UNIT 3. Political mobilization and actors (2016)Apunte Inglés
Ideologies. Political parties. Interest groups. Social movements. Political Culture. Political communication and public opinion.
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UNIT 3. Political mobilization and actors
Ideologies. Political parties. Interest groups. Social movements. Political
Culture. Political communication and public opinion.
Ideologies: 3.1. What are ideologies? Ideology: (ideologies) a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy. (Oxford Dicttionay) Ideology: Basic ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture. Doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system.
From positive no to negative meaning: - Desttut de Tracy, the “science of ideas” (idea-ology) Hamilton (1987) defines “ideology” as a system of collectively held beliefs and attitudes advocating a particular pattern of social arrangements.
Napoleon Bonaparte used it in an abusive way against "the ideologues" .
Marx is the best-known political thinker who defined ideology in negative terms.
He used the term to mean a set of ideas that is alse, deliberately designed to obscure reality in order to benefit a particular class in society. Marx’s aim was to contrast ideology with the truth which his “scientific” socialism was designed to produce.
Enlightenment: - Ideology is a word linked with the Enlightenment: An intellectual, social and cultural movement that stressed the reason and the knowledge in the search for human progress. (Descartes, Kant, Rousseau, Diderot, Voltaire, Stuart Mill.) Traditional ideologies were shaped by the Enlightenment. Some ideologies have a pejorative meaning, others adopt a more neutral term.
The origins of ideologies: LIBERALISM - Liberalism is the dominant political tradition in the Wes - The core concept of liberalism is liberty, private property, and rights.
SOCIALISM - Socialism is dominated by the theory of Karl Marx, who described his socialism as scientific path for social change - At the turn of the twentieth century , socialism divided into two camps, with the communists on and the socialists or social democrats) - Core socialist principles include equality, community and cooperation.
- They’re also a non-scientific Marxism socialism: the utopic socialism CONSERVATISM - The inclination, especially to maintain the existing or traditional order. A political philosophy that wanted respect for traditional institutions and the established order.
- The underlying principles of conservatism are an aversion to rationality, an organic view of society, human imperfection, and a preference for hierarchy. HAGUE, R. & HARROP, M. (2010). Comparative government and politics. An introduction.
Palgrave Macmillan FASCISM - an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization. (in general use) extreme right-wing, authoritarian, or intolerant views or practices. (Oxford Dictionary) - A system of government marked by authority under a dictator, with strong socioeconomic controls, suppression of liberties and the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy under the flag of nationalism and racism.
NEW IDEOLOGIES 21th CENTURY: FEMINISM - Feminism starts from assumption that women are unequal to men ENVIROMENTALISM - The rise of environmentalism has been the product of severe environmental problems.
MULTICULTURALISM - Multiculturalism is a liberal approach seeks to promote pluralistic states based on many different religious, cultural, and ethnic identities.
RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM Religious fundamentalism can be characterized by its intention of organizing politics along religious lines.
3.2 Political Parties: Definition: (1). An organization of people who have the same views about the way power should be used in a country.
(2). A political party is an organized group of people with at similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by having its candidates elected to public office.
(3). A formally constituted political group that contests elections and attempts to form or take part in a government (Oxford Dictionary) Origins: - With the advent of political democracy, or the gradual process.
Universal suffrage was only granted after WW II, and the female vote in 1928.
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES: The ways which parties perform these roles depend: 1. Types of constitutions, federal or centralized regimes.
2. Electoral system and the way of selection of candidates (primaries, bureaucracy of the party..) 3. Regulation of the electoral campaigns ( television adds, budget limits…) 4. Political Culture.
5. Political, social and economical situation.
TYPES OF PARTY ORGANIZATION: FUNDING OF POLITICAL PARTIES: FOR AND AGAINST: • Public Funding – Western Europe – Transparency and Accountability – Availability • Private Funding – Unlimited spending – Pro-busines parties gain more influence – Private donations encourages corruption Electoral Campaigns: • Candidate • Message • Time • Funding • Team • Research • Networks Interest Groups: 3.3. Interest Groups.
DEFINITION: (1). Non-governmental organizations which search to influence public policy.
(2). A group of persons who attempt to influence legislators on behalf of a particular interest.
(3). To try to persuade a politician, the government, or an official group that a particular thing should or should not happen, or that a law should be changed (Cambridge Dictionary.
TYPES OF INTERESTS GROUPS (Puhle, 2001): 1. Professional associations 2. Groups of business, commerce and industry 3. Trade Unions 4. Agricultural organizations 5. Single Interest groups 6. Ideological Interest groups 7. Public Interest groups 8. Welfare associations REGULATING LOBBYISTS: Social Movements: 3.4 Social Movements: Definition: (1). Consist of people who come together to seek a common objective challenging the existing political order. The participants of the Social Movements often are interested in bringing social change.
(2). A social movement is a organized collective effort that focuses on some aspect of social change, with a common ideology who try to achieve certain general goal.
The members can adopt different types of action: protest acts, demonstrations, boycotts and political strikes.
Examples before WW II: - The British anti-Slavery movement (late 18th century) - Women’s Suffrage movement After WW II, the New Social Movements like women’s rights, gay rights, peace, anti-nuclear and environmental issues.
- The American Civil Rights movements (1955) - Against Vietnam (1965) - Against Nuclear (1960) - Against Iraq War (2003) - The Occupy movement (“Indignados”). Against Wall Street. (2011) 3.5 Political culture: Definition: Political culture may be defined as the political psychology of a country or nation (or subgroup thereof). Political culture studies attempt to uncover deep-seated, long-held values characteristic of a society or group rather than ephemeral attitudes toward specific issues that might be gathered through public-opinion surveys (Encyclopedia Britannica ) Political Culture is “the totality of ideas and attitudes towards authority, discipline, governmental reponsibilities and entitlements, and associated patterns of cultural transmission such as the education system and family life” (Roberston, 1993) “Denotes the sum of the fundamental values, sentiments and knowledge that give form and substance to political processes” (Pye, 1995.
Political Culture represent the attitudes and orientations towards the political system.
Some important concepts: CIVIC CULTURE: "a balanced political culture in which political activity, involvement, and rationality exist but are balanced by passivity, traditionality, and commitment to parochial values“ (Almond/verba) SOCIAL CAPITAL: According to Putnam, “ is the ned of social life, networks, norms, and trust that enable participants to act together more actively to pursue shared objectives.” and is an important factor influencing the quality of democracy, social cohesion, public life, education system, economic performance.
CIVIL SOCIETY: Definitions: - “Society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity” (Oxford Dictionary) When in a “strong society” the state is complemented with a set of organizations and institutions that look after the people and provide social and cultural services.
The "third sector" of society, distinct from government and business.
THE REASONS OF THE DIFERENT POLITICAL CULTURE: (1). Religion (2). History (3). Culture (4). Civilizations.
“Clash of Civilizations?” S. Huntington THE AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION: - The Family - The School - Peer Groups - The Mass Media - The Government - Religion - Trade Unions - Political Parties - Internet ...