Teaching guide 2 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
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Teaching guide 2.
María Llanos Teaching guide 2: The origin of European states.
A. Multiple choice.
1.- e) Disappearance of nobility.
2.- a) France.
3.- d) Philip Augustus.
4.- a) Development of Customary law.
5.- b) Burgundy.
6.- a) The exchequer.
7.- a) Headed powerful governments.
8.- a) Louis XIII.
9.- c) Philip III.
10.- b) Curia regia.
B. Concrete questions.
1.- Through the Assemblies of Estates, where the traditional elite and the king were represented and the kingdom’s key affairs were discussed.
2.- The crown came to be inherited; kings ruled over entire territories, and not over certain “nation” or “people”; and an administrative body in charge of collecting taxes and with a judicial function was developed.
3.- They contributed through educating professional lawyers that could run the new courts created by the kings. This facilitated the emergence of a new type of process with more guarantees in which oral processes gave way to written, documented procedures.
4.- Suzerainty can be possessed by the king and the other lords, being the king’s one the supreme, the one that prevails over that of the lords. However, sovereignty can only be possessed by the king, who is the sovereign of the territory and all the people inhabiting it.
5.- The collection of taxes allowed the monarchs to have at their disposal a group of officials and a permanent and professional army, which are the means to govern and manage all the land under their rule.
6.- A Composite monarchy is the one made up out of the union of different realms, as the British Crown, which was formed by England, Wales and Scotland. A Unified monarchy is the one which has no divisions inside of it, which is unified, being one of the examples the Crown of Castile.
7.- Because they were considered as the ones in charge of maintaining the order created by God, and by expanding their royal jurisdiction they made that task at the same time they placed the old local courts under the jurisdiction of the royal ones, thus strengthening the monarch’s authority.
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María Llanos 8.- In Medieval monarchy, the king was the one in charge of maintaining the order created by God, while in Absolute monarchy, the king has the power to legislate, so he is not obliged by law because he has the power to change it.
9.- Before absolutism there was a situation of anarchy because there were various groups struggling for power, as was the case of the nobles, local oligarchies, cities and religious sects.
Then, the figure of the absolutist king became the only one capable of bringing all these privileged classes to heel. A clear example is that of France, where Henry IV rose to the throne after the ordeal of the Wars of Religion.
10.- They brought about a military revolution as they were the ones creating, thanks to the collection of taxes, professional and permanent armies, thus stopping to depend on feudal lords in matters concerning security.
11.- They were not widely contested because nobles were pacified by assuring them that new policies would not favour the bourgeoisie, and because absolute governments were more orderly and efficient than the ones under feudalism.
12.- It was accepted because it brought an end to the civil strife and anarchy among the nobility spawned by the “war of the Roses”.
13.- The king wielded executive power and was the one deciding over all questions of domestic and international policy, so the task of governing became very complex and constraining and he decided to delegate government to trusted individuals.
14.- Kings started to feel reluctant to delegate government in other individuals, so they turned to the principle of collegiality in order to be able to use experienced, professional councillors freely without having to delegate too much power on them.
Commercial Revolution. It refers to the rise in economic activity due to the multiplication of trade links, resulting in an expansion of commerce and new trading routes.
Bourgeoisie. It was a new social class that emerged with the expansion of commerce and the growth of cities. They were businessmen, lawyers, doctors, etc. They amassed considerable wealth and upset the traditional relationships of power as they became the natural allies of the kings.
Privileged classes. They were the nobles, local oligarchies, cities and religious sects. They were constantly fighting for power, so at the end the king had to control them. With the arrival of absolute monarchies they lost their privileges and started to be all considered as subjects equal before the king.
Assemblies of Estates. They were formed by representatives of the nobles, bishops and bourgeoisie. The kingdom’s key affairs were discussed in the Assembles of Estates with the traditional elite and the king.
Monarch (vs. King). Monarch was the name kings started to receive in the Late Middle Ages, after they ruled over a certain territory and not over a certain people; their crowns came to be inherited; and they created a bureaucratic apparatus that collected taxes and was able to maintain a permanent and professional army. Monarch were characterized by sovereignty, and not by suzerainty, as medieval kings used to be.
