Primera parte Análisis de la Imagen - Bilingüe (2015)Apunte Inglés
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Reading Moving Image
WHY WE BELIEVE FORGOTTEN SILVER?
1. Authority testimony and witness.
2. Archival footage.
3. Scientific discourse.
4. Emotional identification.
5. Hero construction.
6. Cinematic detective story.
So... Classical documentary form.
WHY WE CAN´T TRUST IN FORGOTTEN SILVER? 1. Too much coincidences.
2. Credible hypothesis... and throw it down.
4. Metatextual references.
5. Humor and mocking.
The ambiguity comes from the time of the invention of photography, when he thought the camera was building an exact replica of reality, without human intervention.
Photography, and later ﬁlm, allowed the construction of images through a technical process that freed man from his dependence on manual dexterity for representing reality.
This seems to balance the photograﬁc art (and later the cinema) to a PRESUMED OBJECTIVITY.
When in reality, the term OBJECTIVITY comes from OBJECTIVE, and refers intents and purposes, indicating the reality orientation and their capture by the photographic technical mechanism.
The power of photography has to do with how they placed us in front before a DOUBLING of appearances freed from the distortions of the image manually. But with another kind of distortions… That ﬁnding has passed quickly to consider photography and cinema as a REPRODUCTION NON OBSTRUCTED able to facilitate direct apprehension of things.
So you have to underline the ambiguity, noting as Rudolf Arnheim said talking about cinema, which photography is based on the TECHNICALLY VISIBLE, not on the things visible by man.
Photography, and ﬁlm, remove any information not likely to be converted in optical terms.
SOUND / TOUCH / TASTE / AROMA / Second, it reduces the tridimensionality of the world to a two-dimensional world, restricted to a single point of view.
Más en www.unybook.com gperez1793 PHOTOGRAPHIC ALTERATIONS ACCORDING TO SANTOS ZUNZUNEGUI : -Sound removal / touch / taste / sound -Bidimensionality -Statism - Chromatic alterations -Choice of space and elimination of what is outside the frame -Noise and grain of the image JOAN FONTCUBERTA: My work is more educational than artistic. Try to vaccinate viewer against excessive realism of photography, and inoculate the reactions of doubt and uncertainty.
So, we don´t have to think that ALL the images lie, and live, as Baudrillard said, in the era of simulacra, but to understand that ALL images are constructions: subjective, biased, manipulated and distorted. .
Finish with the false idea that images, photography and ﬁlm especially as MIRRORS of reality.
An image will be more like a FOOTPRINT.
A FOOTPRINT is not a reﬂection, neither a perfect representation, but the testimony of a presence.
In the same way that no one would make a FOOTPRINT by an almost identical reality, we cannot understand the images as pieces of the world, objective representations without manipulation.
“TO SEE” IS NOT THE SAME AS “TO LOOK” THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS.
I´VE GONE TO SEE A MOVIE THE HORSE FATTENS ON HIS MASTER´S EYE OUT OF SIGHT, OUT OF MIND YOU´VE GOT TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT FORMATS Every format used in film has a meaning, it is chosen for a reason.
Why they are using all the cinematic tools in that way? This is the objective of the film analysis.
The most common formats are: Super 8 mm 8 mm ZAPRUDER FILM (Abraham Zapruder, 1963) RAYOS Y CENTELLAS (David Domingo, 2004) 16 mm / Super 16 mm A SPELL TO WARD OFF THE DARKNESS (Ben Rivers & Ben Russell, 2013) Más en www.unybook.com gperez1793 35 mm - Classical Professional film format.
The sound is also included.
70 mm - the master VHS / Betamax With the analogical video, if you make copies, the quality will be worse every time. This doesn't happens with digital.
TRASH HUMPERS (Harmory Korine, 2009) Hi8 A format trying to reproduce the success of Super 8, but with video. The quality was a little bit lower than VHS.
DV Digital video, the generation between the analogical video format and the new video formats.
PERMANENCE (Escritura digital 7) (Velasco Broca, 2005) LOS INDIOS TRABAJARAS (Velasco Broca, 2011) HD Popular format nowadays.
PAIN & GAIN (Michael Bay, 2013) ASPECT RATIO Is the relation between the height and the length.
4:3 (o 1.33:1) - classical of the origins of cinema, and the first TV's.
KID AUTO RACES AT VENICE, CAL (Charles Chaplin, 1914) TEN SKIES (James Benning, 2004) Más en www.unybook.com gperez1793 16:9 - most common format today (HD) TWENTY CIGARETTES (James Benning, 2011) 1.85:1 - After the 4:3, the second classical format in cinema history.
