International Affairs Notes (2013)Apunte Inglés
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Sub-state actor (paradiplomacy)
Trans-national problems: pollution, immigration, smuggling…
Subsidiarity ! When a legal institution is above another.
Monetary policy ! Supply of money, interest rate trules European Central Bank ! Frankfurt ! Controls the supply of money Globalisation ! Entails the increasing volume, velocity and importance of flows of people, ideas, illegal produces… Types of sovereignty: - Domestic Protect a territory from another states International legal sovereignty (recognition) Types of moral: - Moral relativism ! - Moral absolutism ! Everybody State ! Political division Nation ! Cultural, ethnic or religion division Nation-State ! Democracy: - Separation of powers: o Executive ! President + Ministers ! Make proposal o Legislative ! Parliament ! Modify, accept or decline proposals o Judiciary ! Supreme Court AMERICAN FOREING POLICY AFTER IRAK Dahl: “the ability of A to get B to do something he/she would not otherwise have done” Role power: the identity gives power Max Weber Credibility: how well you do your role Levels: Insurgency: Militarist that don’t represent the army of a country (ex: rebels in Siria) Interest of the USA: oil AIPAC: America Israel Public Affairs Committee Europe: Most important economy of the world UE: 500 million people USA: 300 million people The government doesn’t have control Could be legal and illegal Problems are solved with cooperation Military Economy Transnational Soft power: Persuade ! Convince Hard power: Force ! Convince To get other to want the same as you Positive sum ! Zero sum ! Legitimacy ! Have the right to rule Authority ! Have the respect/power to rule Foreign policy ! How a country interacts with other countries to achieve its objectives.
EXTERNAL International: conflicts, trade, institutions (EU, WTO, UN, etc.) INTERNAL Geography, borders, population, market - Regional Factors: regional bloc (NAFTA, MERCOSUR, UNASUR, AU, ASEAN…), regional power, regional stability.
Bilateral Factors Immigration Diaspora Social cohesion Internal actors: media, pressure, groups Political system: democracy, dictationship, federal system Internationals relations’ theory What theory does? - Simplifies Explains causes, processes and results Looks for patterns and then creates laws Democratic Peace Theory Law ! It says that democracies never go to war with each other Voters don’t like war - Politicians want to be popular for a long time Democracies have domestic values, which they apply in their foreign policy Two most important theories in international relations - Realism o Thomas Hobbs (English philosopher) Man is bad. Because man is bad, states are bad. That is because man controls states.
o Maximise power (material power ! arms and money) with money you can buy arms.
o International system is anarchic. (No superior authority) there’s nothing above the states. To control this exists the power balancing the mechanism, which stops anarchy being horrible.
o WWI Franz Ferdinand, prince of Austria. He was shot in Sarajevo.
Austria-Hungary declare war into Serbia (Good relations with Russia) o Austro hungry ! Serbia o Germany Russia France and Britain Power Balancing can be external (alliances) or it could be internal (increases capabilities. The Cold War) o MAD: Mutually Assured Destruction.
o Second strike capabilities Liberalism o Kant says that man is bad but can be improved. States are bad but can be improved. There are three principal ways for states to improve: " Democracy " Institutions: provide and enforce rules. States more predictable. Can trust each other. Article 51of the United Nations. States cannot attract other states unless they have already attacked.
" Trade: Countries become interdependent. “If goods cross borders tanks won’t” Cordell Hul.
o o - Europe is a customs union. CET: Common external tariff. TAX FREE DUTTY FREE.
The European market is very big and a lot of countries want to enter.
Free trade area: if Spain wants to sell a product in France, its government can add a tax.
The End of History. Fukuyama When the communism disappears the story ends.
Africa ! Neopatrimonial societies. The government gives money to the population because they do not want anyone changing the government. If your government gives you money, you are happy and you don’t want to change it.
Customs Union: European Union Free trade area CET: Common External Tarrif It gives to the EU a lot of power Neopatrimonial societies: the Government gives money to the society Peace of Westphalia (1648): 30 Years War (1619-1648) -> Hapsburgs (catholic) wanted superiority in Europe. France, Sweden and others were against Hapsburgs.
