Effective Speaking Skills Part I (2015)Apunte Español
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1) CONCEPTS of IR
• Jean-Baptiste Duroselle
• Charles Wright Mills
2) MODELS of IR
3) INSTITUTONS of IR
• United Nations
• International Monetary Fund
• The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
4) NATIONAL ACTORS of IR
• EUROPEAN UNION
• UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
So, what do we understand for International Relations?
• State actors actions?
• Organizations agenda?
• Relations between Governments?
International Relations affect all kind of ACTORS and DIMENSIONS…
• Communicative actors: Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube…
• Military strength: Armies, actors who have a roll in the world
• Economic power: Companies and business
• Culture projection: The movies, cultural dimension
• But due the special role of countries, it is mainly canalized into a state.
Definitions of International Relations: The history of the world is the history of the collective action of people ! it provides benefits. Countries are one of the most stable ways of ARTIFICIAL collective actions. But there is just one NATURAL system of collective action: the family.
• We are not talking about Interpersonal Relations ! it is Intercommunity Relations. They defend the hierarchy of preferences of the community that they represent (United States).
Hierarchy of preferences: “The order of the preferences among a wide range of possibilities”. It determines the final behavior of a country. But, how the countries defend the hierarchy of preferences of their people in front of the rest of the World? • 2 visions: - Through Coercion vs. Persuasion Force vs. Diplomacy Hard Power vs. Soft Power The pen is mightier than the sword Edward Bulwer-Lytton, English poet ! Really? International Relation definition 2 • • Strength ! Legal: First countries used the strength and now they can stay to the legal dimensions.
For example: The Three-mile limit EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 3 o More clausum (1962) – Territorial waters have been traditionally established depending of the range of the cannons on the coast.
But nowadays, with the intercontinental missiles, it does not make sense… So a common agreement was reached ! 1982 United Nations on the Law of the Sea. Only these five countries had nuclear bombs: - China United Kingdom US Russia First Definition • • • • Jean Baptiste Duroselle (1917-1994), French historian: “International Relations are the scientific study of the international phenomena that conducts the discovery of both fundamental and accidental data that determines them”.
This is a functional definition ! the knowledge obtained covers the causes of the field studied.
Neutral point of view ! knowledge can be shared and improved by collaboration.
Consequence ! if we know more about IR, we will be able to explain better our points of view and got better deals.
Second Definition • • • • • Charles Wright Mills (1916-1962), American sociologist, Columbia University: “International Relations are the relations between powerful groups”.
The idea of POWER appears together with the idea of International Relations.
“The practice precedes the theory” Or… “The strength precedes the law”.
Consequence ! if we advance more in the IR, we will be able to defend better our points of view to the others.
4 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS What are “powerful groups”? • Charles Wright Mills ! Power structures ! unelected elite rules the countries.
• In The Power Elite (1956) ! the World after WWII o Permanent economic war o Conditioned controlled media o Projection to the rest of societies of the world Some people say that today the press isn’t free and they cannot tell the truth.
Other people say that the theory of Mills cannot be applied anymore.
Now we have the Social Media. And this has changed the rules.
In which way can social networks affect I.R.? We have two countries, both with a different government. There are two political groups who have a fight (civil war). The government has 3 options: a) Support the blue ones b) Support the reds c) Remain neutral.
The government has to follow the public opinion because he wants to be reelected. There should be more or less a similarity between the public opinion and the government’s actions. If the media doesn’t participate in the conflict and remains neutral, affects the public opinion, and the public opinion affects the government. When the social networks show a political view and support the red ones or the blue ones, it can also affect the public opinion.
Social networks are “the new players in the game”.
This is a new communicative situation. We are all communicative players: • • • Talking to a world-wide audience Projecting opinions Projecting information Osama Bin Laden Operation: • • • • The operation was Top Secret.
May 2, 2011 ! Abbottabad, (Pakistan) US Raid from Afghanistan to Pakistan ! potential international conflict between USA and Pakistan.
Sohaib Athar ! first in twittering the Operation to the World EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 5 Models of IR Model: Simplified version of the reality that explains the fundamental mechanisms of the studied field. It is a tool to explain the reality. We need MODELS ! due to our limitations in the acquiring and processing of information. The more complex a field, the more we need models to explain reality.
Departure point: 1989, Fall of the Berlin Wall.
• 1991, Disintegration of the USSR • From bipolar World (1944-1989) ! what will happen? Model 1 Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (1952) • • • • • • • • American political scientist The End of History ! short essay The End of History and the Last Man (1952) General thesis ! final form of ideological evolution. The Western liberal democracy & free market economy will be established among all the countries in the World.
Western as the winner of the Cold War.
“May we may be witnessing is not the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period od post-war history, but the end of history”.
