5 Translation of English texts (2016)Apunte Inglés
Vista previa del texto
1. Pre-translation analysis: Steps
1. Genre and/or sub-genre analysis
1.1. Communicative purpose(s): inform, persuade, recommend, etc.
1.2. Communicative function (verbs): explain, describe, cite, summarise, analyse, conclude, etc.
Some examples of genres: Journalism: news, report, editorial...
Science: lecture, research article, popular article...
Business Register is the way in which genres materialize through language...
It is related to choice and situation: when we speak or write, we choose a specific language according to the context (grammar expressions and vocabulary).
Registers vary from very formal, to formal , medium-formal and colloquial.
2. Register analysis 2.1. Field: specific area, theme (if economics: finance, marketing, sales, human resources, etc.) 2.2. Tenor: interactions through language between addresser and addressee, i.e. who wrote the text and who for (expert to expert, expert to general public, director to employees...) 2.3. Mode Syntax: complex or simple?: determine subordination and coordination.
Vocabulary: - Levels: technical or terminological, semi-technical, general or standard, colloquial, jargon, etc.
- Characteristics: nominal groups, collocations, compound clauses, affine words, etc.
3. Metadiscourse 2. Translation method (+exercise 35) Translation methods. A classification by Hurtado (2001) Interpretative-communicative method c Understanding and re-expression of the intended meaning of the ST. the translator preserves the same goal as the ST and produces the same effect on the receiver.
Function and genre are also preserved.
Unybook: arodrigueslopez Literal method b Restructuring of the linguistic elements of the ST, translating word for word morphology and syntax, as well as the meaning. The main aim is not to produce the same effect as the original text but to reproduce the form or linguistic system of the ST (e.g. instructions).
Free method d It does not intend to reproduce the same meaning of the ST, although they share similar functions and the same information. This method can change the genre (e.g. a poem into prose), or the tone (e.g. translations for children).
Philological method (or annotated translations) a Notes accompany the translation with philological, historical or other types of comments. The ST undergoes detailed study, aiming to experts or students.
Some key factors in choosing a translation method: Predominance of form or meaning Degree of fidelity Readership (author-centered, text-centered, reader-centered?) Translator’s skills and resources, etc.
The translation commission and the translator’s aim may heavily influence the specific method adopted in each individual case.
Exercise 36 Camina entre belleza, como la noche Despejada de nubes y cielos estrellados; Y todo lo bueno de la penumbra y claridad Se encuentran en su apariencia y en sus ojos; Lo cual suavizaba la luz tierna Que el cielo priva a los días ordinarios.
Lord Byron - Camina entre belleza 3. Problems and solutions 3.1. Translation problems Intro Overcoming a particular syntactic, lexical or textual problem does not only have to do with choosing the right linguistic option in the TL but, rather, with dealing with the cultural values associated with that language.
These are some definitions of translation errors: Incorrect meaning (Falso sentido) Unybook: arodrigueslopez A sense is attributed to a word or segment in the ST that it does not have in the context in which it appears.
Misinterpretation (contrasentido) Information loss or distortion caused by misunderstanding the text, or lack of cultural knowledge, with the result that a word/segment in the ST is given an entirely erroneous sense from that intended by the author.
Nonsense (sinsentido) Misinterpretation of the sense of a word or statement in the ST, or methodological error which leads to an illogical formulation in the TT.
Addition (adición) Introduction of superfluous information or stylistic effect absent in the ST.
Omission (omisión) Failure to render a necessary element of information.
Hyper-translation (hipertraducción) A methodological error where the translator systematically chooses wording that is formally quite different from the original expression in the ST if a literal translation is possible and quite acceptable.
Over-translation (sobretraducción) Unjustified explication of ST elements that should remain implicit in the TT.
Under-translation (subtraducción) Omission in the TT of any compensation, amplification or explication required to obtain an idiomatic translation that conforms to the presumed sense of the ST.
Exercise 29 1. Addition “Toda poesía tiene una mezcla de sentido y musicalidad”.
2. Misinterpretation “Con el objetivo de prevenir las guerras, el hambre y las epidemias en el mundo, se han creado tropas internacionales”.
3. correct meaning/ Nonsense “No puede permitirse perder su reputación”.
4. Incorrect meaning/ Nonsense [...] 5. Misinterpretation/ Under-translation 6. Misinterpretation/ Incorrect meaning/ Nonsense 7. Omission/ Under-translation/ Hyper-translation 8. Nonsense/ Omission 9. Nonsense/ Incorrect meaning/ Misinterpretation ...