LECTURA 2 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
Vista previa del texto
María Aperador Montoya
READING 2. ADOLESCENCELIMITED AND LIFE-COURSEPERSISTENT ANTISOCIAL
1. Explica el significado de la figura 1 (curva edad-delito) y la explicación que da de ésta la
autora. Comenta también porqué ésta afirma lo siguiente: “[…] research on age and
crime has relied on oficial data, primarly arrest and conviction records. As a result, the
left-hand side of the age-crime curve has been censored” (p.675)
The author makes a relationship between two factors which are age and antisocial behavior. It
is claim that age-crime rates are based on the first detentions but, in reality, the attitudes of
those children begin earlier than their first arrestment, anyway I am going to explain to you
Figure 1 suggests that the rates for both prevalence and incidence of offending appear highest during adolescence. The highest peak it is also appear on the age 17 and it decreases by the early 20s, the number of active offenders is by over 50%, and by age 28, almost 85% of former delinquents desist from offending. To be more clear, it is now know that the steep decline in antisocial behavior between ages 17 and 30 is mirrored by a steep incline in antisocial behavior between ages 7 and 17. (Moffit, 1993, p.675) .That figure is showing a porotype of the empirical curve of criminal offenses over age.
As I said before, researches, in both previous factors, have been based on the official rates. That does not means that these data are correct, because there are a lot of deviant behavior that are shown by the earlier ages and it is not recorded until they are filtered by the police. To say that more clearly, the author intends to say that there is some data that remain in the “dark figure”, so the statistics which are in reference to age-crime are not entirely as certain as they should be.
María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques 2. Explica en un cuadro de las diferencias entre los delincuentes habituales y los limitados a la adolescencia. Estructura del cuadro Ítem que se quiere comparar Delincuentes habituales Delincuentes limitados a la delincuencia Origins Delinquency’s origins Delinquency, as it is proved by experts, it is The origins of crime are in related to neuropsychological problems, such adolescence, where crime is as as children who are born with mental something very exciting. This is problems due to problems during pregnancy due to the maturity gap faced by produced by the mother, another factor is that adolescents. But that is not the children inherit mental disorders of parents, only fact that has an influence also there is a factor related with the IQ index on that, it is also important to that is below the normal rates. Beside these note that groups create a very factors already mentioned, there are others strong affect in which crime is related to the environment and the care.
common and is seen as the right way of living. Teenagers create bonds with each other.
Difficulties Delinquents who persist through their life, Adolescence-limited unlike have more difficulties to find all kinds of those who persist, they have a stable things throughout life, such as work, a knowledge that if they commit couple, and so on. For instance, as the article crimes, they are not going to is said, almost half of the men with histories have a job in the near future, of childhood tantrums (which is a factor neither a sentimental and related to life-course-persistent antisocial professional life. So, for that behavior) had divorced by the age 40 reason, there is a difference on compared with only 22% of other men.
the overcoming of the difficulties in both cases.
Withdraw Costs of delinquency In the balance of costs and benefits such These temporary offenders, do offenders in their actions always find more not see the costs and benefits of María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques benefits than costs, and that is why they do no their actions, the choice of cease their criminal career through the time. commit a crime or not depend They are rational people but their way to on the opportunities that they choose whether they have to do or not, they are offered by the chances. For prefer committing a crime. As a consequence that reason, of that, according to the article, withdraw of commit they usually crimes such such offenders is reach at 60 years old shoplifting, because is a crime approximately.
that has to be committed, for instance, in a shop with a lack of supervision.
Persistence and desistance Theories on which that article is based, There are others who do not explains that there is a constant process of persists their attitude but they reciprocal interaction between personal traits desist. One reason for that is and environmental reaction to them. It is said because healthy youths respond that children can suffer an antisocial style that adaptively to changing pervades all domains of adolescent and adult contingencies. If motivational behavior. It is this infiltration of the antisocial and learning mechanism initiate disposition into the multiple domains of a life and maintain their delinquency, that diminishes the likelihood of change in then, those offenders.
likewise, changing contingences can extinguish it.
3. Explica el concepto de “brecha de madurez” (maturity gap) The author wonders why teens who are not at risk, begin to commit crimes. It is compared with the mimicry of society, if this serves to explain the delinquency, logically, delinquency must be a social behavior that allows access to some desirable resource as the mature state.
Increased of health and the fact that there is also an increasing of the work, has made that the adolescence lengthens over time. Due to the fact that the society brand when a teenager or a person can or should perform their social roles, teenagers are in a kind of gap between what they want and what they have. They want to have their own independence, their own status, they own material belongings, to make their own decisions and to be regarded as consequential by adults María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques when perhaps it is too early. Contemporary adolescents are stuck in a maturity gap, which means that they are trapped biological age an social age.
As a consequence of that, just as teens begin to feel a discomfort of the maturity gap, they enter a social reference group that has endured the gap for 3 to 4 years and has already perfected some delinquent ways of coping with it. Some researches make a point on the fact when teenagers enter into school, where adolescents have the risk to carry out an antisocial behavior.
4. Explica el rol de los puntos de inflexión en las trayectorias delictivas de los dos grupos definidos por la autor (limitada a la adolescencia y persistente).
The inflection points is a concept used by Sampson and Laub to explain that certain contingencies in life such as a stable partner, generating work, and so on, breaks established criminal careers of people. This concept is related to the theory of control (Cid & Larrauri, 2001) which aim is why some offenders stop committing crimes.
First of all, we have to focus on those who are persistent offenders. Those who persists can change their behavior if they move away from the old neighborhood, they leave the school, and they get married and do a military service, for instance. All of these are facts that can make a change in a person who is a persistence Finally, those who desist their criminal careers do so because, as I said before, there is a gap between the social age and the biological age and that is one reason for committing crimes, when those teenagers who desist reach the maturity gap they experience a loss of motivation for delinquency as they exit it. They think that their actions can drive to a bad consequence in the future.
Words: 1.166 (1.206 all) BIBLIOGRAFIA María Aperador Montoya Teories criminologiques Moffit, T. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological review, vol 100/4: 674-701 Cid, J & Larrauri, E (2001). Teorias criminològicas. Barcelona:Bosch, cap. 5 ...