Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M)
Grado Comunicación Audiovisual (Bilingüe) - 2º curso
Asignatura Reading Moving Image
Año del apunte 2015
Páginas 7
Fecha de subida 12/04/2016
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Más en gperez1793 READING MOVING IMAGE PART 2 Our entire life is organized in our eyes. Through the whole history people had realized that.
In the Egyptian mythology for example, we can think of Orus.
In the Greek mythology, we can thing of Argos Panoptes (panopticon).
In this way, we observe that vision was considered as a super power in different cultures: Medusa, basilisk, Cyclops.
Also there is a kind of scientific explanation for this fascination of the 'third eye' (Cyclops, Buddhism...).
Snakes and frogs have a kind of blue dot between both eyes, what we can call a parietal eye. It seems kind of an eye, and makes these animals able to 'see' where they are or if an enemy is approaching. Actually, it is a temperature sensor.
Also, in the Oedipus story, when it is discovered what he have done (kill his father and marry his mother) he is punished with pulling out his eyes. It is no accident that Sophocles chose eye mutilation as punishment for parricide Oedipus and incest.
VIEW is essential for life and human survival. Because man is an animal essentially VISUAL. It´s an activity more INTELLECTUAL than SENSORIAL.
In essence, the retinal vision of an infant is the same as that of an adult. The difference is in the learning and experience gained.
Sometimes is not a problem of vision, but education.
•RETINAL IMAGE: OPTICAL PHENOMENON. Light entering the eye and creating a reflection.
•VISION: PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS. Involves the brain, cultural references, education...
•AND IN fact, we do not distinguish OVER 250.
Indians can differentiate between more colors.
ARE INDIANS BETTER THAN US? OR THEY ARE INFERIOR? EYE is the beginning of the perceptual process.
1. Just a small part of the retina offers a clear and focused image of reality.
2. The image formed in the retina is not a replica, but a projection of reality.
3. Senses, and specially the view, are less passive agents than active mechanisms.
PERCEPTION Starts when physiological process turn into MENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS.
PERCEPTION is the impression of the outside world achieved exclusively by the senses.
PERCEPTION is a meaningful interpretation of sensations.
The way we see the world is also based on our own experiences and history.
•The perceptual process launches two processes: -Identification -Differentiation Más en gperez1793 Constancy Phenomenon The eye works as the JPG compression: it focus the most complex areas and discriminates the more simple.
It goes to the areas with MORE information.
SOME INFORMATION ABOUT VIEW : Within two images, one simple, another complex, a child will look always the more complex one.
Within a three-dimensional object and his representation two-dimensional, the child will prefer the object.
How do we come to know something of the world, and can we trust that knowledge? 1. EMPIRICAL THEORY We learn everything experimenting.
2. INNATIST THEORY We have some knowledge already in us.
For this theory, the world is presented organized.
There is an isomorphism between brain and stimulus.
The form imply an outline (which actually does not exist) that separates the bottom.
GESTALT THEORY It is divided in laws that state how we see the world.
There is in all of us a natural tendency to simplification, symmetry, balance, and order.
It occurs in all human knowledge retentive tendency to synthesis, to outline, to the abstract.
LAW OF PRÄGNANZ LAW OF PROXIMITY LAW OF SIMMETRY LAW OF CLOSURE LAW OF SIMILARITY LAW OF CONTINUITY Más en LAW OF SIMPLICITY LAW OF EXPERIENCE gperez1793 FIGURE-GROUND FAILURES OF PERCEPTION They show the mental process of perception, and how it fails sometimes. Understanding the failures, we can understand better how our brains work.
We create connections between shots and our brain make the connections.
Our brains continually strives to build stories with meaning from what we see. What does not fit exactly in the script, or what is not related to the specific task that occupies our interest, dissapear of our consciousness.
In an analysis you have to find : WHY - WHAT - HOW DO NOT DESCRIBE (OR NOT ONLY) • It is assumed that there´s no room for Impressionism, subjectivity and singular opinion.
• Evaluations of “greatness” have no place in analytic writing.
• The duty is to understand, not to evaluate.
• Try not to speculate or to judge.
CAMERA AND FRAMING: ANGLE, LEVEL, HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ANGLE STRAIGHT-ON ANGLE: Classical. At the same level that the thing you are filming.
CHRONIQUE D´ANNA MAGDALENA BACH (Danièle Huillet, Jean-Marie Straub, 1968) HIGH ANGLE: Above the thing you are filming.
