Theme 5 (2015)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad de Barcelona (UB)
Grado Administración y Dirección de Empresas - 1º curso
Asignatura Sociology
Año del apunte 2015
Páginas 5
Fecha de subida 23/01/2015
Descargas 11
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Major approaches to business organization and production models Work: any  activity,  physical  or  intellectual,  that  aims  to  produce  goods  and   services  that  meet  the  survival  needs  of  society.   Care  work:  the  kind  of  work  that  you  do  at  home,  for  example,  taking  care   of  a  baby,  taking  care  of  the  house…   Margaret Reid à She  gives  an  economic  value  to  the  care  work.     • • Adam  Smith         • • • • Taylor     • • • • • • • Henry  Ford     Division  of  work   If  we  make  people  do  work  in  chain  they  will  produce   more     Making  the  business  more  efficient   Improve  the  performance  of  workers  making  them  lose   less  time   Workers  are  lazy  and  they  want  to  loss  time   To  fix  the  low  productivity:  fragmentation  of  labor  and   specialization  of  workers     Planning  the  work  à  Creation  of  a  manager   More  you  produce  à  More  you  get  $     He  mixed  the  Taylor's  method  with  motivation  and   higher  salaries   Producing  more  à  earning  more   Long-­‐term  contracts     High  level  of  trade  unionism  (syndicates)     Fordism  disappears  due  the  expensive  assembly  line   and  the  workers  where  they  were  cheaper  in  other   countries.             v Taylorism  and  Fordism  still  present  in  many  industrial  sectors.   Ø Critics     § Poor  consideration  of  the  human  element:   • The  only  incentive  is  economic     • Homo  economics,  humans  as  machines,  no  fatigue     • Workers  without  a  social  dimension   § “Science”     • Measures  obtained  through  an  ideology     • Ending  the  conflict  between  workers  and  employers  à  benefit  for   the  ruling  elite     Natalia  Casas  Gala   Bureaucracy model Weber v Described  the  reality  of  how  organizations  work  in  the  structure  of  the   societies  in  which  they  live.       v Focus  on  public  administration,  but  shows  that  large  firms  are  also  involve  in   the  bureaucracy.   • Firms  spend  a  lot  of  time  on  the  distribution  of  tasks  in  a  objective   way   • Competition  is  important  to  preform  a  role     • Efficiency  is  very  important       v He  focuses  on  describing  the  authority  in  order  to  describe  the  bureaucracy.   Ø Forms  of  authority     § Charismatic  authority  (Gandy,  Hitler…)   § Traditional  authority  (patriarch…)   § Rational-­‐legal  authority  (rules…)     v Follows  the  bureaucracy  model:     Ø For  the  organizations   § Hierarchically  organization     § Functions  are  well  defined  by  fixed  rules   § The  production  belongs  to  the  organization  and  the  administration  and   not  to  the  members   § Selection  and  promotion  of  its  members  à  competition     § Salary  according  to  the  work  position     § The  stamental  honor  regarding  the  working  position  is  the  most   important       Ø For  the  individual     § Frustrates  because  makes  them  feel  outside  the  power  of  making   decisions   § “Iron  cage”  à  limits  freedom  and  creativity         v BM  has  been  present  throughout  history   § Developed  in  modern  societies   § Principle  of  rationality     § Bureaucracy  of  society  à  rules  for  everybody     § Bureaucracy  is  the  rationality  of  the  organization         Merton v Criticize  the  bureaucratic  model   Ø They  do  not  encourage  people  to  be  flexible,  to  use  the  own  judgment,  to   make  decisions.   Natalia  Casas  Gala   Organicist school / Psychologist model Human relations school v Complements  Taylorism  by  providing  more  human  aspects  to  the  work   environment v Elton  Mayo Ø He  did  interviews  to  his  employers  asking  about  their  work.  This  was  an   experiment  because  we  wanted  to  find  out  if  the  workers  would  increase   the  productivity  since  they  felt  motivated  and  listened.
