SYSTEMATIC HYBRIDITY IN THE AMERICAN CAMPAIGN: (2016)Apunte Inglés
SYSTEMATIC HYBRIDITY IN THE AMERICAN CAMPAIGN
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SYSTEMATIC HYBRIDITY IN THE AMERICAN CAMPAIGN:
- Campaigning in the hybrid media system: Vast ammounts of time in the contemporary campaign
is spent interacting with screens ( one or several at the same time).
AUTOBIOGRAPHIES AND PREMEDITATION: - Election campaigning now begns many years before the campaign, driven by a bastion of older media logic that has assumed even greater significance in the last decade: the candidate book ---candidates use autobiographies to premeditate their campaign.
- The aim is to try to prevent media, and hence the American public, from being caught anawarees. It's about proliferating multiple remediations of the future.
THE REAL-SPACE-INTERNET-TELEVISION NEXUS: - The use of the coordinatives affordances of online media to organize physical gatherings. Those gatherings produced, in turn, beneficially credible website, television, radio, and newspapers coverage, and they also boosted teh volunteeer infrastructure of the campaign.
- Physical campaign events continue to reshape the meditation of American presidenstial campaigns in powerful ways.
- They are a test of an organization's capacity to turn out commited supporters willing to invest time and effort in demonstrating support for a candidate.
- The physicality of an enthusiastic crowd can often be powerfully conveyed on television, but it can be difficult to convey in textual online mediation.
- However, the self-produced video footage that now plays such an important role in campaigns makes for good online content to e-mail to volunteers, post on the official campaign blog, and upload to You Tube.
- These real-space events are also useful for more concrete tasks, though these tasks are also made moree achievable by digital media.
- The television has unique advantages and it is crucial for the assemblage of media, technologies, and human labor that make up the contemporary campaign --- Enduring power of the genres of television-centric campaigning.
FROM THE GRAND TOUR TO THE "C-WORD": OBAMA'S PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN, EVOLUTION: - The Democratic party's Denver convention acceptance speech had been carefully planned to convey to the television audience the importance of appearing before a large crowd of sevengty-five thousand people.
- The aim of the stage set was to give the impreession that Obama waas positioned among the crowd, not rising imperiously above it.
THE PERFECT UNION OF INTERNET AND TELEVISION: - Despite its enduring power in shaping campaigns, television today is not what it was a generation ago. It has been partially hollowed out, disaggregated, and scattered across diverse array of platforms and technologies.
- The televisual still exists as a powerful set of campaiign communication genres, but its modalities have shifted, as content migrates across the hybrid media system.
- Television's role in campaigns is increasingly complex and multi-layered, and there are now pockets of systematic integration between television and internet.
- Hybrid media combines the potential reach of mass broadcast medium with the interactive, horizontal, network affordances that have grown to be an essential part of internet media.
- The emergence of YouTube has also encouraged much interdependence among the internet and television, and this can sonmetimes be deccisive in shaping the campaign.
THE CNN-YOUTUBE DEBATES: - The tensions and power plays in this hybridity are evident from a ccloser reading of the debates; broadcast media's treatment of the internet. The CNN too, sought to put YouTube in its place by prefacing each debate with a series of dismissive remarks about the videos they could not show because they were deemed unsuitable.
- the studio audiance had no formally assigned role, and yet they made several decisive interventions through their selective applause for both the questioners and the candidates.
- But the most decisive moment came when it wass demonstrated how such a non traditional event could have a significant long-term impact on the presidential campaign.
AMATEUR AND NOT-SO-AMATEUR ONLINE VIDEO: - Videos make important interventions in American politics. They are undubtedly significant but their provenance and overall impact are in some cases less straightfoward than headlines like "YouTube sensation" would suggest.
- With Obama's "Yes We Can" You Tube video, given the origins among mussicians and Holliwoodactors it should come as no surptise that this hybrid political-entertainment video so readily migrated to television.
THE REVEREND WRIGHT AFFAIR: - Television content wends its way through online media, and this episode reveals how personalized, media-driven scandals can take on new dynamics, in the context of the hybrid media system.
- High televisual drama accross the national networks an dthe power of moving images became integrated with the migration and viral recirculation of those images across the internet, as YouTube became a central archival hub for content reemediated from broadcast and cable news shows.
- Broadcast television is "becoming a sideshow" in election camaigns. The interdependent recombination of television and online video is what matters.
- In the case of the Reverend Wright affair, this was a big moment for television but it waass an important moment for internet media too.
- Fox and ABC broke the story on television, yet it had originated with Fran eaton and her fellow conservative bloggers. And once televised it quickly acquired an internet dynamic, which in turn served to amplify television journalism's contribution.
FEAR AND LOATHING AND "CITIZEN JOURNALISM": "BITTERGATE": - Bittergate reveals further key aspects of the hybrid media system in political campaigns, as a tipping point in news media's treatment of politics.
- Cable television and the internet created a "bizarre national narrative" that wass divorced from the "real campaign".
RUMORS AND LIES AND MYTHS ABOUT THE INTERNET: - The internet is an unaccountable rumor mill populated by extremists able to inject invective and misinformation into public discourse free from the usual journalistic norms of professionalism and objectivity.
- There was a period of intermedia conflict, as CNN ran an investigative piece debunking Insight's findings.
- Such public discord over the basic facts of a story only served to raise its profile and it rumbled on accross blogs, YouTube, and online social network sites as the primary campaign progressed.
We will never know the extent to which posts and viral and e-mails were responsible for keeping the issue alive; the e-mails seem to have been particularly important.
- Two further older media interventions made a significant contribution to the circulation of this information.
- Even the most extreme online information can now become hybritized in some way wwith the professional news reporting.
BE THE FIRST TO KNOW: - The competition to breal the news ahead of the formal announcement waas intense and eventually global news agancy Associated Press managed to find out from an unnamed source inside the Democratic Party that Joe Biden had been chosen ass the vice president candidate.
- AP published the story on its website and its syndicated news feed shortly after midnight or Agust 23.
- Minutes later, broadcast news started reporting the story that had just been handed to them by one of their most important wire agencies.
- in race, before many supporters could see the news and realize that the plan had been twarted, the Obama campaign began sending the messages to their cell phone subscribers.
- But this wass the middle of the ninght accross most of America and not part of the carefully timed delivery that the camapign had in mind.
- Older media's revenge, in this case exacted of all things by a wire service established in the nineteenth century.
HARD NEWS AND SOFT NEWS, OFFLINE AND ONLINE: FRAMING SARAH PALIN: - The vice-presidential nomination message was ian interesting example of older media's power.
- Enduring power of professional media - and of investigative journalists in particular - in using their considerable ressources to hold campaigns to account and legitimize critical framing among entertainmentmedia.
- In a process that in fact differed form what has been variosly described ass the recycling of "viral slurs" "the hard-wiring of the crazy left-wing blogs into newsrooms" and an illustration of "the precipitous decline in the power of journalists", these Palin revelations emerged form a well-researched article produced by experienced and respected political reporters working for America's most prestigous traditional news organization.
- Hard news, soft news and entertainment; bloggers, elite broadcast and newspaper journalists; NBC.com, Hulu.com, YouTube, and iTunes: it was the hybrid media system that did so much damage to Palin.