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María Llanos Suzerainty. It is a concept that belongs to the noble men, but especially to the king, whose suzerainty prevailed over that of all other lords, being him in the apex of feudal society’s pyramid.
Sovereignty. According to this concept, the king prevails over all lords because he is sovereign, being his powers extended to the fullest extent, as he exercised all the rights of suzerainty.
Legist. A legist was a jurist, an expert in laws, who advised the monarch in legal matters, and specifically helped him to base its absolutist ambitions on Roman Law.
Territorial monarchy. The monarch rules over a certain territory and not over a certain people.
This change was reflected in the royal titles themselves; the monarchs of France stopped being called Rex Francorum to be called Rex Franciae. This change also meant that the king has to possess the means to govern and manage all the land over their rule, to which they started to collect taxes.
Officials. They were a group of men the king had at his disposal that were paid thanks to the collection of taxes, which also allowed the king to possess a permanent and professional army.
Unified monarchies. They were a kind of territorial monarchy, which had no kingdoms inside of itself, so it can be said it was unified, as it was able to fully integrate all the different territories inside it. One example is the case of the Crown of Castile.
Composite monarchies. They were a kind of territorial monarchy, which were the result of the union of different realms that kept their name inside of the new kingdom. It was the case of the British Crown, divided into England, Wales and Scotland.
Curia regis. It was the old feudal council that advised and counselled the monarch, and which was gradually divided into specialized units headed by royally appointed, professional officials who proceeded in accordance with pre-established procedures.
Administrative monarchies. It refers to the strongly structured royal administration that emerged at the end of the Middle Ages. The monarchy was provided with an administrative body in charge of judicial, military and financial matters, which could be maintained thanks to the collection of taxes, which also was a part of this administrative body.
Exchequer. It is the oldest body of the administrative monarchies, which emerged in England.
Also known as the Accounts Chamber or Comptos, it was in charge of administrating the royal agents’ finances and the collection of taxes.
Chancery. It is a general term for writing office, responsible for the production of official documents and under the mandate of the king. At the time we are studying, it used to be called the royal chancery.
Autocratic. It is a way of ruling in which the authority tends to dominate all the dissenting groups and bodies that aspire to play a political role. An autocratic leader is the one who rules with an iron fist, who behaves as a dictator.
Mercantilism. It was a protectionist approach by which monarchies sought to bolster their national economies, favouring their industries and establishing a favourable balance of trade, exporting more than importing and monopolizing as many trades as possible. The final aim was to augment the wealth of the state.
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María Llanos Protectionism. It was based on the protection of national economies by favouring their industries and establishing a favourable balance of trade. Thus, national products were favoured against those of foreign origin.
Patrimonial absolutism. System in which the absolute ruler personally wielded executive power, as he was able to decide all questions of domestic and international policy, including declarations of war and signings of peace. The task of governing became so complex and constraining, that kings usually appointed men to the most important administrative offices.
Valido. It is the person who has access to the monarch and enjoys his friendship and trust, therefore controlling certain areas of the government and its power. It is a figure typical of Spain, which started with the reign of Philip III.
Conseil d’en Haut. It was an advisory body of the French king, Louis XIV, whose members were appointed by the monarch and whose function was to counsel the king, who made final decisions. It emerged as a reaction against the new custom of delegating the government to trusted individuals.
Privy Council. It was the advisory body used in England by the queen Elizabeth I, chaired successively by William Cecil and his son Robert Cecil. Its members were freely appointed by the monarch, being their function to counsel the queen, who was the one in charge of making final decisions.
Polisinodial regime. It was the political organization of the Spanish Catholic monarchy. Affairs of state were handled by different councils, both territorial and specialized. These entities were created since the era of the Catholic King, and were consolidated under Charles I and Philip II. In total there were thirteen councils, all of them responsible to the monarch.
Principle of collegiality. It was a principle that allowed the monarch to use experienced, professional councillors freely without delegating too much power to any one of them. Those councillors would have been formed in universities.
