Origens de la Literatura Anglesa (2015)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB)
Grado Estudios Ingleses - 3º curso
Asignatura Origens de la Literatura Anglesa
Año del apunte 2015
Páginas 17
Fecha de subida 09/01/2015
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Perceval, Sir Gawain and The Green Knight and The Canterbury Tales as well as Utopia.

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Origens de la Literatura Anglesa The beginning of the English Literature was between the 12 th century and the 16th. Until de 100 years-war, English didn’t become a written language among Literature. After that, it was written but under political measures. In many manuscripts of the 14th century, we find knights representing values such as faith, charity, holy, belief, among others.
The feudal world of the 12th century was an opened-world, which means not to be static.
It was opened to improvisation. It means that the audience had to assimilate the narrative shape of the feudal times by entering to this world and understanding the rules of it. Narrative rules correspond to social rules of those times.
English Culture Feudal expansion covers not only England, but there were also other European territories that were involved in this English Literature and Culture. Feudalism is known as a vertical society due to, for instance, the columns, social hierarchical classes. We notice this, for instance, in: King noble men  vassal workers/peasants Vassals had to swear eligence to the lord. In this way, the three connected each other.
Needless to say everyone in this society depends on another one except for the king.
England at that time Henry II married a deucth woman. Deutches and English allied together because of this union. Although many conflicts took place between them, those wars did not cause as many deaths as the following wars. They didn’t mean to kill people because those people surrounded by seeing the huge machinery and soldiers that are treating them.
Courtic Literature and Culture    Narrative Lyrical Musical It is, basically, troubadours, lays (short tales) and romances (longer complexes and mythical studies) The Troubadours lyrics were written in Occitan by the French. It was the language of the poetry, it was not English. Most of the European literature was written in Occitan.
The lyric poetry with courtly ideology was written in Occitan language and performed musically.
In the same way we say in the 12th century French was more popular than English because it was the language of the kings and literature, we can also say that the ‘Plantagenet Culture’ is what we talked instead of ‘English Culture’ Lays      Text written in verticular verse Aimed towards public performance (mostly) adapted from oral studies/songs Concerned with one adventure Adapted to a pre-existing melody Romances      Text written in verticular verse Aimed towards public performance New created stories (sequences) Series of adventures (guest) Structured narrative centred on one hero Courtly Love It means only courtly people are able to love. Outside this, people is ‘desire’, ‘passion’, ‘adulterous’. It’s against marriage. Discipline and enjoyment are the requirements for courtly love. They complement each other. Enjoy the difficulties and obstacles to reach the desire that would be the ideal lover.
Romantic Love It’s spontaneous and individual as well as natural love felt. It’s meant to be ideal.
(i) Ceremonies (PUBLIC)   The Rimal of vassalage  Lord, ladies, hands on shoulders of vassal Gives her a ring Vassal kneels A kiss seals the poet  the vassal rents a land to the lord and this is the ceremony that establishes the contract Sacrament of Marriage  Bride/ Bridegroom stand at the door of the church.
They exchange rings They receive the blessing from the priest They didn’t marry inside of the church; they did it at the door.
A kiss completes the ceremony  Knighting (Rite of Knight – hood)  older knight Gives a giodle and a sword to the new one. The, the new knight receives his spoors. He receives a kiss.
 As the centuries went on things were adding to the ceremonies for example: touch the shoulder of the new knight with the sword.
 All of these ceremonies need witnesses or notary. It has to be performed seriously and only one. A fake ceremony doesn’t allow anyone to be given the chivalry order.
(ii) Ceremonies (SECRET)  Courtly love (no witnesses)  lover pleads for acceptance Kiss from lady means acceptance Gifts are exchanged (rings) Sexual encounter means culmination Male lover had to discipline himself by patience, manner, respect and generosity Romance appearance in the middle of the 12th century       1135-1138 Geoffrey de Monmouth  Historia Regum Britanniae First place where King Arthur appears 1155(aprox) Wace, Roman de Brut  in verse, as a way of entertainment, Historia Regnum Britannie. It was easy to remember and when was read it had rhyme.
