authors analyze all the prepositions of Sutherland. They noted that Sutherland was aware
that these statements did not sufficiently describe the learning process, so that, Modern
behavior theory as a general theory provides them with a good idea of what the mechanisms
are that involve in the process of acquiring behavior. According to this theory, there are two
major categories of behavior. On the on hand, there is reflexive or respondent behavior which
is behavior that is governed by the stimuli that elicit it. It exist the classic and the operant
conditioning. But the one that is studied is the operant. The process of operant reinforcement
is the most important process by which behavior is generated and maintained (Burgess &
Operant conditioning is an experimental science of behavior. The term refers to a process in which the frequency behavior is occurring, modified or altered because of the consequences that such behavior occurs. Time operant conditioning has become a true scientific approach to psychology. (Reynolds, 1968). Differential reinforcement may also alter the form of a response this process is called shaping or response differentiation (Burgess & Akers, 1966), for instance, a child learning to speak. Authors add that, behavior appears when there exist the proper conditions and a given situation, that reinforcement has been forthcoming only under certain conditions and it is under these conditions that the behavior will occur. (Burgess & Akers, 1966). It is also been discovered that the pattern or schedule of reinforcement is as important as the amount of reinforcement.
That concept is one the implications of which are little understood by many behavioral scientists (Burgess & Akers, 1966). So their addition was that criminal behavior is learned María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques according to the principles of operant conditioning. An important aspect of this theory is the presentation of the general ways that stimuli and responses can be formed into complex constellation of stimulus-response events. That is, responses can be thought to have stimulus properties. Additionally, more than one response may come under the control of a particular stimulus.
So, the authors have made a widely explanation about what Sutherland said with that proposition. They add the terms of; conditioning, operant, and stimuli – response.
2. Explica cómo se aprende la conducta delictiva a partir de la teoría del condicionamiento operante. Propón un ejemplo In operant conditioning, an adequate explanation of the behavior is that which specifies the present conditions that in a reliable form produce the behavior that is being explained.
Affirmations about the causes of behavior are accepted as valid only when specified what you can really do in certain circumstances to produce the conduct. Only you can understand the behavior when is possible to show in an experimentally way that under certain conditions the changes in the environment are given as result in changes in behavior. (Reynolds, 1968).
For operant conditioning is carried out, it chooses a random responses and if that response accompany a positive stimulus character, already is manipulating the response and learning.
This sequence is called paradigm. If a response is followed by positive stimulus the probability of response and the probability of the continuity of the behavior increases.
Skinner defines its psychological concepts, introducing experimental operations that control behavior, and there is no Skinnerian concept is not so defined. Therefore, it is their way of experimental construction and in 1938 with “The behavior of Organisms”, Skinner makes the distinction between respondent behavior and operant types of conditioning (ie, different experimental designs contingency) (Romero, 1995). A study made by Azrin and Lindsley in 1956 demonstrated that cooperative behavior could be developed, maintained, eliminated and reinstated solely through the manipulation for the contingency between reinforcing stimuli and the cooperative response. But it has also been demonstrated that no only cooperative behavior, but also competitive behavior and leading and following behavior are a function of their past and present consequences (Burgess & Akers, 1966).
María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques So that, the operant conditioning works with 4 different reinforcements; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment. It depends on the type of reinforcement and the type of stimuli. For example, Skinner made an experiment with pigeons, if the pigeon pushed the lever and the stimuli was the food, the response increased (positive reinforcement) , but if the pigeon pushed the lever and the stimuli was the fact that Skinner remove the electric shock, the response decreased (negative reinforcement). But in the other two cases, if the pigeon pushed the lever an it produced an electric shock the response decreased (Positive punishment), and if the pigeon pushed the lever and it was removed the food the response decreased (negative punishment).
An example for that can be a child whose parents give to him all the things that he wants. If only when the child starts to cry parents give to him whatever he wishes, the child learned that crying his parents will give to him all the things and in the future that child will have some shortcomings with this behavior.
3. Explica la siguiente frase de los autores: “…a person will become delinquent if the official norms or laws do not perform a discriminative function and thereby control “normative” or conforming behavior” The authors said that the principle of negative reinforcement would be of major significance in the acquisition and maintenance of such behaviors (Burgess & Akers, 1966). Normative statements are, themselves, behaviors that are a function of reinforcement consequences, they, in turn, may serve as discriminative stimuli for other operant behaviors. But, we have to consider that behavior may produce reinforcing consequences even in the absence of any accompanying verbal statements. So the authors, with that phrase wanted to show that we know from the Law of Differential Reinforcement that that operant which produces most reinforcement will become dominant if it results in reinforcement. Thus, if lawful behavior did not result in reinforcement, the strength of the behavior would be weakened, and a state of deprivation would result, which would, in turn, increase the probability that other behaviors would be emitted which are reinforced, and such behaviors would be strengthened.
4. Indica la crítica que realizan los autores a la Teoría de Sutherland en relación a que el aprendizaje solo se da en interrelación con otras personas.
María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques From the perspective of modern behavior theory, two aspects of socialization are usually considered to distinguish it from other processes of behavioral change. They saw that Sutherland suffer from a significant lacuna because we may learn without any direct contact with another person. In brief, the results of some experiments indicated that behavior could not be maintained solely through verbal instructions. However it was also discovered that is was an extremely arduous task to shape a set of complex behaviors without using verbal instructions and discriminative stimuli (Burgess & Akers, 1966). Vold-bernard-snipes (1998) highlight the influence of the current sociological symbolic interactionism of Mead. For Mead, people act on the basis of the situations have meaning for them and this determines the behavior. So, they made a criticism and sad that behavior was quickly and effectively developed and maintained by a combination of verbal instructions and reinforcement consequences. Symbolic interaction is, then, not enough, contingencies of reinforcement must also be present (Burgess & Akers, 1966) Words: 1205 Bibliography Burgess, R. L., & Akers, R. L. (1966). A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior. Social Problems, 14(2), 128-147. https://doi.org/10.2307/798612 Cid Moliné, J., & Pijoan Larrauri, Elena. (2001). Teorías Criminológicas (1.a ed.). Bosch, S.A. Recuperado a partir de https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjcmlta W5vbG9naWFtZXRyb3xneDo0ZGMxZDcxOTVmOGZjMzI4 Romero, E. Q. (1995). De Darwin a Skinner: génesis histórica de la psicología del aprendizaje y del condicionamiento operante. Psicothema, 7(Número 3), 543-556.
G.S. Reynolds. (1968). Compendio de condicionamiento operante. San Diego, Universidad de California.
Vold, G.; Bernard, T,: Snipes, J (1998). Theoretical Criminology, 4º ed, Nueva York, Oxford University Press María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques ...