Unit 8: Glossary (2016)Apunte Inglés
Glossary unit 8 Mercè Mach ADE en inglés A6-B6
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Glossary unit 8
Absolute standards formats. A process in which appraisers assess
performance in relation to specified criteria and do not make direct comparisons
Anniversary approach. An annual review of employee performance providing feedback over the year.
Balanced scorecard approach. The use of multiple objective measures that tap into numerous different dimensions of performance.
Behavioural criteria. Evaluation criteria that focus on how work is performed.
Behavioural observation scales (BOS). An appraisal report on how frequently employees engage in specific behaviours.
Behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS). An appraisal report that offers specific examples of the behaviours that go along with each value that can be assigned to an employee’s performance.
Biometric technologies. Technologies using unique qualities of body parts for identification.
Comparative formats. A process in which appraisers evaluate the individual or team and make comparisons to others.
Contaminated performance measure. A performance measurement that assesses something that is unimportant or irrelevant to a job.
Deficient performance measure. A performance measurement that does not assess all of the behaviours and results that are important and relevant to a job.
Direct index approach. A means of measuring performance using objective, impersonal criteria, such as productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
Expectancy. The relationship between making an effort and performing well.
Expectancy theory. The theory that people choose their behaviours and effort levels after considering whether their behaviours and effort will improve their performance and lead to desired consequences (e.g., recognition and rewards).
Focal-point approach. A means of measuring performance for all employees at approximately the same time.
Forced distribution. An approach in which the appraiser distributes employees across several categories of performance following a set rule about the permitted distribution of ratings.
High-performance work system (HPWS). The circumstances under which performance management is tightly integrated with other HR activities to improve workforce competencies, attitudes, and motivation.
The relationship between performing well and its consequences.
Management by objectives (MBO). A management approach that begins with the establishment of performance objectives (goals) for the upcoming performance period; performance is then measured against the objectives that were set.
Motivation. The process of making decisions about which behaviours to engage in and how much effort to expend.
Organizational citizenship behaviours. Behaviours that support the social and psychological environment in which task performance takes place.
Performance appraisal. The process of evaluating performance based on the judgments and opinions of subordinates, peers, supervisors, other managers, and even the employees themselves.
Performance criteria. The dimensions against which the performance of an incumbent, a team, or a work unit is evaluated.
Performance management. Formal, structured process used to measure, evaluate, and influence employees’ job-related attitudes, behaviours, and performance results.
Performance-driven culture. A company culture that depends on effective performance management.
Positive reinforcement. The use of positive rewards to increase the occurrence of the desired performance.
Punishment. An action that decreases the frequency of undesirable behaviour.
Results criteria. Criteria that focus on what was accomplished or produced rather than on how it was accomplished or produced.
Self-appraisal. The process of employees assessing their own performance.
Straight ranking. A process in which an appraiser lists the focal employees (or teams of employees) in order, from best to worst, usually on the basis of overall performance.
Trait-based criteria. Criteria that focus on personal characteristics, such as loyalty, dependability, communication ability, and leadership.
Upward appraisal. The use of surveys to evaluate the performance of specific managers.
Valence. The value of the consequences to the employee.
Valid performance measure. A measurement that accurately reflects all aspects of the job, and nothing else.