Influence of Alexandre Kojeve, philosopher Hegelian dialects ! success of liberalism.
Main characteristics of Fukuyama’s model 1. History is a evolutionary process 2. Events still occur at the end of history 3. Liberal democracy will be the final form of government for all the nations 4. Free market will be the final form of economy system for all the notions.
5. There can be no progression from liberal democracy to an alternative system ! No return point.
6 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS Model 2 Samuel (Philips) Huntington (1927-2008) • • • • American political scientist Clash of Civilizations (1993, 1996, 2003) No universal political & economic system The conflicts of the future will be base upon religion and culture ! Civilizations.
Why the Clash of Civilizations? 6 reasons: 1. Differences between civilizations are too strong (language culture, tradition and RELIGION – the most important).
2. Interactions between civilizations are increasing (world is a smaller place) 3. Local identities are disappearing ! religion occupies that place 4. The West is declining from its peak power. The non-West are rising ! resources control.
5. Politics and economics can be adapted easily, culture and religion takes centuries.
6. Economic success reinforces the notion of civilization where it took place Institutions of IR 1. The United Nations It is an International governmental organization (IGO). It was founded in two steps: - Charter of the UN signed ! 26 June 1945, San Francisco - Came into force ! 24 October 1945 The context was the end of the Second World War in order to avoid another war. The precedent is the League of Nations (“Société des Nations”, 19191946). The League failed to avoid a second war and that’s the reason the United Nations was created. There was a period in which the two organizations coexisted.
EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 7 - World War I (1914-1918) League of Nations (1919-1946) World War II (1939-1945) United Nations (1945-Today) The headquarters are in New York (General Assembly). There are 193 member states. There are 2 special states with a special status quo ! Holy See and the State of Palestine.
Purposes of the United Nations: 1. “To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace…” ! PEACE & SECURITY (Art. 1 of the Charter of the United Nations).
2. “To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal and self-determination of peoples and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace” ! INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 3. “To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian resect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion” ! HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 4. “To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends” ! SHARE POINTS OF VIEW Organs of the UN: 1. General Assembly: it is a general forum where the states participate in the debate. Each country has one vote and all of them have the same power.
2. Security Council: formed by 15 members, in which 10 are temporary and 5 members (US, China, Russia, France, United Kingdom) are permanent.
3. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): it is a place where the cooperation between the specialized agencies of the UN is articulated ! Social and Economic Field ! more technical than political.
4. Secretariat: logistic and administrative issues. Chairperson ! UN Secretary General (elected for 5 years by GA) ! Ban Ki Moon 5. International Court of Justice: decides disputes and conflicts between states that recognize its jurisdiction ! 15 judges elected by the General Assembly.
6. (INACTIVE) UN Trusteeship Council: created to manage the colonial possessions of the metropolis.
8 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS International Monetary Fund It is an international organization that focuses on ECONOMICS. It is formed by 188 countries, not all the countries in the World. The last member to join the IMF was South Sudan in 2012. The managing director is Christine Lagarde (since 2011).
4 objectives of the IMF: 1. Provide a forum for cooperation in international monetary problems ! Diplomatic and political dimension.
2. Facilitate the growth of international trade, thus promoting job creations, economic growth, and poverty reduction ! Economic dimension.
3. Promote exchange rate stability and an open system of international payments ! Financial and currency dimension.
4. Lend countries foreign exchange when needed, on a temporary basis and under adequate safeguards, to help them address balance of payments problems ! Budget and commercial dimension.
In order to reach these objectives, the IMF does the following 5 ACTIVITIES: 1. Policy advice to governments and central banks based on analysis of economic trends and cross-country experiences ! governmental advising.
2. Research, statistics, forecasts, and analysis based on tracking of global, regional, and individual economies and markets ! research and divulgation to economic actors.
3. Loans to help countries overcome economic difficulties ! financial aids (in emergencies).
4. Concessional loans to help fight poverty in developing countries; and ! financial aids (permanent for development).
5. Technical assistance and training to help countries improve the management of their economies ! government qualification processes.
Foundation: It was formally formed on 27th December 1945 and came into force on 1st March 1947. They reunited in the Bretton Woods Conference, celebrated in Mount Washington Hotel, (44 allied nations, winners of the WWII) to create it. The formal name is “United Nations Monetary Financial Conference” ! the first fully negotiated monetary order in the World.
EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 9 4 Bretton Woods Objectives: 1.
Regulate the international monetary and financial order after the WWII.
Impulse the post-war reconstruction (Marshall Plan, etc.) Aid political stability Promote international peace In fact, it is and Economic support to a political vision (the post-war World), sometimes called “Bretton Woods system”.
