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3. Political mobilization and actors
What are ideologies?
• Ideology: system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
(oxford) Basic ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture. Doctrines of beliefs that form the basic of a political, economic, or other system.
From positive no to negative meaning.
• Desttut de Tracy, the “science of ideas” (idea-ology) • Hamilton (1987) defines ideology as a system of collectively held beliefs and attitudes advocating a particular pattern of social arrangements.
• Napoleon Bonaparte used it in an abusive way against "the ideologues" .
• Marx is the best-known political thinker who defined ideology in negative terms. He used set of ideas that is also, deliberately designed to obscure reality in Marx’s aim was to contrast ideology with the the term to mean a order to benefit a particular class in society.
truth which his “scientific” socialism was designed to produce.
Ideology is a word linked with the Enlightenment. An intellectual, social and cultural movement that stressed the reason and the knowledge in the search for human progress (Descartes, Kant, Rousseau Diderot, Voltaire, Stuart Mill).
Traditional ideologies were shaped by the Enlightenment. Some ideologies have a pejorative meaning, others adopt a more neutral term.
(Photocopies on Neoliberalism) IDEOLOGIES • LIBERALISM: is the dominant political tradition in the West. The core concept of this ideology is liberty, private property, and rights.
• SOCIALISM: Is dominated by the theory of Karl Marx, who described his socialism as scientific path for social change.
In the beginning go the 20th century, socialism was decided between the communist and the socialists or social democrats. Core socialists principles include equality, community and cooperation. There is also a non-scientific marxism socialism: the utopic socialism.
• CONSERVATISM: the inclination, especially to maintain the existing or traditional order. It’s a political philosophy that wanted respect for traditional institutions and the established order. The underlying principles of conservatism are an aversion to rationality, an organic view of society, human imperfection and a preference for hierarchy.
• FASCISM: an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization, extreme rightwing, authoritarian or intolerant views. It is a system marked by a regime under a dictator, with strong socioeconomic controls, suppression of liberties and the opposition though terror and censorship, and typically a policy under the flag of nationalism and racism.
NEW IDEOLOGIES 21st CENTURY • Feminism: starts from assumption that women are unequal to men • Environmentalism: the rise of environmentalism has been the product of severe environmental problems.
• Multiculturalism: is a liberal approach seeks to promote pluralistic states based on many different religious, cultural and ethnic identities.
1 • Religious fundamentalism: can be characterized by its intention of organizing politics along religious lines.
Political parties Definitions: • An organization of people who have the same views about the way poer would be used in a country • A political party is an organized group of people with similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by having its candidates elected to public office.
• A formally constituted political group that contests elections and attempts to form or take part in a government (oxford dictionary).
Origins: • With the advent of political democracy, or gradual process • Universal suffrage was only granted after WWII, and the female vote in 1928.
Functions: • Legitimation of the political system • Integration and mobilization of citizens • Representation • Structuring the popular vote • Aggregation of diverse interests • Recruitment of leaders for public office, thus facilitating (normally) non-violent choice between individuals.
• Formulation of public policy, facilitating choice between policy options.
The ways in which parties perform these roles depend on: 1. Types of constitutions, federal or centralized regimes.
2. Electoral system and the way of selection of candidates (primaries, bureaucracy of the party…) 3. Regulation of the electoral campaigns (television adds, budget limits…) 4. Political culture: the way of the education of the people in the political values.
5. Political, social and economical situation.
Types of party organizations. There are 3 types of political parties: Cadre party, mass party, catch-all party.
2 Cadre party Mass party Catch-all party Emergence 19th century 1880 - 1960 After 1945 Origins Inside the assembly (internatlly created) Outside the assembly (externally created) Developed from existing cadre or mass parties Claim to support Traditional status of leaders Represents a social group Competence at governing Membership Small, elitist Large card-carrying membership in local branches Leaders become dominant Source of income Personal contacts Membership dues Many sources, including state subsidy Examples 19th century conservative and liberal parties, many postcommunist parties Socialist parties Many modern Christian and Social Democratic parties in Western Europe.
FUNDING OF POLITICAL PARTIES: FOR AND AGAINST • Public funding: Western Europe, Transparency and accountability, Availability.
• Private funding; Unlimited spending, pro-busyness parties gain more influence, private donations encourages corruption.
ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNS • Candidate • Message • Time • Funding • Team • Research • Networks 3 Interest groups a. They are non-governmental organizations which search to influence public policy.
b. A group of persons who attempt to influence legislators on behalf of a particular interest.
c. To try to persuade a politician, the government, or an official group that a particular thing should or should not happen, or that a law should be changed.