‘Brutus’ mythological discover of Britan with him.
‘Roman’ classical text 1170(aprox) Thomas, Roman de Tristan et Yseut  ‘Roman’ vernacular text about adventures.
‘Tristan’ not classical, invented.
1160-1187 Marie de France, Lois 1160-1170 Chrétien de Troyes, Erec et Enide 1170-1180 Chrétien de Troyes  Le chevalier de la charrette (Lancelot) Le chevalier au Lyon (Yuain) He identifies himself at the beginning of the texts.
Marie did it in the same way too.
At the very end of the century, the Romance had become a respectable genre from the court. Chrétien wrote on wood pieces, covered by wax. Every time people asked more from the author Chrétien. The last romance he wrote was Perceval.
 1188-1191 Chrétien de Troyes, Preceval Early 13th century  The prose Lancelot  La queste du Groal (quest for the grail)  La mort d’Arthur (triology) Biblical structure: 1.Ancient testament. 2.New Test. 3.
‘Vulgate cycle’ called the ‘bible’. These are trilogies of romances which are called vulgates like the bible due to its complexity and length.
King Arthur remains at the background. However, he dominates the narration without taking part in the action. He does not behave as a king at all. The king’s function is to make ‘knights’. The king is an abstract representation to give medieval values to that reality.
King Arthur is related to  Justice  Measure  Preservation of order The Round Table is the name to recognize the knights of King Arthur.
Basic structure and Cultural oppositions Court Civilisation Safety Moral order Nature Danger Moral Chaos Chivalry Military mastery Self-discipline Courtly love Christianity Spiritual values Political expansion (crusades) Adventure Woods Villainy Military capacity impulse/improvisation simple sexual desire Anti-Christianity Paganism-unbelief Islam/Judaism A single episode in a sequence, seemingly occurring randomly, through integrated in a larger and organized sequence. Ad ventura = by chance Quest Sequence of adventures leading to an apotheosis or climax, throughout the protagonist acquires knowledge of the self.
Perceval The narrator and the destiny The Narrator perspective is following the boy with the audience. They both know more than the boy does. Although the boy is an aristocrat, his appearance is to be a peasant on his mother’s purpose. The point is that there is a gradual progress from the beginning being a peasant until the end becoming a knight due to his destiny. In romances, the destiny means the divine Providence that let the characters to be what they really are.
Regardless of the situation, at the very end, all of the characters end up to be what they really have to.
Being a knight Due to the order of knighthood, the Perceval becomes a knight by kissing and giving the spores. To become one of them means to be morally responsible of one’s actions as well as showing the progress in life. He has to become a different person. In the encounter with the gentleman Gornemant, Perceval learns how to speak, how to behave and above all, he stops saying ‘my mother said…’ before every sentence he would make. It means the discovery of the Chivalry and the Order of Knighthood.
Adventures in the romance The deserted forest origin (ignorance - early youth) First adventure: Red Tent (signs of sexual/social inmaturity) Elements: golden eagle.
Damsel extremely afraid of.
Lack of courtliness, sexual immaturity, impulsive action Second adventure: Red Knight (innate military capacity/non-chivalric attitude) Stolen cap from King Arthur’s Court Inheriting military capacities due to the death of the knight by killing throwing a javelin at the knight’s eye.
Still unchivalry attitude because knight’s fights are different (sword face to face) Knighting Ceremony Memory of origins (discovery of moral/ social responsibility) Encounter with the gentleman Order of Knighthood Castle of Beaurepaire Double initiation: Sexual maturity  courtly love Military maturity  defense of the castle 2 iniciatic moments: 1) outside the castle there’s no one (first military experience) 2) At night, first sexual experience. Lady visited him half naked. (He’s getting courtly; development) Central Adventure: Grail Castle The fisher king and the grail king Grail Progression Exit from the castle and discovery of the young man’s name  identity The Grail Procession Perceval saw the two fishers. One of them, the fisher king, invited him to his castle. He entered the castle and was invited to dinner too. Such a weird things were happening such people walking nowhere from one room to another. It looked like there was a procession there but he didn’t dare to ask anything. Specific characters appeared such as a man carrying a lance full of blood. Suddenly, the room was enlightened and a second object comes. It was a silver carrying grail.
