Radio part 4 (2016)Apunte Inglés
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4. The market: Advertising & Audiences.
Introduction: Advertising not the same as propaganda, not the same as publicity.
Double -faced. Message: -creative point of view: content, format (types of commercials).
Source of income.
-economic point of view: bridge between listeners and advertisers (The audience, selling airtime).
A. Radio commercials.
B. The audience.
C. Business models.
4.1. Radio commercials. [McLeish, Chapter 15) A spot's aim is to sell (not amuse, entertain). The effective commercial will interest, inform, involve, motivate and direct.
a) Types of commercials.
-Induction (imperative, Motivational, Persuasive, Emulative).
-Presentation (non linear, striking, suspenseful).
-Aim of the commercial (brand commercials, institutional/corporate spots, public service spots).
-Coverage and frequency (local, regional, national commercials, occasional vs. campaigns).
b) Making commercials; writing a copy.
-Voicing and treatment.
-Music and effects.
4.2. Audience & measurement [Stiernsted; Keith, chapter 5] 1. Audience as a product.
Radio is produced for audiences. But audience is a product of radio: commercial radio needs audiences to generate advertising revenue, public-service radio to justify its public funding. Audiences refer to statistical averages and generalities (a mass of some size or another); a construction.
The radio industry is very active in day-to-day audience research because each station needs to sell advertising slots (companies measuring 'ratings').
2. Audience measurement: The business of commercial radio is the selling of audiences to advertisers. The advertisers then supposedly buy 'time' (audience exposure to commercial messages) that radio stations embed in their flow.
This is the business model that has been reigning since the establishment of radio in the 1920s.
Research is on a sample of the total audience--> what differentiates measurements is the way in which the samples are collected and treated.
Methodology and data treatment: -Traditional methodologies Most common techniques; pros & cons: 1. Interviews: telephone / face to face.
2. Listening diaries.
3. Focus groups.
-Raw data --> presentation audience size: % that represents listeners of a station in a given market.
Rating: out of those potentially listening.
Share: out of those actually listening. How is audience research carried out by companies mentioned? Más en www.unybook.com gperez1783 Formal vs. informal audience research: -Informal: Professional: listening survey Nielsen (US) - diary service (7 day sweep) + PPM RAJAR (UK) - listening diary (7 day sweep) AIMC/EGM (ES) - (multimedia) interview (annual panel) (example pages with station, times, where and who it was listened) 3. New challenges.
The multiplication of formats, platforms and reception devices in contemporary radio have increased the possibility for audiences to gain control over when and where to consume media.
Conversely, new media creates new possibilities of monitoring the audience. Examples (Stiernstedt): -Media Score (online rating).
-Participative software, iSelector RCS (customization of player - schedule).
-Portable People Meter (Arbitron): portable device that electronically tracks exposure to radio (code embedded signal) - passive listening.
4.3. Business models 1. Traditional (and non-traditional) Advertising: selling airtime The salesperson sells the audience to the advertiser or time buyer (agency) -- the more spots aired, the more impressions made.
Spots scheduled for airing during specific day parts on stations + sponsorship of half-hour sitcoms, shows...
Apart from rates, selling policy implies terms of payment, commissions, nature & deadline for copies...
Public money (budget, licensee fee) Licensee fee per household (radio & TV): France (136€ annually), Germany (17.98€ monthly), UK (145.50€ annually).
Subsidy 2015 (radio & TV): Subscription (pay radio) Rates Rates vary a lot, depending on: -The size of a station's listenership: broadcast day is divided into time classifications.
-Quantity purchased: discounts for consecutive-week purchases. Bulk/annual discounts (volume discount for heavy scheduling).
Non-traditional Trade-outs Exchange airtime for goods Split contracts (both money and merchandise) Some sales managers feel that it makes good business sense to write radio trade contracts to fill available and unsold airtime rather than let it pass unused.
2. New strategies in the digital context: On-line sales. Websites and podcast selling: additional soures of revenue; another way to add value to the traditional commercial buys.
Crowdfunding (Fernández & Gallego) Definition (open appeal for funding), origins, types... Donation, reward, loan or equity.
Causes: crisis, technology, status quo and audiences involvement.
Examples (case studies, fieldwork; platforms): Carne cruda, Local FM, Cuac FM.