CHRONIQUE D´ANNA MAGDALENA BACH (Danièle Huillet, Jean-Marie Straub, 1968) LOW ANGLE: Under the thing you are filming.
CITIZEN CANE (Orson Welles,1941) PSYCHO (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960) LEVEL THE THIRD MAN (Carol Reed, 1949). Angle shifting, showing the idea of instability, a world that is changing.
Más en gperez1793 HEIGHT Not necessary related with the angle og the camera. It can be higher, lower, but still a straight-on angle.
TOKY STORY (Tokyo monogatari) (Yasujiro Ozu, 1953). -tatami cameraRECORD OF ATENEMENT GENTLEMAN (Nagaya shinshiroku) (Yasujiro Ozu, 1947) DISTANCE Between the camera and the object.
EXTREME LONG SHOT: the human figure is almost invisible (landscapes).
THE THIRD MAN (Carol Reed, 1949) MONTAÑA EN SOMBRA (Lois Patiño, 2012) LONG SHOT: we start to distinguish the human figure and to see the characters of the film.
THE THIRD MAN (Carol Reed, 1949) PLAN AMÉRICAIN: cutting the human figure more or less by the knees.
MEDIUM SHOT: showing half of the body, usually the higher part.
MEDIUM CLOSE-UP: showing more or less the face of the character, but keeping the shoulders and part of the body in the frame.
CLOSE-UP: coming closer to things.
EXTREME CLOSE-UP: little details.
CAMERA MOVEMENTS PANORAMA (OR PAN): the camera is moving and following the movement of the film, side to side.
BANDE À PART (Jean-Luc Godard, 1964) TILT (PANORÁMICA VERTICAL): upside down and the other way around (used to create mystery...).
TRACKING (OR DOLLY SHOT): the camera moves along the space with a kind of train rails.
TRAVELLING: shot in which the camera is mounted on a camera dolly, a wheeled platform that is pushed on rails while the picture is being taken; in this case the shot is also known as a dolly shot or trucking shot.
SINGIN' IN THE RAIN (Stanlye Donen & Gene Kelly, 1952) CRANE SHOT: from up to down moving the camera, following the movement.
ABRE LOS OJOS (Alejandro Amenábar, (1997) DJANGO UNCHAINED (Quentin Tarantino, 2012) STEADYCAM / HAND-HELD CAMERA: camera stabilizer mount for motion picture cameras that mechanically isolates it from the operator's movement. The steadycam is the evolution of the hand-held camera.
THE SHINING (Stanley Kubrick, 1980) RAGING BULL (Martin Scorsese, 1980) SAVING PRIVATE RYAN (Steven Spielberg, 1998) Más en gperez1793 FUNCTIONS OF FRAME MOBILITY MOBILE FRAME AND SPACE TU(A)MOR (Fernando Franco, 2009) VERTIGO (Alfred Hitchcock, 1958) GOODFELLAS (Martin Scorsese, 1990) LA HAINE (Mathieu Kassovitz, 1995) LA REGION CENTRALE (Michael Snow, 1971) MOBILE FRAME AND TIME INTOLERANCE: LOVE´S STRUGGLE THROUGH THE AGES (D.W. Griffith, 1916) WAVELENGTH (Michael Snow, 1967) WVLNT (Wavelength For Those Who Don't Have the Time) (Michael Snow, 2003) THE LONG TAKE (not to be confused with “long shot”) TIME + SPACE PANIC ROOM (David Fincher, 2002) TOUCH OF EVIL (Orson Welles, 1958) LES 400 COUPS (François Truffaut, 1959) PLAN SÉQUENCE /SEQUENCE SHOT: entire piece of action with a beginning and an end in the same take. In a shot you contain the whole action.
GUN CRAZY (Joseph H. Lewis, 1950) TRUE DETECTIVE. SEASON 1, CHAPTER 4 (Cary Joji Fukunaga, 2014) LEVIATHAN (Lucien Castaing-Taylor & Véréna Paravel, 2012 LONT TAKE: a take that takes more time than usual, the action starts, but doesn't end in the same take (not to be confused with long shot).
