Unit 2 (2014)Resumen Inglés
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HISTÒRIA DE LA LLENGUA I – TEMA 2: FROM INDO-EURPEAN TO COMMON GERMANIC
(ALGEO CHAPTER 4)
IE is a dead language, once spoken somewhere in Central Europe (probably about 5000 BC)
It evolved in different ways in the various parts of the world to which speakers travelled.
Its speakers were Normandic.
Languages derived from it are spoken from Europe to India. Original homeland is uncertain.
Common core vocabulary shows that it was not a tropical artic or mountainous region.
IE There are many IE subfamilies ¡, such as Indo-Iranian, to which Sanskrit belongs.
Sanskrit is the first recorded IE language with text from about 200BC.
Other IE subfamilies include the Celtic, Italian, and Hellenic groups. One group of IE speakers migrated to Northern Europe. This group differentiated in both languages and culture.
Common Germanic (CG) -Everged as a distinct language family in the first millennium BC (10thC BC more or less).
- CG is a reconstructed language: the term refers to the common linguistic forms from which 3 branches emerged: NG, WG and EG.
- From there, they spread northwards, southwards and westwards.
- The expansion that led to the supervision of Germanic language family started in the 2 ndC BC and continued till the 6thC AC. (figure 2.1. the indoeuropean language family) The Germanic peoples were of diverse origin: they did not form any kind of unity; they were organized in tribes and small bands.
They were united only by their common language and common heritage of heroic oral literature.
Their language was different from other IE language families in many aspects.
These innovation with respect to IE seems to prove their Non-IE substratum.
Lexical changes Germanic languages share a common distinctive core vocabulary: IE forms that do not exist in the other IE languages (although the concepts they denote to exist).
Eg: sea, leax (now called salmon<- borrowed from French), broad, wife, rain, fowl, drive, meat… Morphological Changes: NOUN - General tendency towards increasing syncretism. Eg: Reduction of inflection o IE 8 cases; Latin 6; Germanic 5; Classical Old English/ Modern German 4.
o IE 3 numbers; Classical Old English 2 (3) Verb - IE tense system simplification. IE distinction of tense and aspect were visually lost in verbal inflection.
Compared to Latin: period, future simple, future perfect, preterite perfect...
- Common Germanic 2-way contrast: present- preterite.
o o - Latin 6 forms in present indicative.
Old English/Modern Germanic 4 forms (1 common form for plural) Formation of preterite: CG strong/weak form verbs: o Strong: vowel gradation, change in root vowel (based on IE Ablaut: quantitative and/or qualitative alternation of vowels). Eg: sing-sang-sung; get-got.
o Weak: Germanic innovation – dental suffix. Eg: knock-ed; lov-ed.
NOUN, ADJECTIVE -> DECLENSIONS VERB -> CONJUGATION Adjective Strong (indefinite) – weak (definite) adjective declension (such a distinction did not exist in IE) Eg: young boys like apples (strong) – The young boys like apples (weak).
Phonological Changes Stress - IE: stress is free (unpredictable) CG: initial stress.
Stress is attracted to the root syllable, most of them the initial syllable (unless it is a prefix) - IE: stress marked by pitch and loudness.
CG: stress marked only by loudness.
Consequences of stress retraction in CG: - Weakening of vowels in unstressed syllables.
Gradual loss of inflection.
VOCALIC CHANGES IE [a:] -> CG [ᴐ:] IE [o] -> CG [a] In later period of Germanic, a new short /o/ and a new long /a:/ will be formed.
When the balance of a system is broken by a shift of a phoneme will start shifting, thus restoring the balance.
GC vowel system (esp. OE->ME->PDE): problem maintaining the balance in the front-back contrast (esp. for open vowels).
Phonemes disappear, but they may reappear eventually with borrowing or new words.
NASAL, LIQUIDS OR SEMIVOWELS In English they may have a syllabic function.
- Nasal and Liquids Loss of IE syllabic function in CG.
The coloring of the inserted vowel depends on the phonetic environment, but it is more often [ʊ] syllabic [ṃ, ņ, ŗ, ļ] -> [ʊm, ʊn, ʊr, ʊl] IE semivowels [j, w] gradually turn into fricatives [ᴕ,ß] GRIM’S LAW 1 The first Germanic consonant shift.
IE [p,t,k,kw ] + [ph,th,kh, kwh] -> CG [f, Ѳ, x, xw] Ie. Merging of IE voiceless stops and voiceless aspirated stops into a single series of fricatives.
Possibly: [ph]->[pf]->[ff]->[f] (HO 4) GRIMM’S LAW 2 [b, d, g, gw] -> [p, t, k, kw] Shift 2 takes place after 1 (when 1 was no longer operative) and its output is hence not affected by 1. That is, the new voiceless stops do not turn into fricatives.
GRIMM’S LAW 3 IE [bh, dh, gh, gwh] -> CG [ß, ð, ɣ, ɣw] and later to -> [b, d, g/ ɣ, gw/ ɣ, w] All aspirated voiced stops become voiced fricatives and later, voiced stops.
EXCEPTION 1 A preceding fricative (esp. [s]) blocks the consonant shift.
In a sequence of 2 plosive, only the first one shift to a fricative, blocking the shifting of the second plosive.
IE [p, t, k kw] -> CG [p, t, k, kw] _ Vless fricative.
EXCEPTION 2 Many exceptions to Grimm’s Law unaccepted.
- - Regular [t] -> [Ѳ] o Lat frᾱter – Skt bhrᾱter – Grk o Germanic BUT [t] -> [d] (unexpected) o Latin pater – Skt pitar – Grk - IE *bhráter -IE *pater VERNER’S LAW These irregularities in Grimm’s Law were accounted for by Karl Verner in 1875, basically in terms of voicing process.
IE [f, Ѳ, x, s] -> [ß, ð, ɣ, z] unless prevented by any of 3 conditions.
1. In initial position 2. In contact with a voiceless consonant 3. Having the IE stress in the immediately preceding syllable.
Thus, IE [t] in * become [Ѳ], as predicted by Grimm’s Law, but then, because the word is stressed on its second syllable and the [Ѳ] is neither initial nor next to a voiceless sound, it become voiced [ð] and later [d].
+ Summary: - Grimm: [t] becomes [Ѳ] like in father Verner: this [Ѳ] will become [ð] when followed by a vowel /_V.
In a later step, this [ð] will become d.