In Christian religion the grail is used to drink the blood of Christ and the Bread to eat the body of Christ.
We still don’t know the origin of the grail because Perceval didn’t ask about it.
The following morning, when he woke up he realized there was no one in the castle. He carried on his way crossing the river and, suddenly, found a girl who clarified Perceval’s ideas and made him get conclusions. ‘the grail lost…’ This adventure allows Perceval to find another adventure and, above all, his identity. By discovering the grail he discovers his identity. He found that his mother dies at the moment he left her at the back. At this moment, he realizes he has committed a crime.
This sin would be only forgiven by sacraments.
The grail represents absolutely purity and Perceval cannot get the grail because he has committed sins such as the one we commented above. The transcendent adventure would be completed once being forgiven the sin committed.
What did the grail and the lance mean before the Romance? It has a liturgical (ceremonies) meaning in the late 12 th century. We find out in the pictures of Christ of that time lances and grail near the corpus of Christ died. The iconography of the scarification is a Christian sign which involves the grail that represents salvation of the Church and the lance which represents damnation or sin.
The only absolution could be done by confessing the sins by the Church.
The grail and the developments of the Romance: At the late 20th century there were several continuations (and anonymous endings) of Chretiere’s romance.
It’s not unlikely to know the end of the story due to its structure. We suppose he come back to recover the grail and he ends up being a hero. Even though Chretiere died before finishing the romance, other authors worked on it. What really matters in this romance is THE SALVATION OF PERCERVAL AND THE RECOVER OF HIS IDENTITY.
One of the authors that carried on the romance was Robert de Boron, Roman de Joseph D’Arimathée and Roman de Merlin.
Early 13th century: The anonymous vulgate (bible) cycle: Consists of 3 parts:  Le roman de Lancelot (prose)  La queste du Groal (prose)  La Morte d’Arthur (prose) The trilogy is not written in octosyllabus (vers) now it’s written in prose because of two reasons. There’s a practical reason and a moral reason. The former is because it’s too long and it’d be impossible to read. They are meant to be read in private. The latter it’s because it has to be reading in private among aristocrats.
Writing in verse rhyme is better because of the reader. Moreover, verse is associated to “lies” such as in songs, poems, courtly love… Prose is identified with truth.
Arthur and his relatives: (Uther Pendragon )      Morgan: sister of Arthur – plots against Arthur Gawain: nephew – representing high values Round Table: his knights Guinevere: Arthur’s wife who has an affair with Lancelot Lancelot: most important member of the Round Table   Mordred: member of the Round Table equivalent to Judas Excalibur: name of the Arthur’s sword The Round Table has to have LOYALTY to…  Loyalty of vassal to his Lord  Loyalty to the chivalry  Loyalty to the marriage In Perceval it does not matter to be loyal to marriage. Chretiere didn’t care about it too much but now it does matters due to we are in a NEW CENTURY and it means a change. Now, loyalty to marriage matters.
Lancelot never reaches the grail due to his impurity after violating the loyalty to his Lord Arthur King. However, Galahad, the son of Lancelot did it due to his belief in God- He is a monk and defends the temple of Jerusalem.
La morte d’Arthur does represent a metaphorical death. He was wounded but not killed.
Even though he has been destroyed, he was declared once “the one and future king”.