Kings not subject to any higher authority (Pope) Religion not reason to attack other state Balance of power alliances All states legitimate The German Problem Balance power Russia, France and UK formed a union for stop the raising of Germany Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1917 (Balforur Declaration) League of Nations (Wilson): USA and Russia didn’t join it In the 1930’s Italy, Japan and Germany expanded. Italy had Mussolini, Japan invaded parts of China and Germany invaded the Sudettes (Txecoslovaquia) UNTOLD HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 1. What were the causes of the WWII? 2. Why did the Allies win? 3. What did Russia do during the war? THE START OF THE COLD WAR *Take notes about the video ! BAS!!! During the 2WW, the USA’s economy grew. But when it finished, it’s economy declined.
1918 – 1922: Russian Revolution - White Russia. The USA helped them.
Rigged elections: unreal elections ! communism was imposed in Russia.
Puges: anybody who was counter the government could be killed.
Berlin Airlift: everyday planes with food, medicines and drinks were sent to south Berlin.
Marshall Plan (1948): the USA gave money to Europe ! It helped the USA because Europe was its most important exporter.
Atomic Bomb (1949) 1949 ! Rosembergs: marriage accused of helped the Russians. They were suspected of giving information. They were both killed.
1953 ! H. Bomb: was developed at the same time in the USA and in Russia.
1957 ! Sputnik 1954! Guatemala ! Government by Jacobo Arbenz (left). He wanted to introduce Guatemala to the capitalism. United Fruit Company: American company that was in Guatemala and had a lot of land. Guatemala wanted to take the land. It was connected to the Dulles Family. Castillo Armas became president of Guatemala and he helped the USA in everything.
Proxy War 1973 ! Chile ! Pinochet came to power. Salvador Allende became the president in 1970, the CIA send money for helping him. Allende was democratically elected. The army killed him.
1968-1975 ! Peru ! Velasco was the President (dictatorial) Domino theory: the idea that if one country became communist in South-America, the rest of the countries will become too.
Nixon: “make the economy of Chile scream” Chicago Boys: a group of students of Economics in the University of Chicago. Milton Friedman was one of those students. Hayek wasn’t an economist but he was really influencer.
Operation Condor: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia. ! Urban Guerrillas ! Simultaneously they take people, torture them and even kill them.
Foco Theory ! Che Guevara ! Latin America is considered the US backyard. In 1823 appeared the Monroe Doctrine. The idea of this doctrine is to stop European Countries influence Latin America Countries. The USA offered the European countries “security guarantee” against the communist countries.
Empire ! Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples (ethnic groups) united and ruled either by a monarch (emperor, empress) or anoligarchy. Characteristics: - Conquered lands Metropolis Monarchy Military power Power/Rivals Exploitation. Development of the underdevelopment.
Having an empire gives you raw materials, soldiers and strategic access.
Informal Empire ! You don’t actually control the country but you get what you want.
Remittances ! Is the money that the immigrants send to their own country.
Political subjectivity ! Hegemony ! Leadership or dominance of one state over the others - Metropolis. Tu domines els altres països però aquests no estan connectats entre si.
Hub. Tu domines els altres països i aquests estan connectats entre si.
CULTURAL RELATIVISM Power (by Steven Lukes): - First face ! Coercion Second face ! Agenda-setting power Third face ! Influence perspectives IS THE US DIFFERENT FROM EUROPE? The US is a country that is formed by different federal states and Europe is a continent. Otherwise, both governments look for their own benefits. But they way of govern is different.
Meritocracy ! internal qualities BURKEAN CONSERVATISM Key features of Burkean conservatives: - Respect traditions, customs and institutions. ! Most important thing for Conservatism Respect the individual rights.
- Gradual change.
Advantages: - Only protects the right of the people who has the power Libertarianism ! Individual freedom from the State. Government should not be involved in your life.
Individualism ! Decentralisation of power, equality Boston Tea Party (1773) ! “No taxation without representation” Periphery Indigenous Hub European Union Good Trade Borders Travel Erasmus Power Help each other Peace Transnational standards Euro Laws Bad CAP (Common Agriculture Policy) Loss of sovereignty Adhesion Slow-burecrative Democratic European Union The European Commissions is the executive power and it is formed of people chosen by the own country. The Spanish one is called Almunia.
The European Commission makes a proposal and sends it to the European Parliament. The European Parliament has 766 MEP.
Members of the European Parliament (MEP): Ministers of each country form the Council of the European Union. The President of the Council is Herman Von Rompuy and is from Belgium. Catherine Ashton is the representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
European Council ! 28 Heads of State EPP (274) S&D (195) ALDE (85) Greens – EFA (58) ECR (56) EUL-NGL (35) EFD (33) Non-Inscrits (30) ...