HOBBES (2014)Apunte Inglés
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POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 6
(1588 - 1679) — Most important philosopher who talked about politics of the 16th century.
-Was a humanist —> Human being is the center of the world.
Human being: -Has the power to improve -Can be barbar, but can also be wonderful.
EDUCATION is one of the most important concepts in our culture — Because of the influence of humanism.
*Educate people with the right values: civilization, justice, etc — ETHICAL EDUCATION.
Importance of learning — What is essential to human being is the LANGUAGE —> This is the most important difference between human being and animals.
*Laugh and speak —> Are the 2 concepts that difference us from animals.
-He wasn’t a rich person —> Free time is very expensive (Free time = learning).
1610 - 1615 —> He made a long trip through Europe. This travel was very important to him, as he was able to see the tradition in Europe.
*He created a new dimension in education = TRAVELING.
-Knowing other cultures, other languages, traditions, etc.
-It makes possible to know the limitations of the own culture.
Traveling was really essential for education.
1618 - 1648 —> Start of the 30 years war (this period is similar to 1945, after the 2 World Wars).
*Physical destruction of Europe -Peace of Westfalia.
Hobbes was very influenced by: 1-The 30 years war —> Devastated Europe.
2-The Civil War in England —> The worst conflict a generation can go through.
Because of this dramatic conflicts, Hobbes changed very much his mind. —> From an optimistic conception of what is human being to an sceptic conception (scared about how brutal can be human being, politics and religion).
When religion is the center of the concern, there is no point in discussion (absolute) —> There is no point in discussing when we are confronted with the absolute.
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 6 RELIGION IN POLITICS.
WHY IN EUROPE THERE IS A SEPARATION OF THE CIVIL POWER FROM THE CHURCH? After de 30 years war, people learned that: 1-Religions can be connected with an incredible violence —> religions could be very violent.
2-Religion wasn’t able to reach agreements —> Religion considered dialogue as a sign of weakness.
*The way to show a strong position is to refuse any dialogue.
3-Religion was a source of fanatism and irrationality.
Europe had to construct something new: 1-Conception of power independent from religion 2-Knowledge without revelation —> Science 3-Moral/ethics without dogmas.
The problem in politics was to give too much importance to religion beliefs.
The 2nd part of the 17th century = “ODIUM THEOLOGICUM” —> Theology and religious institutions were too much involved in violence to be considered the source of freedom.
*They were no longer to be trusted —> From now on, European culture would trust science and reason —> It makes possible to reach an agreement.
*The more reasonable we are —> Easier to live in peace and harmony.
Religion is a source of conflict —> Not everybody shares the same religious beliefs, but everybody is rational —> That’s what we can share = RATIONALITY.
Science is going to be the common ground of the next conception of ethics.
BIG CHANGE IN MENTALITY — Religion is over on being the center of our mentality.
The more rational we are = The more we will be able to live in peace.
Common ground based on what is universal.
“The State is a monster” — We cannot expect from it anything wonderful, he can do terrible things.
Science is going to be one of the most important aspect in education in the 17th century.
RATIONALITY is the opposite of fanatism and irrationalism.
Religion is extremely dangerous —> Politics and religion must be separated.
HOBBES’ ETHICAL VALUES CLASSICAL CONCEPTION : Ethical values —> Political principles ETHICAL DOGMATISM —> Our ethical values are absolute, and there is no discussion about it.
*ETHICAL DOGMATISM = DICTATORSHIP / THEOCRACY There are different opinions and we have to accept them —> ETHICAL RELATIVISM.
*ETHICAL RELATIVISM = DEMOCRACY / ANARCHY POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 6 MORAL VALUES = Feelings or passions —> Values are a psychological reaction.
*Our reactions, feelings and passions are different, not everybody feels the same about smth.
We cannot say something is good/bad —> We approve or disapprove things, but we cannot say they are good or bad.
-It was impossible to reach an agreement.
COMMON MISTAKE —> We take moral values as absolute. — They are not OBJECTIVE ideas, they are subjective. (We don’t recognize the nature of our moral values —> They come from our feelings and passions, from our psychology).
*CONSEQUENCE: Disagreement, instability, violence and chaos.
[And all of this just because we don’t pay attention to where do our moral values come from].
HOBBES IS SKEPTICAL ABOUT MORAL VALUES.
We cannot accept that moral values are the absolute in our ideas.
The nature of these moral values is completely subjective.
*We must be very careful with passions.
WHICH IS THE UNIVERSAL VALUE? The unique common universal value: SELF PRESERVATION —> We all want to live, and to live in peace and security (pretty similar to Cogito Ergo Sum) *Rationality is the principle of the new knowledge — No religion and irrationalism.
SELF PRESERVATION —> Protect our lives *It is a RIGHT.
WHAT IS GOOD? - Everything that helps us to preserve our life is good.
The obsession of Hobbes for self preservation is because of the experience of war —> It is a crucial experience that splits humanity in two groups: Those who are against the war and those who accept it.
Being in a war means facing the possibility of death and the possibility of destruction and lost (You can die at any moment, and you can lose anything or anyone at any time).
-What helps me to survive.
SOCRATES would have said —> Good = legal HOBBES says that what is good is not always legal —> Good = what helps me.
HOW TO UNDERSTAND THE OTHERS? It seems that we can only understand if it is self-understanding.
Understanding = self-understanding POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 6 How to understand somebody whose experience is completely different to mine? We understand very little.
It’s difficult to understand Hobbes obsession for self preservation, as we have never lived with the fear of dying at any moment or loosing everything. We haven’t experienced war.
ETHICAL RELATIVISM is almost a dictatorship.
SELF PRESERVATION RIGHT — Natural right.
*Everyone, in case of danger, has the right to use violence. —> We face a big problem.
It is extremely difficult to decide when I have the right to use violence.
-When am I in danger? -When do I have the right to use violence? WHO DECIDES WHEN I’M IN RIGHT TO USE VIOLENCE? This depends on SUBJECTIVE CONSIDERATION — Relativism.
*It is an inevitable conflict — Soon or later we will have to face this problem.
I can claim to be in danger when I know I’m really not, just to have the right to use violence.
MAJOR CAUSES OF CONFLICTS — Most of the originated in the SUBJECTIVITY.
1-Competition — We compare to each other constantly.
*We don’t accept ourselves if we are not good — under the condition that we prevail.
-We don’t want to be inferior. — Humiliation.
Competition leads to confrontation, not to harmony.
2-Mistrust — “I don’t trust you”.
*Lack of communication — Violence is a way of expressing this.
3-Desire of glory — Because of our ego and selfishness.
*We would avoid a lot of conflicts — Our stupidity doesn’t let us to forget about this desire.
INSECURITY — The result of using our instincts and our psychology 1-Permanent state of war —> Permanent insecurity.
No one is strong enough to feel secure in nature.
[I can be attacked at any time] 2-Savagery —> Insecurity is the most permanent mark of nature.
In order to be in history we need to go beyond nature.
[We need security and stability for progress] NO STATE = Insecurity = No culture = No society = No history 3-Degradation Absolute State = The individual have no rights — Everything is organized by the State.
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 6 IS HOBBES IN FAVOUR OF A DICTATORSHIP? THE ANSWER IS NO… 1-According to Hobbes the State is the representation of sovereignty.
Sovereign is people, not the State.
2-There is private property — Usually considered as a limitation to the State.
THE ANSWER IS YES… The State has the right to control ideas.
If I control your opinions, I control your actions — You will never revolt against me.
*The State has de duty to control ideas.
Ideas are really dangerous, that’s why it is so important for the State to control them.