10.War and the New Security Agenda (2016)Apunte Inglés
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Theory of IR 2016
10. War and the New Security Agenda
“Introduction”. Kaldor, M. (2007). New and Old Wars. Organized Violence in a Global Era. Stanford: Stanford University
10.1.1. CHANGES IN STATEHOOD
Why the change of the war between states to the war within states?
• The Modern State:
GOVERNMENT: Centralised system of democratic rule based on central government institutions and sanctioned by legal order, possessing legitimate use of force and within a territory.
II. NATIONHOOD: People within the territory that have citizenship rights, making up a cohesive community of citizens with political, social and economic rights.
III. ECONOMY: Self-sustained economy comprising the necessary sectors within independent country.
Traditional war used to take place between these different Modern states.
• The Postmodern State: I.
Advanced capitalist states with multilevel governance systems (supranational, transnational, etc).
II. Supranational community of citizens: “We are citizens of the world”, facilitated by social media, technology, etc. Creation of the sense of world community.
III. Deep economic integration, with a lot of transnational integration that keep states close to each other. The economic relations go beyond the state.
IV. The security community: As a consequence of the evolution of the Modern State, the states are further bound together. Conflict becomes more unlikely to take place between these states.
• The Fragile States: I.
Defective economies, as their economic system is usually based in one single product (mono-economies), they are dependent on exports and still have feudal structures (few people control the goods of that particular state).
II. No sense of nationhood: Community allegiance and lack of citizenship (absence of a national community).
III. Weak state institutions: The structures of the state are very weak, and they are not able to protect and promote the rule of law. “Captured states”, as they aren’t ruled by nationhood, but “captured” by the elites that rule.
• The Modernising States: Asia, Eastern Europe, etc. They haven’t modernised yet, but they are evolving towards this type of state.
Marta Busquets Theory of IR 2016 ...