4 Bretton Woods Agreements: 1. GATT ! General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - Regulates the International Trade of its members - Institution ! international Trade Organization (ITO) - From 1994 ! World Trade Organization (WTO) 2. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) + International Development Association (IDA) = World Bank - Economic support for the international development policies of their members ! Different grades of cooperation.
3. Gold standard ! Currency rates will be based on the quantity of gold that each nation has ! Until 1970s.
- 174, 100 tones extracted in human history - 1ounce = 35$ (in 1934) 4. International Monetary Fund (IMF) Countries/Regions that are not members if the IMF: - Cuba ! Former member (left in 1964 after communist revolution) Republic of China ! Substituted by the People’s Republic of China (1980) • But “Taiwan Province if China” appears in the IMF studies - Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Nauru ! Tax haven - North Korea Votation in the IMF: It is based in a quota system ! “The more you pay, the more power you have”.
- Basic votes ! all countries have their basic ones Additional votes ! depending on the amount of financial support paid to IMF.
10 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS The strongest countries of the IMF: 1) United States ! 16, 75% of the total votes 2) Japan ! 6,23% of the total votes 3) Germany ! 5,81% of the total votes 4) France ! 4,29% of the total votes 5) United Kingdom ! 4,29% of the total votes 6) People’s Republic of China ! 3,65% of the total votes ... 16) Spain ! 1,63% of the total votes In conclusion it is an American-centered regulatory system, and therefore it has been criticized.
Criticism of IMF: 1. Too much power to the United States of America? - Not just national votes, also their allies… - New global economic powers ! BRICS… 2. It lends to countries with human rights violations.
- African dictatorships… 3. Conditions of Loans - Increases the public debt of the countries - Ex. Greek public debt crisis 4. Allowed inflationary deflation process - Especially after devaluation of the US dollar in the 1970s.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) They want to improve the quality of policies to improve the quality of life. It is an International Economic Organization founded in 1961. The social dimension is the focus if this organization.
Structure: There are 34 members. It is very exclusive compared to other institutions. They are the most developed countries in the world ! called the rich club. The 34 members of the OECD produce more of the 60% of World GDP (PIB in Spain).
EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 11 3 main organs: 1. OECD Council ! General meeting area. Each country has one ambassador.
• Main area for articulate the contacts between the countries 2. OECD Committees ! Focused in one discipline or area (Education, Health, Environment, etc.) • Formed by subject-matter experts and governments members.
• Non-member governments can participate in specific areas.
• Example, Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 3. OECD Secretariat ! Organizes the work of the OECD and its subsidiaries bodies.
• Secretary-General ! From 2006, José Ángel Gurria, Mexican economist and diplomat.
• Requirements to join the OECD: 1) Free market economy 2) Democracy Members: • Dark blue, founding members (20). Light blue, new members (24) • European + North American centered ! Foundation and present members.
OECD defines itself as a FORUM with these aims: 1. To promote democracy and free market • So not just economy ! political vision 2. To provide comparative data, analysis and forecasts • So that governments can COMPARE POLICIES 3. To help the international collaboration between countries • It would be establish a network for facing future challenges The policies promoted by the OECD try to reach these objectives: 12 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 1. To achieve the highest sustainable economic growth, employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries ! Member’s economic dimension 2. To maintain financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy ! World economic dimension 3. To contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, nondiscriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations ! International Trade as a vehicle to reach these objectives.
The OECD tries to produce: • • Internationally agreed instruments And decisions and recommendations And focuses on economic and social issues like: • • • • • " Macroeconomics International trade Education Development Science and innovation Provides comparative data, analysis and forecasts, obtained from member countries to help other members increase policy effectiveness.
Foundation, phases: 1. The Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) set up in 1948 with 18 members ! Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and Western Germany + Trieste (occupied) 2. OEEC ! co-ordinate the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after the WWII • $17 billion = $160 billion today 3. OCED was created as a economic counterpart to NATO and took over from OEEC in 1961 (OEEC + USA + Canada) • It is related to Fukuyama’s point of view. “The Western liberal democracy & free market economy will be established among all the countries in the World”.
EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 13 Unlike the World Bank or the IMF, the OECD is not a financing institution (does not give money) OECD work starts with: • • • Data collection and analysis then Discussion of policy and decision making then Implementation by the governments – nit just economics OECD countries agree on rules of the game for international cooperation to culminate formal agreements or standards: • • • • • On combating bribery On international taxation On capital movements On corporate governance On environmental practices, etc.
14 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS Social issues analysis: • • • • • • EDUCATION ! Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) Analysis of scholastic 15-year old performance of members and nonmembers in: A. Mathematics B. Science C. Reading First performed in 2000.
It is done every 3 years ! Each one focused in one topic 2000 ! 265,000 students 2012 ! 510,000 students (Economics) EFFECTIVE SPEAKING SKILLS 15 ...