11.2.Globalisation and the Global Order (2016)Apunte Inglés
Bipolarity, Unipolarity and the Rise of the Rest
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Theory of IR 2016
11.2. Bipolarity, Unipolarity and Rise of the Rest
Bipolarity implies that there are only two world major powers (poles) of similar weight and capabilities, as occurred during the Cold War.
II. After the fall of the USSR, bipolarity gave way to unipolarity: One single pole.
III. Unipolarity differs from empire and hegemony. In unipolarity the main power doesn’t have to control the rest.
IV. End of unipolar moment was the attack on the Twin Towers in September 2001 and the invasion of Iraq in March 2003.
V. Rise of the Rest: The rise of new power is transforming the world as we know it today, but is not clear how the new system will look like.
11.2.2. MULTIPOLARITY • Multiple poles: The distribution of power in all its dimensions is changing in the globe.
• In a multipolar world, states are concerned with their relative power and balance each other in more or less confrontational ways. Their ultimate objective is to survive or to acquire more power.
• It is an anarchic vision of the international system: • It only considers states as actors • The emphasis is on respective material power assets 11.2.3. NONPOLARITY R. HAAS: “The age of nonpolarity”, 2008.
• The world is dominated by dozens of actors that exercise various kinds of power.
• Diffusion of power: Power is distributed among different actors, rather than concentrated.
There are more power centres, that do not necessarily relate to states. Some of these power centres are not states, such as regional powers. [ Regional power: Organisations, states within states, cities, large global companies, etc ].
• It is more difficult to exercise influence, as there are more actors.
• Dependency and integration among these different actors that prevents de disruption of the international order.
• Importance of globalisation is even more reinforced. Increase of the capacities of non-state actors.
Marta Busquets Theory of IR 2016 11.2.4. INTERPOLARITY Concept introduced by G.Grevi • Redistribution of power among the different states in the world + increase of interdependence among these powers. The international order is changing.
• Interpolar world: A possible alternative form of international leadership. It may be a way to reconcile multilateral order with multipolarity.
• Multipolarity and interdependence are equally important.
• Central role of the state • Interdependence captures the links not only among states, but also non-state actors.
Interdependence links both states and non-state actors. Increasing interconnectedness among international actors.
• Interpolarity illustrates the shifting balance of power and the main geopolitical tensions, while stressing that prosperity and security of major powers are interconnected.
• The strategy of the power is not to fight over relative power, but rather cooperate. Strategic priority = Cooperate to address the challenges of interdependence.
11.2.5. CONNECTION WITH CONCEPTS MULTIPOLARITY NONPOLARITY INTERPOLARITY Focus Relation Main actors = States (Traditional states + The rise of the Rest) States + Non-state actors.
There’s a diffusion of power, Mostly states (and the rise of as states share power with the rest) = Multipolarity.
There’s competition, as states want relative power.
Interdependence There's anarchy and confrontation.
Cooperation (multilateralism, Liquid outcome: The for example) — Strategic outcome might be cooperative policies: address the or might not be cooperative.
Outcome Interdependence Theory Neorealism + Realism Liberalism / neoliberal ...