National monarchies. These were the monarchies emerging in the late Middle Ages. They were characterised by the strengthening of national feelings and interests, especially regarding economic issues. It is in this moment of history when the different nations we have nowadays started to form once they were free, not integrated in any empire.
D. General questions.
1.- The Commercial Revolution was the rise in economic activity due to the multiplication of trade links, resulting in an expansion of commerce and new trading routes. Its main consequence was the appearance of a new social class: the bourgeoisie, which would get considerable wealth and upset traditional relationships of power, becoming the natural allies of the kings. The Commercial Revolution also contributed to the growth of cities.
2.- They were assemblies in which representatives of the bourgeoisie, nobles, and bishops discussed the kingdom’s key affairs with the king. They had evolved from curia regis, being the main difference between both that the Assemblies of Estates included representatives of the bourgeoisie. Besides, the Assemblies only retained the consultative character of the curia, leaving its judicial and other functions to new specialized units headed by professional officials appointed by the king.
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María Llanos 3.- They wanted to get independence from the papacy because there was a confrontation between the popes and emperors. Furthermore, they needed to be independent from emperors and popes in order to consolidate their authority and to recover the power they had lost in the early medieval period. By becoming the undisputed holders of power, kings evolved into monarchs according to the imperial Roman conception of political rule (rex est imperator in regno suo).
4.- Kings had less authority than monarchs, as they had to respond to emperors, popes and feudal barons. Monarchs managed to get rid of the feudal barons and to gain independence from the Holy Roman Empire and from papal authority. Before, kings ruled over a certain people, while monarchs ruled over a certain territory and the people inhabiting it, and the title of monarch became hereditary. Finally, monarchs created an administrative apparatus in charge of collecting taxes, and with those taxes they were able to pay for a permanent and professional army, for royal courts and for the maintenance of the system itself.
5.- Kingdoms became territorial because the king’s power was exercised over entire regions, and not over a certain group of people, as could be the case of the Visigoth or Frankish. In that sense, royal titles changed and, for instance, Philip II Augustus was named King of France (“Rex Franciae”) instead of King of the Franks (“Rex Francorum”). This new concept implied that the king had to possess the means to govern and manage all the land under their rule, to which he started to collect taxes in order to be able to pay officials and a permanent and professional army loyal to him.
6.- They could be considered the precedent of modern states as much of their structure started to be built in this period. Although kings gathered all powers, the difference between the three powers we distinguish nowadays started to be outlined here. The king had the legislative power, which he could share with the assemblies of states, and the executive power, which he decided to delegate to trusted individuals from time to time. A judicial body was created, with the new royal courts replacing the old local courts.
Besides, a centralized administration with a very dense network of royal agents and different advisory bodies and councils was created. In order to pay for this, a tax system was created, that at the same time allowed for the creation of a permanent and professional army. Thus, the growing complexity of the government and its administration created the need for the professionalization of governmental task, which allowed the more educated and studied individuals to form part of the state apparatus.
7.- The main advantage of absolutism was that absolute kings headed strong governments which managed to maintain domestic order, especially in what concerned the struggle for power between nobles, local oligarchies, cities and religious sects. The king was perceived as the only one having enough power in order to bring all these privileged classes to heel. Thus, absolute government was more orderly and efficient than the ones under feudalism. Besides, the king dissolved estate-based society and implemented the principle that all subjects are equal before their king. It also ensured expansion abroad, and by incorporating mercantilist ideas it protected the national economy and promoted national prosperity.
8.- As kings started to rule over a certain territory and not over a certain people, and as they started to expand their kingdoms, new nationalities were created, and it was in the interest of the king to protect its territory from foreigners, and not just his people, as used to happen with the Germanic kingdoms. So in this period kings started to look for the benefits of their 5 Teaching guide 2.
María Llanos kingdom, strengthening national feelings and looking for people loyal to their king and willing to fight for him. Competitions between nations were frequent, so kings started to promote policies in order to favour their kingdoms, as was the case of the mercantilist policies, trying to bolster their national economies while damaging, or at least not favouring, those of other kingdoms.