He, after the destruction, goes to Avalon which is another world. It’s not heaven, it’s a magic fairly land where as well as he goes, he has to return to earth whenever people need him. Meanwhile, whereas people are well, he remains resting there, in Avalon.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Christmas Celebration longs several days. New Year’s Eve meaning the new cycle that begins. It’s much more important than Christmas which is related to religious belief.
This context means change. That’s why it’s emphasized.
Names at the very beginning are very well known. So it shouldn’t be any problem in introducing them directly by naming all the characters.
Perceval had several adventures. However, this Romance has only one conflict (Gawain fight) perhaps, two adventures but these both complement each other considering them to be one. It goes against Romance Structure of that era. There are many repetitions which are the same actions inverted.
Middle-English poetry adopts a new structure which is different from the previous poetry coming from French origin. It’s the result of the desire of English poets who create a kind of poetry that could be recognized as English: “The Canterbury Tales” Characters that French created would be the same in English poetry but what is going to be different will be the language in which poetry is written. Arthur is a patriot of Britain due to this change made. However, space, saga, adventures will be the same. The increase of Englishness and separation from the French is due to the war against them.
Introduction of the story: The author depicts New Year’s Eve’s importance. By contrast, Christmas is not. The new cycle begins with the New Year’s Eve. The romance begins with a journey, like many other romances.
There’s a different perception of time between Christianity and the belief in New Year’s Eve. Christmas represents a commemoration of Jesus’ born and the embodiment of God. So it means that times moves in one direction from the moment the world is created until it’s destroyed (progress movement). Whereas New Year’s Eve represents that the time goes and goes the same way, again and again the same day of the year. So it’s measured according to circularity and no by progress.
The Green knight, who represents the New Year, challenges everyone who was sitting in Arthur’s Round Table. His appearance is huge and green. He brought his horse green and huge as him and he presented his challenge as a game. Arthur was shocked and he didn’t know how to act. The Green knight mocked them because no one dared to accept the challenge.
The Green Knight represents a monster. In fact, he is not a knight because of what he carries (wood tools). Although he is on a horse, he comes from the forest so he’s not regarded as a knight. He abandons the forest, the state of Nature which is synonym of ‘the unknown and danger’.
Apparently, the entrance of the Green Knights looks like something magic. In romances Nature could mean two things. The former, something related to “miracles” so also with “white magic”. The latter, as in many romances, it’s related to “satanic or devil”.
The latter tendency is not always considered that way. In many cases, it’s seen as something bad due to the aristocratic values. Readers see the unknown as dangerous.
Chivalric fight consists on:  Lance  Ride a horse  Swords  Mercy But there are other chivalric factors:  Axe (weapon of hunter men). A tree is what is cut by an axe and it grown in years. The deal is with an axe and not with a sword.
 Exchange of blows  Cycle of one year within The deal consists of one year long which is the same time that longs a tree to be grown.
It’s a circular pattern.
The meaning of the Green Chapel: it’s closely related to the forest (paradox or oxymoron). The forest continues being the same even in a year because Nature rebuilds itself. However, Gawain cannot do the same. He didn’t realize that the Green Knight is deceiving him. Whereas the Green Knight will be the same in a year long, Sir Gawain will be died due to he’s a knight that does not belong to Nature as the Green Knight does by following the Nature cycle.
Although the pre-preparation before fighting that Gawain follows seems important, it’s ironically mentioned due to the Green Knight does not need to fight following the chevalier rules. Gawain does it because it’s a ritual but he won’t face any adventure.
Part 2: (end) Gawain reaches the castle and he’s very welcomed by the king of the castle. He stays there for three nights resting before his encounter against the Green Knight. Moreover, there’s an exchange of things between the king and him. Everything that he gets in a day, he’ll give it to the lord and the opposite too. However, Gawain does not reach things whereas the king goes out and hunts something for Gawain.
