2.4. MIGRATIONS (2016)Apunte Inglés
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Guy Abel and Nikola Sander
2.4.1. Contemporary Migrations: Some Figures
Almost 1 billion of today’s world population have migrated (which is, approximately, 1 in 7 people).
Of these, 740 million are internal migrants, whereas 232 million are international migrants.
About 50% of international migrants live in 10 industrialised countries: USA, Canada, Australia, European Union, Russia, Saudi Arabia and EAU.
In relative terms, people in low-income countries migrate less than those in high-income countries, according to the UNDP in 2009.
South vs North flows (OMI, 2013) 40 % South-North 33% South-South 22% North-North In 2009 it was estimated that approximately 50 million people were living abroad with irregular status (which means less access to services and risk of deportation). People living abroad although legislation doesn’t let them.
• Migration may benefit countries of origin in a variety of ways: Remittances contribute to higher incomes, consumption, better education and health.
• Behaviour changes as a result of ideas and attitudes imported from abroad.
Marta Busquets IPS 2016 • A number of risks exist as well, including “brain drain”.
• For countries of reception, benefits include availability of skills and labour, opportunities for international connectivity, etc. For countries of reception, though, it can also be a source of political and social tension. International connectivity: Can benefit multinationals, and also cities/regions, as some cities and regions can carry out cooperative operations with the cities/regions of origin.
2.4.2. Key Concepts I.
Migrant: Someone who moves from one place to another in order to find work, better living conditions or related purposes.
II. Refugee: Someone who is forced to leave his/er country due to natural disasters, war or conflict, and is recognised as such by another country.
III. Asylum-Seeker: Someone who has left his/her country because of threats or risks but is not yet accepted as a refugee. Someone who has been forced to leave his country and is asking another country for refugee, but it is not yet recognised as a refugee.
IV. Internally-Displaced Person (IDP): Someone who is forced to leave his/her home but remains within the same country.
2.4.2. Refugee and Asylum-Seekers In late 2014, in the world there were 19.5 million refugees, 1.8 million asylum-seekers and 38.2 million Internally-Displaced Persons. Overall, 59.5 million people forced to flee their homes.
In Europe, in early 2014, there were 1.8 million refugees or asylum-seekers, and 3.1 by the end of the year. Approximately 1 million refugees/asylum-seekers have arrived in Europe throughout the year 2015.
• Most refugees and asylum-seekers remain in countries near the one they have left.
• International refugee law says that refugees should be given not only physical safety, but also the same rights as any other foreigner.
• Principle of non-refoulement: A country cannot forcibly return refugees to a territory where they faced danger or discrimination.
• Similar schemes or refugee protection have been set up by some NGOs, associations and other institutions.
• New grounds for refugee: Climate Change? ...