There are several types of interests groups: a. Professional associations e. Single interest groups b. Groups of business, commerce and industry f. Ideological interest groups c. Trade Unions g. Public interest groups d. Agricultural organizations h. Welfare associations Comparing protective and promotional interest groups Protective Promotional Aims Defend an interest Promote a cause Membership Closed: membership is restricted Open: anyone can join Status Insider: frequently consulted by govenrment and actively seeks this role Outsider: consluted less often by government; targets public opinion and the media Benefits Selective: only grop members benefit Collective: benefits got to both members and non-members Focus Aim to influence national government on specific issues affecting members Also seek to influence national and global bodies on broad policy matters.
Regulating lobbyists: one way of securing the advantages of lobbying while reducing the risk of corruption is through public regulation. Currently, most countries have no such rules. Those that do (including Canada, the eU, Germany and the US) emphasize the following: • Lobbyists must register as individuals on a public list.
• Expenditure on lobbying must be disclosed and be made public.
• A public agency audits the spending of lobbying firms • A cooling-off period is imposed on former legislators before they can become lobbyists.
Iron triangle: a policy-influencing relationship involving (in the US) interest groups, the bureaucracy, and legislative committees, and a three-way trading of information, favors and support.
Social movements Definiton: 1. Consist of people who come together to seek a common objective challenging the existing political order. The participants of the Social Movements often are interested in bringing social change.
2. A social movement is a organized collective effort that focuses on some aspect of social change, with a common ideology who try to achieve certain general goal.
4 The members can adopt different types of action: protest acts, demonstrations, boycotts and political strikes.
Examples before WWII: The British anti-Slavery movement and the Women’s suffrage movement. After WWII, movements such as the New Social Movements like someone’s rights, gay rights, peace, anti-nuclear and environmental issues arose: - The American Civil Rights movements (1955) - Against Vietnam (1965) - Against Nuclear (1960) - Against Iraq War (2003) - The Occupy movement (“Indignados”). Against Wall Street. (2011) COMPARING SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, PARTIES AND INTEREST GROPUS: Social movements Political parties interest groups Seek to influence the government? Usually Yes Yes Seek to become government? No Yes No Formally organized? Not usually Yes Yes Tactics used? Unconventional Yes Yes Main levels of operation? Focus on a single issue? Global, national, local National, regional Sometimes Rarely global, national, local Usually Political culture Political culture may be defined as the political psychology of a country or nation (or subgroup thereof). Political culture studies attempt to uncover deep-seated, long-held values characteristic of a society or group rather than ephemeral attitudes toward specific issues that might be gathered through public-opinion surveys (Encyclopedia Britannica) Political Culture represent the attitudes and orientations towards the political system Political Culture is “the totality of ideas and attitudes towards authority, discipline, governmental responsibilities and entitlements, and associated patterns of cultural transmission such as the education system and family life” (Roberston, 1993) “Denotes the sum of the fundamental values, sentiments and knowledge that give form and substance to political processes” (Pye, 1995) Some important concepts: • CIVIC CULTURE: "a balanced political culture in which political activity, involvement, and rationality exist but are balanced by passivity, traditionally, and commitment to parochial values“ (Almond/verba).
• SOCIAL CAPITAL: According to Putnam, “ is the ned of social life, networks, norms, and trust that enable participants to act together more actively to pursue shared objectives.” and is an important factor influencing the quality of democracy, social cohesion, public life, education system, economic performance.
• CIVIL SOCIETY: “Society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity” (Oxford Dictionary) When in a “strong society” the state is complemented with a set of organizations and institutions that look after the people and provide social and cultural services. The "third sector" of society, distinct from government and business.
5 The reasons for the different political cultures are religion, history, culture and civilizations (“Clash of civilizations by Huntington).
The agents of socializations are: family, school, peer groups, the mass media, the government, religion, trade unions, political parties and internet.
There are three types of political culture according to Elazar: a. INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURE: sees politics as a marketplace of competing interest that use the political system to further their own causes, and prefer to limit community involvement. Leaders and citizens are less interested in furthering the common good than in their private concerns.
b. MORALISTIC CULTURE views government as a public service, and believes that its role is to improve living conditions and to create a just society. Political participation is high because it is seen as a public duty, and government is expected to advance the public good, intervening in private affairs if this advances the general interest.
c. TRADITIONALISTIC CULTURE is primarily interested in preserving te statues quo, defined as one where elites have the power.
Forms of political participation: • • • • • • • Voting in electons Joining or donating to political parties Joining, supporting or donating to interest groups Contacting elected representatives Volunteering in political campaigns or running elections Organizing community campaigns Attending poltiical rallies or meetings • Less conventional • or unconventional • • • Taking part in peaceful demonstrations or protests Mobilizing or expressing opinions through social media Posting comments on online news stories Signing petitions Organizing or taking part in consumber boycotts Conventional Illegal • • • • • Civil disobedience Occupation of buildings or public spaces Sabotaging the effort of parties, candidates or elected officials Politically motivated crimes Poltical violence including terrorism and assassination 6 ...