3 days hunting…  1st day deer  2dn day boar  3rd day fox Part3: (the exchange and violation of loyalty) the lady in the castle looks for him. She makes jokes and laugh with him. Gawain conceives her to give her only one kiss but it’s not enough for her. In the second encounter, they kiss each other twice due to her insistence on it. She offers him a ring, freely. At first, he does not accept it. According to courtly love, he should have accepted it in order to have an affair with her but he does not. The second present is a green belt or green gurinald. It’d make him stronger.
The talked about it like it’s something supernatural. Magically it resists against human attacks. It’s not mentioned but we sort it out this way knowing that that stuff “protects”.
Gawain accepts the gifts because he wants to survive, but he does not think that these are magic.
Salomon’s seal – 5meanings  5 senses  5 wounds of Christ (when he’s hanged on the cross)  5 joys of Virgin Mary  5 fingers Five virtues  Loyalty  Generosity  Courtesy/mercy  Chastity Gawain is tempted in the desert like Jesus was during his 40 days walking the devil appeared three times offering three temptations: hunger, defying God and idolatry.
To conclude, this romance is not progressive which means to go from one adventure to another. It moves in a circular way. Constants repetitions are related to inevitability of Nature. When the final encounter takes place, they talk about past. The moment is not going to be important. They remain things about the last three days: what happened in the outside and the inside of the castle. The encounter would be in the Green Chapel.
The three hunting sins: ‘Bestiary’ prose summaries of characterizations of animals in 13 th-14th century. They were used as example. It’s a description of physical form and morality form. It’s closely related to Christianity, we don’t find illustrations of it. For instance, some animals represent virtue like the deer and others like the snake represent fire or the devil.
Aristotle means the origin of ‘the speech’ There are social divisions among literary genres.
   Tragedy/epic is related to dignity. Only to the high class with aristocratic characters.- sermogravisIntermediate style is related to peasants.-sermomedioComedy is among low class characters. It has a low style and it’s aimed to low class like servants.-sermohumilis- Differences in language: 1. Sermogravis – accurate selection of language Exclusion of the lower aspects of reality Sense of proportion between character and appearance.
2. Sermomedio – the Canterbury Tales’ style.
3. Sermohumilis – comedy.
Inclusive language Concentration on the humble and the modest Presence of the lowest bodily aspects. For instance: eating, drinking… When Perceval’s interested in cloths (bodily aspect), at first, we laugh at him due to his language and his thoughts. However, when he becomes a knight, he’s now using sermogravis.
Two monks from the Monastic order brook the differences of the use of language because as they come from the aristocracy they have to make them understandable in order to make the bible popular.
The Canterbury Tales One of the differences between this romance and the previous one is that the narrator locates us by presenting the place where the story happens. Sermoduo is used due to the author’s aim to address to all kind of audience.
The Canterbury Tales are written in verse. Chaucer still relies on oral performance.
Many people were illiterate so they are going to be aware of the story by listening it.
The description of the first knight Chaucer makes show moral “descriptions” that the reader has to know (sermo humilis) Prologue       13 characters that represents different social status.
They were rebuilt by casual detail of the narrator.
The narrator is Chaucer and he’s also part of the group he explains his own past and the past of the other characters The narrator does not judge or qualify them Plenty of physical details. It allows us to have an own perspective and judge them, afterwards. The abundance of details gives the romance realism. The physical details lead us to qualify them psychological. The details of the language are loosely based on amuse descriptions and external appearance given.
The narrator defends/emphasizes the aristocracy due to gain profit with the success of his romance.
Characters         Young boy: son of a knight. Not aware of the poverty of his father. 20 years old.
Squire: different from young boy. Courtly culture. He belongs to fashionable world.
A nun: strange that speaks French and that has money too. She’s not been living in France/Paris. Although we are not told this, she wants people to know she’s from aristocracy. She’s learnt everything from where she belongs (Stratford).
This is a paradox of the society. Even she’s a nun, she’s rich. It’s not wellconnected.
A monk: A rich one. Again, full of descriptions. He’s not religious vocation.
He’s bald, fat and his eyes are like fire.
