LECTURA 6 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
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María Aperador Montoya
READING 6. TECHNIQUES OF
NEUTRALIZATION: A THEORY OF
1. Explica la relación entre técnicas de neutralización y la teoría del Refuerzo
At present, it is believed that criminal behavior, like almost all social behavior, is a behavior
that is learned in the process of social interaction. Vold-Bernard-Snipes (1998: 185)
emphasized the influence of the sociological current of Mead's symbolic interactionism. For
Mead people act on the basis of the meaning that the situations have for them, that is, the
meaning determines the behavior. This idea explains Sutherland's emphasis on the meaning
that the person attributes to a certain objective situation and how this meaning learns in the
interaction one develops with his or her innermost personal groups (Cid & Larrauri 2001:
100). Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the specific content of what is learned
in both theory and research. The only school of thought geared to understanding the nature
of this content has centered on the idea of a criminal subculture.
The point of departure of Sutherland is, therefore, that the criminal behavior is a learned behavior through the differential association. The systematic exposition of the theory was presented in the form of nine propositions (Sutherland, 1947:88-90). Proposition number 6, is the relevant to be able to relate to the techniques of neutralization, this says the following; "A person becomes a delinquent because in his / her environment there is an excess of deaths favorable to breaking the law, while it remains isolated or immunized with respect to groups that maintain definitions favorable to respect the law. This is the principle of differential association. "(Cid & Larrauri 2001; 101).
Neutralization techniques are justifications commonly described as rationalizations. They are considered to arise after deviant behavior, as a way of protecting the individual against their María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques own guilty feelings or against the guilt of others after having committed the crime. It is believed that such techniques constitute the essential component of the sixth proposition already mentioned above. It is through learning these techniques that a young person becomes a juvenile delinquent, and not through the learning of moral imperatives, values or attitudes in total contradiction with those of the dominant society.
2. Comenta a qué se refieren los autores en la siguiente cita: “[…] this image of juvenile delinquency as a form of behavior based on competing or counervailing values and norms appears to suffer from a number of serious defects” (p. 664).
There are two aspects of how and why criminal behavior is carried out. Firstly we have Sutherland with Differential Association theory which asserts that criminal or delinquent behavior involves the learning of techniques of committing crimes and motives, drives, rationalizations and attitudes favorable to the violation of law. (Sykes & Matza, 1957). On the other hand Cohen sees the process of developing a delinquent sub-culture as a matter of building, maintaining and reinforcing a code for behavior which exist by opposition, which stands in point by point contradiction to dominant values, particularly those of the middle class.
Cohen does not accept the delinquency as something done, but examines the function of delinquent values as a viable solution to the lower-class. However, that thought about the juvenile delinquency can bring serious defects. The difficulties in viewing delinquent behavior as springing form a set of deviant values and norms are both empirical and theoretical (Sykes & Matza, 1957); First, if there were a criminal culture where the offender saw his behavior as morally correct, it would be seen that the offender does not experience sensations of guilt or resentment; therefore, he would feel indignant because his behavior is not seen bad way. However, there is much evidence to suggest that many offenders experience a sense of guilt or shame.
Second, criminals often profess admiration and respect for people who comply with the law.
If the delinquent ascribes to a set of values and norms that are totally opposed to the values and norms of respectable society, its form of observance of these norms has a peculiar character.
María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques Third, juvenile delinquents often draw a line between those who may be victimized and those who do not. They themselves decide what kind of groups they can attack based on social distancing between them. For example, "stealing from friends" or "not committing acts of vandalism against a church of your own pig"(Sykes & Matza, 1957).
Fourth, there are doubts as to whether criminals are totally immune to the demands of conformity of the dominant social order. It can happen that a person condemns a criminal act when that is really the situation that is experienced in his family every day.
3. Escoge una de las técnicas de neutralización (la que quieras) y explícala con la mayor profundidad posible. Plantea un ejemplo.
The different techniques of neutralization are rationalizations one might use to justify non normative behavior (Bock & Kenhove, 2011). Using a ‘denial of victim’ rationalization means that individuals counter any blame for consumer or business misactions by arguing that the violated party deserves whatever injury they receive. Even if the offender accepts responsibility for his deviant acts and is willing to admit that they involve harm (previous techniques of neutralization), moral indignation with oneself and that of others can be neutralized by insisting that In light of the circumstances, the damage is not an evil. Damage is a fair form of retribution or punishment. Through a process, the delinquent assumes the role of revenge, and the victim becomes the delinquent. Denying the existence of the victim, then, transforming it into a person who deserves harm, is an extreme form of the phenomenon just mentioned. However, in another sense, the offender can also deny the existence of the victim in accordance with the circumstances of the offense.
An example might be a father whose daughter has been raped a few months ago. The father of the girl who has been raped plans for weeks the murder of the man who raped her, thus committing a criminal act, but justifying his behavior with the fact that that person is the aggressor and he is the victim (indirect) that has Suffered because her daughter was raped.
María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques 4. Haz un listado de técnicas de neutralización que hayas utilizado en algún caso para cometer algún acto ilícito e indica a qué clase de técnica de neutralización de las definidas por Sykes y Matza (o a otra posible) pertenece. Es conveniente presentar esta pregunta a través de un cuadro.
Wrongful act Neutralization techniques - A street fight, which is considered as a settlement between two people The denial of harm - Breaking a trash from the street and say that "the city council will fix it and for that we pay taxes" - Pin the wheels of the car to a teacher for having suspended a subject - A person who is convicted of drug trafficking and when he gets out of jail The conviction of the condemned makes a prank in the police station where he was arrested.
- To say that the government steals and that is why that person is poor and has to steal or to commit a crime to get food (or other goods) ºWords. 1220 Denial of the victim María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques BIBLIOGRAPHY Bold, G., Bernard, T., Snipes, J., (1998). Theoretical Criminology, 4ª ed., Nueva Yotk, Oxford University Press.
Sutherland, E., Cressey, D., Luckenbill, D. (1947). Principles of Criminology, 11.ª ed., 1992, Nueva York, General Hall, Inc.
Bock, T. D., & Kenhove, P. V. (2011). Double Standards: The Role of Techniques of Neutralization. Journal of Business Ethics, 99(2), 283-296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551010-0654-3 Cid Moliné, J., & Pijoan Larrauri, Elena. (2001). Teorías Criminológicas (1.a ed.). Bosch, S.A.
Sykes, G. M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22(6), 664-670.