4. VAGUENESS (MONOSEMY) VS. AMBIGUITY (POLYSEMY) (2016)Apunte Inglés
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VAGUENESS (MONOSEMY) VS. AMBIGUITY (POLYSEMY)
Vagueness [monosemy]- Words that have one given sense but this sense relates to more
than one reference; a wide range to references. One sense, many references.
I saw a bird in the park. For the speaker it has reference; for the listener it doesn’t, it’s the denotation (vague; it covers a wide range of references).
Vagueness as regards reference (not knowing exactly what type of bird).
It can also be polysemous because the word could refer to a bird or a girl.
Every sense will have its own difference reference.
Ambiguity [polysemy] – The same word has different senses.
Can - ability or tin.
There are two important consequences of vagueness: - It allows us to communicate without being too precise (I spoke to my teachers).
- It enables us to use terms without knowing exactly what they mean (ex.: Highly technical terms – medical, technological, etc.) [07/03/16] continuation from last class When a sentence is ambiguous it means that it may have more than one sense.
Vagueness focuses on reference.
Ambiguity can be lexical if the ambiguous item is lexical. Previous example I saw a bird in the park.
Ambiguity can also be structural/grammatical. 1 surface structure may have 2 or more deep structures. These deeps structures have propositional meaning/sense. Close relation between syntax and semantics. Old men and women [1. Both men and women are old OR 2. It’s only men who are old. ] Encuentra más apuntes en UnyBook.com - @aserrano Exercise – state whether the following sentences present lexical or structural ambiguity: 1. Flying planes can be dangerous. STRUCTURAL 1. Planes that fly can be dangerous 2. The act of driving planes can be dangerous.
2. Teacher strikes idle* kids. – LEXICAL/STRUCTURAL *lazy 1. Teachers hitting those kids that are lazy 2. Teacher strikes make kids become lazy.
3. The girl hit the boy with the hat. STRUCTURAL 1- She hit him with a hat 2. She hit the boy that was wearing a hat.
4. Tibetan history teacher. STRUCTURAL 1. The history teacher is from the Tibet 2. The teacher teaches Tibetan history.
5. John enjoy painting his models nude. STRUCTURAL 1. John paints then while being himself nude 2. John’s models are nude.
6. Phil told the woman than John was dating. STRUCTURAL 1. Phil told something to the women that john was dating.
2. Phil told the following woman the fact that john was dating somebody.