Bath’s woman: 5 times married; 5 times widow; not common way of dressing; she laughs, speaks and make jokes constantly in order to look for a man; she travels a lot to look for a man.
Miller: rural character that has a mill. It gives prestige and impression. Whoever he fights against, he always wins. He play the bagpipe and everyone follows him.
Father and child: the father represents the real world and the son represents the imaginary world. It’s the past of the aristocracy (glory) with the aristocracy of nowadays, this is the metaphor.
Pardon-seller: a man who has many religious goods (pardons). He comes from Rome. They supposed to redeem the sins. He’s half-man (apparently) and halfwoman (shout like a woman and he has not hair anywhere) because he cannot have children. He has been castrated to preserve his voice. He’s the last character described due to Chaucer did not like the corruption of the church. The Indulgencies at that time were very popular. They were documents that were used to redeem people from their sins committed.
Irony – it’s generally used by Chaucer because he is one of them. He’s also a sinner that looks for Pilgrimage. Irony implies things not said.
Sarcasm – It’s said openly and directly. There’s distance between the addresser and the other people. It’s extremely exaggerated. We can laugh at it.
“Fabliau” It’s not a literary genre or tradition. It comes from oral story telling that consists in a humor/comic anecdote. Generally, it has sexual content. It involves middle or low class characters. It’s adapted to his own interest.
The Miller Tale It involves character of middle-low class. People who live from working and having a job. Issues such as the Universe and the church appear. It is a comic narrative very entertaining but it shows a portrait of reality as viewed in the prologue. Its intermediate style deals with all sort of topics.
Oxford is the place where the story happens. Plenty of students and Nicolas is one of them. Psalms (Psaltery-arpa) comes from the book of Psalms. It notes musical notations of biblical texts.
Body of the story The wife is Alison. She’s 18 years old. She’s happy for having the students lodging there. She’s the one who controls the money.
Absolon and she cannot speak because there are people around and they are in a church.
They can only speak through their eyes by staring at each other.
Absolon uses techniques or language of courtly love, songs, presents. He’s indeed fashionable. He uses techniques of the past to seduce her. Whereas she behaves as an aristocrat, Absolon just wants to seduce her, he desires to have a lover. He’s tiring but Alison prefers the student.
Situation  Alison has two candidates + husband: o Absolon – clerk – tiring.
o Nicholas – student – he’s the first one. She prefers him. John’s not at home they’ll have opportunity to be together.
o John – husband – loser.
What does Nicolas tell John to be able to being above with Alison? He tells him the end of the world, the apocalypses. He tells him it’ll be a flood. Noah, carpenter and arch.
Nicolas tries to convince the carpenter that the end of the world is coming by flood. He says he has seen it through the starts. He tells him that there’s only a solution: to build 3 barrels and there will be only 3 survivors – scholar, wife and carpenter. So the carpenter goes to collect wood to create the barrels, but he still controls his wife in a certain way.
The aristocracy is excluded from this tale. There’s a common perception of the middleclass lifestyle throughout the carpenter, Alison, Absolon and Nicolas.
Absolon has no doubts about what he wants that is Alison:    Suffering love – courtly love tradition He’s rejected and he think he’s rejected as a part of a ritual or kind of joke, however, it’s not.
Importance of the kiss: mutual agreement of lovers.
Reality in Literature At the end of the story all the neighbors come and everything is taken as a joke. It means the beginning of literature as entertainment. The fact that we laugh at things that take part in our everyday life, allows to show a very close reality in a comic way (It’s abstract, non-existent characters). We have to recognize people individualized. Realistic literature in English. Inclusive realistic style. Furthermore, the concept of courtly love is brought down to reality. The audience is laughing at themselves and at courtly love too.
From now on, as the story has been written in verse, it is meant to be read at home and performed in public as well.
Abstract and Universal ideas of GOOD.
The abstracts were closely related to Platonic notions and the realness of ethics and politics as well. By contrast, the universal previous ideas had aristocratic meanings.