Ø The  conclusions  were  that  money  wasn’t  the  only  boost  that  workers  had;   motivation  was  a  really  important  one.   Ø We  also  wanted  to  know  what  kind  of  things  were  making  “happy”  and   “sad”  the  workers  in  their  works  à  interviews   v Major  contributions  to  the  HRS   Ø Overcoming  the  homo  economicus   Ø Make  the  workers  participate  in  the  organization     Ø The  group  becomes  the  basic  unit  of  analysis  in  the  study  of  the  company   relationships     Ø Reveals  the  existence  of  an  structure  of  informal  relations  established  in   the  company  that  affect  the  group.     v Major  critics  to  the  HRS   Ø Lack  of  scientific  rigor     Ø Manipulation  of  the  workers  to  produce  more     Ø Company  as  a  closed  system,  they  don’t  take  into  account  the  external   environment.       Human resources model v Things  needed  to  change:   § Workers  need  to  be  treated  like  humans.   § Changes  in  the  way  the  workers  work  –  environment.   § Phycology  an  important  branch  in  the  working  world.       v They  propose:   Ø Power  to  the  workers     Ø Technological  innovation  =  flexibility  and  freedom         v Major  changes  introduced  by  this  model:   Ø The  company  is  an  open  system  in  relation  with  society     Ø Small  changes  in  the  company  provide  greater  efficiency   Natalia  Casas  Gala   Ø Company  =  microcosm  of  society   Ø The  human  element     § Qualification  more  important  than  specialization     § Team  vs.  individual     § Negotiation  rather  than  confrontation     § Fostering  autonomy  as  a  form  of  self-­‐control     § Flexible  participation  rather  than  rigid       v Major  critics  to  the  HRM   Ø Lack  of  attention  to  the  technological  factor     Ø Concern  shown  towards  workers  base     Ø Excessive  interest  in  psychological  factors  of  subjects       Maslow v The  human  motivations  are  the  needs  (pyramid  of  needs)     v Self-­‐fulfillment  –  Esteem  needs  –  Love  needs  –  Safety  needs  –  Physiological   needs  (food)         McGregor v Inspired  in  Maslow   v XY  Theories     Ø X  theory  is  inadequate  because  modern  society  finds  satisfaction  outside   the  company     Ø Y  theory  is  better  because  is  much  more  complex  understanding  the   human  motivations   Argirs v The  effectiveness  of  the  organization  depends  on  the  attention  that  is  assign  to   the  environment       v He  is  critical  with  4  basic  principles  of  the  classical  perspective   § Specialization,  hierarchy,  command  and  control  unit     v Establishes  some  changes:   § Reduction  of  hierarchical  levels     § Less  supervision  and  dependency  on  workers     § Increase  the  communication  in  the  company  (èêé)   § Extension  of  decision  making     § Working  groups   § Jobs  with  comprehensive  content       v The  satisfaction  of  individual  in  contradiction  with  the  company  needs   Herzberg v Was  really  critic  with  Maslow,  because  he  didn’t  agree  with  the  fact  that   “Workers  will  motivate  themselves”   v He  did  a  survey  in  order  to  find  out  which  things  were  a  satisfaction  and   dissatisfaction  for  workers.   Natalia  Casas  Gala   v The  conclusions  were  that  at  the  end  the  dissatisfaction  things  were  like  this   because  the  workers  ended  up  thinking  that  those  things  were  their  rights   because  they  were  working  (holidays,  wage  increase,  time  off…)     Linkert v Contribution  à  democratize  internal  communication  and  leadership   v Leadership   Ø Two  types  of  monitoring     • Work-­‐oriented:  focusing  on  the  achievement  of  the  company   objectives   • Organization  members  oriented:  concerned  about  the  human   aspects   Ø Four  management  styles   • Authoritarian-­‐  exploitative  model  (sanction/threats  by  authorities)     • Benevolent  authoritarian  model  (awards  and  punishment)   • Advisory  model  (integration  of  workers)   • Participatory  group  model  (teamwork  as  a  democracy  organization)             Natalia  Casas  Gala   ...