1. PRELIMINARY EXERCISES + THE WORD (2016)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad de Barcelona (UB)
Grado Estudios Ingleses - 3º curso
Asignatura Semantics
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 3
Fecha de subida 12/03/2016
Descargas 8
Subido por

Vista previa del texto

Encuentra más apuntes en UnyBook.com - @aserrano Preliminary exercises How many words do the following sentences contain? - I am a doctor, you are an actor and Bill is a policeman.
Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 13 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones → 12 am, are, is - wordforms of the same lexeme.
Lexemes (9) → I, be, a, doctor, you, actor, and, bill, policeman.
- He saw a saw; he liked it and bought it.
[Lexeme (8) → he, see, a, saw, like, it, and, buy. Word-forms (10)] Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 10 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones) → he, saw, a, liked, it, and, bought - 7 - Last night the performance did not last long [Lexeme (8) → last, night, the, performance, do, not, last, long. Word-forms (8)] For a word “repeated” to count only as one, they must belong to the same grammatical category. Last (adj) and last (verb) = not the same.
Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 8 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones) → 7 - Can you tie a knot in your tie? [Lexeme → can, you, tie, a, knot, in, your, tie] Tie (verb) and tie (noun) Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 8 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones) → 7 - I am an adult, you are a teenager, he is a child.
[Lexemes 8 → I, be, an, adult, you, teenager, he, child] Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 12 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones) → 11 Encuentra más apuntes en UnyBook.com - @aserrano WORD, LEXEME, MORPHEME 1. Token and type Token is anything found between blank spaces (the individual instances). A token is always an example of a possible realisation of a given lexeme.
Types are the different word-forms (the same repetitions do not count).
EX: The cat sat on the mat. In this sentences there are 6 word-token and there are 5 types (because “the” appears twice, in the same category).
2. Form (lexeme) and expressions (word-form) Word-forms are the same in meaning, what makes them different are the morphosyntactic features. The pairs of words that express the same lexical meaning but differ grammatically. Tokens of the same type are not necessarily forms of the same expression. As they do not belong to the same lexeme, they cannot be considered types of the same expression (lexeme).
Ex: Can you tie(V) a knot in your tie(N)? → there are 2 tokens of the type “tie”, but they do not belong to the same lexeme.
THE WORD: AMBIGUITIES Sometimes there are units which we don’t really know if it’s only one word or two, like for example washing machine. Sometimes it’s written washing machine, and some others as washing-machine.
Languages as well vary as to what morphemes they put together, as for example Spanish “desde”, but the Catalan “des de”.
BLOOMFILED defined “word” as a minimum free form. This definition does work with open class words, which have its own meaning, and can work on it own. However, it does not work for articles or prepositions; these are function words, closed system items. These cannot be used on its own. They are bound forms too, or clitics (Natalia’s keys).
The clitic ‘s required a host, needs to be attached to something else. Although, it can be moved around the sentence as if it were an independent word. (Ex: the king’s horse OR the king of Sweden’s horse).
Some words in some languages, combine the article with the actual noun (Ex: Spanish words with Arabic root, such as azúcar in which the first a was initially the article).
So this kind of breaks Bloomfield’s theory, because articles do not have meaning on its own, they need something else to have it.
WORD → A unit that may be larger than a single morpheme, but that is smaller than a phrase.
Encuentra más apuntes en UnyBook.com - @aserrano EXERCISES: identify the different tokens, types and expression in the sentences: - We were late for the burial of my late aunt.
Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 10 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones → 9 Lexemes/expressions → 10 (we, be, late(adj.), for, the, burial, of, my, late, aunt). LATE have different meaning, so the lexeme cannot be the same for both. They are homonyms.
- He gave me a call in the morning but I did not return his call.
Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 15 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones → 14 Lexemes → 14 (he, give, me, a, call, in, the, morning, but, I, do, not, return, his) CALL belong to the same lexeme; have the same meaning as well.
- Snow began to quietly fall and luckily my fall was broken by soft snow.
Tokens (anything written, even if repeated) → 14 Types (every single form to be found, but not the repeated ones → 12 Lexemes → 13 (snow, begin, to, quietly, fall(V), and, luckily, my, fall(N), be, break, by, soft) FALL do not have the same meaning- process of derivation of these two words; they show a different category.
  ...



Comentario de jgallegomartinez en 2017-03-01 21:11:26
Por culpa de mi trabajo tengo que saltarme muchas clases. No sabes cómo de agradecido te estoy, de verdad.
Comentario de aserrano en 2017-03-07 12:56:09
De nada! :D