SELF PORTRAIT "Do not worry, is not because you have a camera in your hands that you're going to know me deeply." Ventura "It does accompained me and protects me knowing, as he says, that I'm not going to quit just because I'll never get to it" Pedro Costa So far the images have been a prerogative of specialists. In prehistoric times were sorcerers who painted on the wals, then were the artists, then professional photographers, amateur photographers then and now all the world is a photographer. What I call the Fotograficus Hommes. Joan Fontcuberta.
“With the advent of digital technology, photography is no longer reserved for the solemn moments. On the contrary, the availability, the ease and opportunity to photograph everything pushes the digital photo to infiltrate the time and in the event of the daily life. We are all authors of our own images, we have become both homo spectator and homo Fotograficus. We´re responsibles and owners of our own image”. Joan Fontcuberta.
Más en gperez1793 LEVELS OF REPRESENTATION ON CINEMA (BORDWELL) (the work to create an image on cinema) 1. FIRST LEVEL: Mise en scéne. Contents represented on screen. Decide what is going to appear: scenario, how are going to look the characters...
2. SECOND LEVEL: Composition. Presentation of the contents. How you are going to shoot a scene.
3. THIRD LEVEL: Links an relations between images on a temporal line. Organization of the images through editing. Organize the images in the film (editing). Is not just copying and pasting, it also contains links and relations with a more deep meaning. MISE EN SERIE: EDITING.
Rule of 180º: basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene. An imaginary line called the axis connects the characters, and by keeping the camera on one side of this axis for every shot in the scene, the first character is always frame right of the second character, who is then always frame left of the first. You can use or break the rule depending on what you want to transmit.
THE MALTESE FALCON (John Huston, 1941) THE LORD OF THE RINGS - THE TWO TOWERS (Peter Jackson, 2002) THE SHINING (Stanley Kubrick, 1980) LÉON: THE PROFESSIONAL. (Luc Besson, 1994) DIMENSIONS OF FILM EDITING GRAPHIC RELATIONS: relate images because it composition.
SINGIN' IN THE RAIN (Stanlye Donen & Gene Kelly, 1952) CITIZEN KANE (Orson Welles, 1941) THE BIRDS (Alfred Hitchcock, 1963) RHYTMIC RELATIONS: duration of the frames, and the interior rhythm that is what is happening inside the frame. How the editing was made trying to create tension.
THE BIRDS (Alfred Hitchcock, 1963) RAIDERS OF THE LOST ARK (Steven Spielberg, 1981) SPATIAL RELATIONS: create the relation between one frame to another, a simple tool (cutting) can create the sensation of two separate places just by cutting from one image to another (creating new spaces that exists in the film).
“I am Kino-eye. I am builder. I have placed you … in an extraordinary room which did not exist until just now when I also created it. In this “room there are twelve walls, shot by me in various parts of the world. In bringing together shots of walls and details, I’ve managed to arrange them in an order that is pleasing.” DZIGA VERTOV A MOVIE (Bruce Conner, 1958) LA PASSION DE JEANNE D´ARC (C. Th. Dreyer, 1928) REAR WINDOW (Alfred Hitchcock, 1954) TEMPORAL RELATIONS: connecting time. Cutting can create a new different time and make you travel in time during the film. it also plays with ellipsis and collapsing and elapsing time.
HIROSHIMA, MON AMOUR (Alain Resnais, 1959) OLDBOY ( Chan-wook Park, 2003) BATMAN BEGINS (Christopher Nolan, 2005) 2001: A SPACE ODDYSEY (Stanley Kubrick, 1968) Más en gperez1793 THE (SYMBOLIC) MEANING OF COLORS Colors are more stable than form.
The way we interpret colors depend of the cultural side.
Forms are related to our logic, and colors are related to the emotions.
The meaning of color can change in time.
Try to think of color in relation with the context and stuff that is involved.
Color is independent by: -Sociocultural context.
-Contrast in the support structure.
-Subjectivity of the viewer.
REALITY/REALISM Components of an image: -Mimetic or imitative: picture.
-Symbolic: symbol.
-Arbitrary: sign.
Childs don't try to copy the reality, but the ideas.
In iconic culture there are no doubles, neither pure arbitrarily (our culture), and the difference between mimetic forms and no mimetic is a matter of degree, is what is called iconicity degrees (Abraham A. Moles).
Mimetic ---> Symbolic ---> Arbitrary We are used to the artifice (and we think it's real).
The use of fading between images: 1. There is no imitative or analog connection with reality.
2. His motivation is purely arbitrary.
The fade has changed his function.