They moved to inspiration. There were also notion of vision and revelation. These were different from romantic issues. Idealistic moves are not in a romantic sense.
Utopia There is absence of private property in Utopia. There’s disappearance of private in itself and there are no social classifications. Moreover, the creation of the Intellectual means the individual growth addressed to the public improvement. In fact, Henry VIII was a humanist that apply several disciplines to be taught under the parish authority supervision. Hence, the introduction of Grammar Schools were created. Throughout Latin, people had access to elegant expressions of language. They learnt English by translating from Latin. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic have their origins from these time.
Thomas Moore was the highest legal authority in England. He was ambassador of Utopia and the readers. He was also a lawyer. He speaks for transmitting wisdom to people. Stablishing contact to people, the intellectual network begins. People who had access to printed books shared their meaning, publically.
Apparently, it looks like a travel group but it’s about Raphael new discovery of countries.
Raphael and Thomas Moore difference: Raphael does not want to serve the king and those in power but he’s interesting in public affairs. Wide power (broad) is not located in any specific person. The difference is mainly based on the imaginary character and the real one. The other characters are real people.
Moore speaks about his admiration and his skepticism. He’s in the dialogue to put some distance. Raphael does think about utopians but Moore doesn’t. The point of the book is the opposite: this society does not exist. The possibility of building another alternative does exist. Another mentality is required to make changes possible.
REALITY   TEXT FANTASY Recognition of elements like Henry VIII Due to facts are well-known, the following fantasy is more powerful so that, it could exist. It’s also a real life possibility.
The community and religion The services on land have to be for the whole community. Again, there is no existence in sense of property. The problem of power comes from the Western World. Pleasure and good fair should correspond to each other or the community as a whole.
In terms of religion, there is no existence of Christian religion. Polytheists exist as they believe in many Gods due to the profit for the community.
There are no visible differences between the communities. To glorify God (Christianity) we provide differences between them due to God is an abstract superiority and people are mortals. Hence, social differences are avoided. So the notion of the good and the virtuous have to be shared by the whole community and from a religious perspective too.
The value The highest valuable object is the iron. It leads pragmatism due to the iron is used mainly to practical matter. The inversion comes from gold is used as less as possible. Its lowest practical use to make ornaments or jewels makes the reversion true. Ornaments are easily damaged, that’s why they are useless. In fact, there are scarce metals and they are the most value, according to Western Mentality. The value is measured depending on scarceness. Whatever is more abundant is valuable.
The law The main aspect of the law to be considered is that they have to love each other, honestly. They have to see each other naked before to get married. The purpose of it is that then, the well-being of the society is possible and, also, to know each other well enough. However, there is no intimacy because their friends organize this “nakedmeeting”. Marriages are more honest than in the West. Even though the notion of intimacy disappears, we have to remember that there is no “private property”. Private life is open to everyone.
Punishments are about public shaming of the offender.
The experience of itself is redundant. The lack of satisfaction creates essential uniqueness. The individual that writes is discovering the uniqueness by the moment he’s writing because his pain is unique. The female beloved is the one who makes him feel like this. He imagines addressing a woman. The innovation is this, that it’s extremely individualistic because the writer is addressing to one person and not to the people in general.
The beloved is so idealized that it seems to lose his connections with reality. At the moment of the idealization, it only exists a woman and the other people, even the world, disappear. The woman is spiritually superior whereas in trovadour poems, the woman was socially superior.
The relation of strong dependence is justified in subjective and spiritual terms. The image of women is dematerialized whereas in trovadoresque sexual desire takes priority over the other issues.
The writer works from distance. The beloved has no acknowledge of the existence of the writer but this is what is has to be about, only about the experiencer of the poem in himself and not what the beloved thinks. Sir Philip Sidney sonnets addressed to this kind of women.
The importance of this deep feeling is significant due to the future creations it may allow to create. Poem 9 – elements of beauty. So the image of the beloved is conventional. It does not change.