Theme 1 (2015)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad de Barcelona (UB)
Grado Administración y Dirección de Empresas - 1º curso
Asignatura Sociology
Año del apunte 2015
Páginas 5
Fecha de subida 23/01/2015
Descargas 12
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Fundamental  concepts  of  Sociology     1. Sociology       Sociology:  studies  the  social  dimension  of  human  beings.     Society:  system  of  structured  social  relations  that  put  people  together  based  on  a   shared  culture.       SOCIETY  =  STRUCTURE  +  PROCESSES     -­‐  Structure:  parts  or  elements  that  constitute  the  society     -­‐  Processes:  the  result  of  the  people’s  actions,  a  change.     -­‐  Social  process:  consists  of  a  series  of  dynamic  interactions  that  take  place   within  a  society.  These  processes  can  lead  to  changes  in  the  social  structure.       2. Beginning  o  sociology       When  the  transition  from  the  traditional  society  to  the  modern  society   happened.       TRADITIONAL   SOCIETY   SOCIAL  PROCESSES   MODERN  SOCIETY     Working  agriculture  and   Industrialization  and   Working  in  the  industry   artisans   increasing  division  of  labor   Rural  habitat  (90%   population)       Community  (local  social   relationships)       Absolutist  monarchy       Urbanization       Urban  habitat  (90%   population)   Growing  individualism   Association   (instrumental   relationships)   Liberal  democracy   Democratization   Rules  based  on  tradition   Rationalization     Rules  based  on  laws   Social  thinking   Secularization   Social  thinking  based  on   controlled  by  the  church   science       Effects:     - Rootlessness  in  the  city   - Capitalism  (generating  a  class  conflict)   - Labor  division  increases  because  of  the  industrialization   - Rationality  and  science  more  important     - Division  of  powers     - The  organizational  society     Natalia  Casas  Gala     3. How  is  the  transition  to  modern  society  explained?     Durkheim   Focusing  on  the  division  of   labor   Division  of  work/ activities/functions  -­‐-­‐>   specialization   The  individual  is  highly   valued   Weber   Focusing  in  the   rationalization  process   Marx   Analyzing  social  classes   Law  and  politics  different   than  religion   Proletariat  vs.  bourgeoisie   Tendency  to  regularize  any   process   More  pragmatic  point  of   view  based  on   calculalations   Society  based  on  economy           4. Sociological  perspective       - See  the  general  in  the  particular   Take  distance  from  what  is  familiar  to  us  and  we  take  it  for  granted   The  individual  in  the  social  context   The  global  perspective       The  sociological  perspective  is  defined  in  4  dimensions:     - To  understand  our  world   - To  understand  our  place  in  the  world   - To  understand  ourselves   - To  understand  the  role  of  individual  action           5. Scientific  method     Way  to  follow  through  a  series  of  operations,  rules  and  procedures  established  in   advance,  voluntarily  and  reflective,  to  achieve  a  certain  end,  which  may  be   material  or  conceptual.               Natalia  Casas  Gala   Stages  of  a  research       ü ü ü ü ü Observe  a  phenomenon   Research  question     Specific  hypotheses   Data   Validity  of  the  results                                               6. Methodology  and  social  research  techniques       Quantitative   • Methodology  of  social  sciences     • Many  individual  cases  -­‐-­‐>   characterizes  general   population   • Analyze  phenomena  that  are   measurable       • Methodologies  itself:   • Explanatory  (causal   relationships  between  the   variables  under  study)   • Correlational  (not  causal)   Qualitative   • Search  the  understanding  of  a   situation   • The  social  world  is  a  socially   constructed  world  (with   different  meanings  and   symbols)   • Human  behavior  that  creates   their  own  world       Natalia  Casas  Gala   Paradigms  of  sociology       Paradigm:  it’s  a  basic  system  of  beliefs  and  attitudes,  with  a  worldview  shared  by   a  group  of  scientists,  which  implies  specifically  following  a  particular   methodology  (Kuhn)     In  order  to  be  a  paradigm  it  has  to  answer:     ü What  is  the  nature  of  the  phenomena  under  study?     ü How  do  we  acquire  this  knowledge?     ü What  is  the  relationship  between  individual  and  environment?     Types  of  paradigm     Positivism     Subjectivism   Critical   • Durkheim   • Realism:  reality  is  single,  tangible  and  objectively  given   • Reality  is  regualr  and  predictable   • Objective   • Knower  and  known  are  independent     • Inquiry  is  value-­‐free   • People  are  passive  in  front  of  the  reality  around  them     • Quantitative  method     • Weber  (focus  on  social  action)   • Relativism:  realities  are  socially  constructed     • Behavior  is  kluid,  situational,  social,  personal...     • Knower  and  known  are  interactive  and  inseparable   • Inquiry  is  value-­‐bound   • The  individual  is  able  to  act   • Qualitative  methodology   • Marx   • Historical  realism   • Ideology  determines  the  relationship  between  subject  and  obeject  and   rejects  the  neutrality  of  science.   • Socio-­‐historical  context     • Participatory  methology:  people  are  inveolved  in  the  research  process   itself         Social  research  techniques       Data  collection  techniques   Qualitative     Participant-­‐no  participant  observation   Deeply  interviews   Focus  groups   Ethnographies   Cass  studies   Documents  and  records   Biographies     Data  collection  techniques   Quantitative     Questionnaires  and  surveys   Experimentation   Statistics   “Sociometria”   Network  Analysis   Natalia  Casas  Gala       Data  analysis  techniques   Qualitative     Content  analysis     Discourse  Analysis     Data  analysis  techniques   Quantitative     Univariate  analysis   Bivariate  analysis   Multivariate  analysis       Natalia  Casas  Gala   ...



Comentario de hmanu en 2017-09-26 15:03:01
Todo perfecto.