MODELS PUBLIC OPINION (2016)Apunte Inglés
APUNTES DE PUBLIC OPINION MODELOS
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Wilbur Schramm´s model (1954)
Common field of experience
It emphasizes the process of encoding and decoding the message. He envisioned the process
as a two way circular communication between sender and receiver.
Shannon Weaver model More mathematical and technical. We assume in this model that in the case the message reaches the target it would be successful.
Feedback: information that comes back from the receiver to the sender and tells him how well he is doing. (example: pilot episode, polls) Field of experience: individual´s beliefs, values, experiences, and learned meanings both as an individual or poart of a group.
The message can be complicated by different meanings learned by different people a. Denotative: common, dictionary meanings, clear and the same meaning for most of the people.
b. Connotative: emotional or evalutative , based on personal experience Surface and latent meaning of a message Difference of models Attention payed to interpretation. In scram it is important, because the interpretation changes the field of experience. The process is influenced by physical (phone, sirens, tv, etc) and semantic (distraction, age, attitude etc.) noise.
Example of semantic noise: people of different generations may have problems to communicate, in the case of for example watching an ad about sex.
George Gerbner (1955) Adds element of perception and access He introduced the notion of cultivation; tv and media in general cultivate us, after years we “copy models” from media, our idols, children behavior, etc. Cultivation, is a long-term process, with no immediate effects.
The EVENT comes through 3 elements 1. Perception 2. Context: factor often omitted from communication models, but a vitality important factor.
3. Availability: the amount of events around. The options you have, the market you choose. With fewer Es around, we are likely to pay more attention to the ones there are. They are likely to be perceived as meaningful. A reduced number of media enhances its power (propaganda of dictatorial regimes).
1. Selection: open to suggestions, ideas, possibilities. The perceiver of the event selects from the vent, paying more attention to this aspect and less to that. This process of selecting, filtering is commonly known as gatekeeping (we decide according to tour needs, tastes, etc), particularly in discussion of the media´s selection and discarding of events aspects of them.
2. Availability: -Control of the media, channels and access to it- is between the message and the receiver. The receiver is the in middle, has access to contents and its control.
Gerbner´s General Model emphasizes the dynamic nature of human communication. It gives also prominence to the factors which may affect fidelity (fidelity to the media, as a channel we always watch or the group we belong to). Normally, people do not easily change Critiques on both models: Works out of an atomistic-scientific understanding of reality.
Takes little account of contextual or structural factors on communication Dominant effect is a linear cause and effect paradigm Framework is a liberal democratic one, we tend and the model does to assume this.
However, the environment is different.
Assumption there is an external reality, packaged by on person and received by another.
Mediated communication ...