8½ (Federico Fellini, 1963) 2.35:1 - Cinemascope.
LES 400 COUPS (F. Truffaut, 1959) TWO LANE BLACKTOP (Monte Hellman, 1971) 2.39:1 - Anamorphic PAN and SCAN - it's creating movements and re editing to fit in a frame. It's like re directing the film.
HEAVEN´S GATE (Michael Cimino, 1980) BLADE RUNNER (Ridley Scott,1982) OFF SCREEN It's the part of the film that happens outside the frame. It is still part of the film, even if it's not going to appear on the frame (can be a technique of suspense, emotion...).
MUSKETEERS OF PIG ALLEY (D.W. Grifﬁth, 1912) LA RÈGLE DU JEU (Jean Renoir, 1939) RESERVOIR DOGS (Quentin Tarantino, 1992) LA CIÉNAGA (Lucrecia Martel, 2001) DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FILM ANALYSIS AND FILM CRITICISM 3 reasons to confuse them: -They work with the same materials. They are different approaches to the same materials (film).
-Critics working as analysts, and vice versa.
-The analyst reads and consider the critics. The critic knows the methodological theories.
4 differences: CRITICISM Journalistic field: Billboard emergency ANALYSIS Academic/university field: theoretical and long term debates Más en www.unybook.com Short texts General audiences No methodology gperez1793 Long and depth texts Specialized audience Methodology Bardwell distinguish: Criticism: press and cultural supplements.
-Functions: -to report and evaluate.
-educate de viewer (critics are usually read after watching the film).
-develop a map of contemporary cinema.
Review: newspapers and mass media.
-Functions: -provide information and identify and evaluate the films that the viewer should see/where to spend the money.
Both are supposed to be the opinion of a impartial expert, opposed to advertising.
Sometimes the expert is not...
The reviews/critics in the media are sometimes written by non professionals.
Truffaut: The French have two professions, their owns and the film critic.
...and sometimes impartiality is absent.
In some cases (not that common) because pressures from the company (El País/A.Exaga/Alfaguara/Prisa).
J. Ceberio: A weapon of mass destruction. (when he read the text).
Bliss and Manichaeism of their approach makes useless The Accordionist's Son as testimony to the Basque reality.
The novel is only worth as uncritical document of silliness and stupidity -the moral atrophy in deﬁnitively- that have continued to acquiesce and to protect, today the same as yesterday, in a more or less prudish way, the development of Basque terrorism, reduced in the novel to a conﬂict of wolves and shepherds, a problem of linguistic and emotional ecology, regardless of any ideological consideration here.
Ignacio Echeverría. Una elegía pastoral , 2th september 2004, EL PAÍS Almost always: the critic has internalized what is expected from him.
Bourdieu about a theater critic: This man does not try to please their readers or their employer, but has their own tastes... miraculously, those tastes match or ﬁt perfectly with those of his employer and his readers.
The criteria of the specializes critics runs outside the criteria of the general audience.
The canon (norm) of the general public conditioned by advertising.
The specialized critic chooses contra-canon. (Jaime Rosales / Alejandro Amenabar) The specialized critic as a mediator of difficult films. Jullier: “Legitimizes their work and their publication to defend difﬁcult ﬁlms” If there's no methodology, on what criterion of professional critics are based on? Laurent Jullier (6 different criteria): -The success of the film (regular criterion) The mass media pay attention to the box office ﬁlm success: “Million viewers have already seen the ﬁlm”. ! The audience also. ! Specialized critics don´t.
-His technical value (regular criterion) Más en www.unybook.com gperez1793 For the mass media Kubrick is a genius because uses the steadicam in The Shining and Titanic it is a great ﬁlm for special effects ! The Spanish criticism of postwar highly valued technical quality.
-His edifying character (regular criterion) Movies teach us how the others are living (inside a police station or a spacecraft).
Sometimes they tell the "truth" about historical events (the depressing Spain sixties in Nine Letters to Berta).
The ﬁlm mirror: we discovered something about us.
…EDIFYING CHARACTER The critics do not usually consider such teachings.
…BUT THEY LOVE METADISCURSIVE TEACHING The ﬁlms tell of how they have been ﬁlmed and about ﬁlm in general.
