Unit 6: Selection (2016)Apunte Inglés
Unit 6 Merce Mach ADE en inglés A6-B6
Vista previa del texto
The strategic importance of selection
Selection is the process of obtaining & using information about job applicants to
determine who should be hired for long- or short-term positions. The objective is
to predict the likely future performance of applicants—in the open job & in other
jobs that they might hold in the future.
Firms must first assess job requirements and organizational needs. Therefore, applicants are then assessed to determine their competencies, preferences, interests and personality.
Obtaining a capable workforce is the selection practice that ensures hired employees are: Capable of high producitivity Motivated to stay with the organization for as long as the organization wants to employ them.
Able to engage in behaviours that result in customer satisfaction.
Capable of implementing the company strategy.
Maximizing the economic utility of selection practices Economic utility is the net monetary value associated with using a selection procedure.
The cost of decision is the time and resources used to collect information about applicants. There are more expensive procedures justified when: Tenure will be long Increases in performance have large impact There are many applicants The value of decision is when the potential value is high for key positions. It is the accumulated effect of good/bad selection decision adds up. Risk of harm and lawsuits can be minimized by effective screening.
The consequences of correct and incorrect selection decisions Selection within an integrated HRM system Other HR activities: Fairness and legal compliance Job analysis and competency modelling Training and development Recruiting and retaining The external and organizational environments: Laws and regulations Labor markets Company culture The HR Triad: Roles and responsibilities for selection Line Managers Identify staffing needs.
Employees Develop/choose Apply for reliable and valid transfers, selection tests.
Help HR define performance HR professionals Coordinate Identify criteria criteria.
selection for evaluating Help HR develop process.
Select and Interview/select Coordinate evaluate vendors new group process with of selection members.
applicants and services.
Attend training in Arrange selection interviews.
Train others Self-select into some selection involved in jobs that select tests.
into jobs that are Keep records and good are good fit.
monitor •Inform Provide outcomes for managers of accurate legal compliance.
disabilities Comply with Administer reference info.
requiring Support ADA.
Designing the selection process Designing the entire process involves making choices like: 1. What are the criteria of interest? 2. What predictors and assessment techniques will be used? 3. What sequence will be used to measure the predictors? 4. How will the information collected be combined to make the selection decision? Overview of the selection process 1. Establishing the criteria of interest. The criteria are the outcomes that selection decisions are intended to predict. Effective performance is determined by using job and organizational analyses to examine the organizational context: a. Company culture b. Values c. Business strategy d. Structure 2. Choosing predictors and assessment techniques. Predictors are pieces of information used to make a selection decision like applications, resumes, tests or interviews. Assessment techniques consist of designing predictors for choosing how to measure the predictors of interest. Valid predictors affirm the usefulness of gathered information for predicting applicant’s outcomes.
*Basic validity Strategies* Content validation: Is about using job analysis results to build a rational argument for why a predictor should be useful. Competency modelling is used to determine job requirements. Experts determine which predictors will best predict job success. The most commonly used is validation strategy. It is especially useful when organization is creating new jobs. It’s a practical approach but subjective.
Criterion-related validation: It uses statistical data to establish a relationship between predictor scores and outcome criteria. Individuals are assessed on both the predictor and their job performance. Analysis of statistical correlations is used to establish the relationship between predictor scores and criteria. High(low) predictor scores correlate with high(low) job performance. It is costly to undertake and requires a large number of incumbents to use this approach.
Validity generalization: It assumes that results of criterion-related validity studies performed in companies can be generalized to other companies. It is a relatively new approach. Many selection techniques have been shown to be valid across variety of jobs. Predictors must be relevant to the job.
Reliability is the degree to which a predictor yields dependable, consistent results. Reliable predictors don’t change in different circumstances. i.e. different test administrators or interviewers.
3. Deciding when to measure each predictor. In most selection processes, there will always be more applicants than there are positions to be filled. It uses less expensive procedures early in the process to remove applicants fail to do well early in the process. It uses information from previous steps to decide which applicants will move to the next more expensive step in the selection process.
4. Synthesizing information to choose appropriate candidates.
a. Multiple hurdles means an applicant must exceed fixed levels of proficiency of all the predictors in order to be accepted.
b. Compensatory is the applicant gets a high score on one predictor but can be compensated for a low score on another predictor.
c. Combined is screening applicants who meet one or more specific requirements and then using a compensatory approach in comparing the applicants who have passed the require hurdle.
Typical steps in the selection process An approach to selecting team members in a total quality production plant Techniques for assessing job applicants Application blanks and biodata tests Background and reference checks Written tests Work simulations Assessment centers Interviews Medical tests Personal history assesments Past behaviour predicts future performance.
Application blanks determine if the applicant possesses minimum job-related requirements and applicants preferences. Education and experience are important considerations for high-level jobs.
Biodata tests asks applicants to provide autobiographical information about past and current activities. Are long and items may appear to unfair, invasive and not job-related to applicants. They are effective predictors of overall performance.
Background verification and reference checks Reference verification verify that information on applicants and resumes is accurate. Employers can hire outside investigators or personally contact prior employers. It may be difficult to obtain information because previous employers fear defamation lawsuits.
Written tests There are ability and knowledge tests Ability tests measure potential of individual to perform, given the opportunity.
Inside this tests we can distinguish two types of ability tests: Personality tests. Assess the unique blend of personal characteristics that define individuals and determine their pattern of interactions with the environment. There are five personality dimensions: o Extraversion o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Emotional stability o Openness to experience Integrity tests. They can predict dishonest and disruptive work behaviours. Paper-and-pencil tests have replaced lie detectors which were banned as selection tools by Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988.
Types of abilities: Psychomotor Physical Cognitive o Used by 30% of employers o May result in adverse impact Knowledge tests assess what a person knows at the time of taking the test. It is useful for jobs specialized or technical knowledge.
Work simulations(Work samples) Applicants perform activities similar to those required on the job Difficult to fake More valid than other methods Less likely than other methods to unfairly discriminate Expensive to develop Assessment centers Candidates participate in multiple assessment techniques. These techniques simulate the job environment. Therefore, candidates are evaluated on multiple job dimensions. It is costly, but non-discriminatory and valid across cultures.
Typical techniques are: In-Basket exercise Leaderless group discussion Business game Interviews It is the most widely used selection procedure. Structured and semi-structured interviews are more valid than unstructured. Structured interviews ensure the same questions will be asked of all applicants. Unstructured interviews lack validity and reliability. The interview design is: Structured questions Focus on behaviour.
Behavioural job interviews ask interviewee to describe instances of past behaviour. Instance illustrates relevant competency. Research shows past behaviour is best predictor of future behaviour. Otherwise, hypothetical job situations can be asked. Applicant may describe or role-play what she or he would do. Research shows behavioural intentions predict behaviour.
Systematic scoring Multiple interviewers Interviewer training The perspective of applicants Applicants’ reactions to the selection process influence their: Decision to join an organization Decision to remain with an organization Level of work motivation Socialization into the organization Applicants judge selection fairness by: The content of selection measures The fairness of the selection process The results of the selection process Current issues Selecting expatriates and host-country nationals. For expatriates to succeed they must manage many relationships: o Their coworkers o Their families o The host government o Their home government o The local clients and customers o The company’s headquarters Selecting across cultures.
o The demand for knowledge workers is increasing o New jobs are requiring higher levels of technical competencies o For multinational companies this requires workers to work in teams that cross cultural and geographical borders.