-His emotional power (regular criterion) The reactions of the body (mourn, laugh, get excited, nausea, palpitations ...) are not highly valued by critics ! They prefer the ﬁlms that go to the brain (we like Tarantino for reasons that have nothing to do with the fun) ! Sentimentality is the enemy number one THE REASONS WHY THE VIEWER DRAWS PLEASURE ARE ENDLESS... Some are speciﬁc to the fan, sometimes directly, shameful.
-His originality (distinguished criterion) A very worthy but difficult to prove criteria: need to look at all the critical texts and has little time. Usually the critic is too magnanimous with the alleged originality of the ﬁlms (4000 shots of Natural Born Killers).
“A ﬁlm is original only during the time that elapses until we manage to prove the contrary”. Original works contain many universal themes.
CRITICS PREFER NEW AND DIFFICULT (MEDIATOR) TO THE ACADEMIC / CLASSICAL Apichatpong Weerasethakul vs. Peter Weir A MOVIE CAN BE ORIGINAL FOR MANY REASONS: The temporal context (Snow White by Pablo Berger was original in 2012 but not in 1920).
The geographical context (a musical melodrama is original in contemporary Spain, not in India).
-His cohesion (distinguished criterion) INTERNAL COHESION: What unites the form to the substance in the heart of the narrative economy (“short is a short word, endless stretches endlessly").
The internal cohesion is more accessible than the originality because the analysis is internal but time is also needed (to see the film twice, for example) EXTERNAL COHERENCE: the work relationship with the world or with the author's work. With the world: we cannot make an ecologist film and mistreating animals during filming.
DIFFERENT CRITERIA MASS MEDIA: The success of the ﬁlm. The technical value. Edifying values. Emotional power.
SPECIALIZED MEDIA: Edifying value (metadiscursive version). Originality. Cohesion and coherence.
IF THE CRITERIA ARE WEAK... WHAT GIVES STRENGTH? In the mass media, the conﬁdence in your lifelong critic.
In the specialized media, the thing that they uses more distinguished criteria.
Aumont and Marie “The part reserved the deeper analysis of a work, which is also one of the vocations of the critical of monthly magazines, most part of the time is reduced to its minimum” WHAT IS THE FILM ANALYSIS? And what are the procedures? THE ANALYSIS DOES NOT JUDGE THE AESTHETIC VALUE OF A FILM It chops the ﬁlm surgically to explain how says what it says.
A MOVIE IS A MARRIAGE OF TECHNIQUE AND MEANING. WHENEVER FILMMAKERS LAY OUT A SET, DIRECT ACTORS, PLACE THE CAMERA IN PARTICULAR POSITIONS, AND ASSEMBLE THE RESULTING MASS OF SHOTS INTO A NARRATIVE, THEY NOT ONLY TELL A STORY, THEY ALSO MAKE MEANING.MICHAEL RYAN AND MELISSA LENOS.
THE ANALYST ACTS ON THE FILM AS A SURGEON WHO HAS...
Más en www.unybook.com gperez1793 CONCEPTUAL TOOLS: Uses a precise vocabulary previously described by the theory (sender, diegesis, prolepsis, model reader, fetish, suture, ...) SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES: Segment and choose representative (s) sequence (s). Isolate codes and track its crosslinking.
THE ANALYST HAS A SCIENTIFIC METHOD • It is assumed that there´s no room for Impressionism, subjectivity and singular opinion.
• Evaluations of “greatness” have no place in analytic writing.
• The duty is to understand, not to evaluate.
• Try not to speculate or to judge.
• Choose an aspect of the ﬁlm, not the entire ﬁlm. Choose an image / sequence.
PAULINO VIOTA: “EVERY FILM CLAIMS FOR IT´S OWN METHOD OF APPROACH”. The same method is not good for all movies: can you study in terms of cohesion a postmodern ﬁlm? SANTOS ZUNZUNEGUI “You have to ask the text / ﬁlm the right questions” THE ANALYST CHOOSES SEVERAL THINGS: -Choose one (s) ﬁlm (s).
-Choose a speciﬁc method (semioticstructuralist, neoformalism, psychoanalysis, gender theory, cultural studies ...).
-Rather than choosing a ﬁlm chooses a certain theoretical problems: it does not engage in all aspects of the ﬁlm (ie the problem of identiﬁcation in Psycho.) WHAT IS AN ANALYSIS? A hypothesis on the functioning of the internal mechanisms of a ﬁlm.
AUMONT AND MARIE: “A HYPOTHESIS THAT MUST HAVE THESE CHARACTERISTICS” -Internal cohesion.