Traducción General Directa e Inversa - Topic 2 (2015)Apunte Inglés
Topic 2 - General translation practice
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COVADONGA SUÁREZ ARGÜELLES – KSUAREZARG
TOPIC 2. PART 1. GENERAL TRANSLATION PRACTICE. PROBLEMSOLVING TECHNIQUES. PUNTUACTION: LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC
CONVENTIONS. LEXICON: FALSE FRIENDS, IDIOMS, PROVERBS,
EUPHEMISMS AND COLLOCATION.
1. IDIOMS, PROVERBS AND EUPHEMISMS Modismo: Expresión fija privativa de una lengua, cuyo significado no se deduce de las palabras que la forman. Ej: Hasta las narices.
Idiom: A group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words. E. g.: Over the moon.
Idioms: o Llevarse el gato al agua: To succeed o Cortar el bacalao: To rule the roost o Haber visto las orejas al lobo: To have had a narrow escape o Coger a alguien con las manos en la masa: To catch someone red-handed o Tomar el pelo: To pull someone's leg o Estar tan claro como el agua: To be crystal clear o Costar un ojo de la cara: To cost an arm and a leg o Estar en las nubes: To have no idea o Tener la sarten por el mango : To run the show o Ir al grano: To get to the point o Empezar la casa por el tejado: To put the cart before the horse o Dormir como un tronco: To sleep like a log o El mundo es un pañuelo: It's a small world o Hacerse el loco, hacer la vista gorda: To turn a blind eye o De Guatemala a Guatepeor: Out of the frying pan, into the fire Proverb: Short, wise saying or admonition providing guidance and embodying some common place fact or experience - refrán Proverbs: o A quien madruga, Dios le ayuda: The early bird catches the worm o Ojos que no ven, corazón que no siente: Out of sight, out of mind o Quien ríe el último, ríe mejor: Who laughs last, laughs longer o El tiempo es oro: Time is money o Más vale prevenir que curar: Better safe than sorry o No hay mal que por bien no venga: Every cloud has a silver lining Euphemisms and politically correct language: Words used to replace other words which are considered offensive or hurtful, in areas related to taboo subjects like the human body, sex, religion, war or ethnic minorities. Usually culturally bound.
Euphemisms: o o o o o o o o o o o Garbage collector: disposal operative, sanitation engineer, sanitation person Basurero: Recolector de desechos Cárcel: prisión - centro penitenciario - institución correcional Preso: Recluso - interno Viejo: Anciano - entrado en años - mayor - de la tercera edad Old man: Elderly man - elder person - aged man - senior citizen - pensioner Nigger: Black- coloured - afro american - african american Disease: Condition Negro: De color - moreno - subsahariano Asilo: Residencia Old person's home: Retirement home - rest home - nursing home Euphemisms also include deformed versions of a taboo word. E.g.: gosh, friggin. Non-sexist language is an important concern today. All these euphemisms must be translated into euphemisms.
2. COLLOCATION Collocation: A typical or habitual combination of lexemes. It refers to the tendency for certain words to occur together and also to certain restrictions to some combinations. E.g.: Agujero hondo o profundo / profunda o honda simpatía. Deep hole / profound sympathy.
Some collocations: o Black and white - Blanco y negro o Tremble with fear - Temblar de miedo o Quiver with excitement - Temblar de emoción o Make the bed - Hacer la cama o Do the homework - Hacer los deberes o Do damage - Causar daños o Do wrong - Perjudicar o Do one's duty - Cumplir con el deber o Make an excuse - Dar una excusa o Make trouble - Causar problemas o Make a decision - Tomar una decisión TOPIC 2. PART 2. GENERAL TRANSLATION PRACTICE. GRAMMAR: LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC USAGE OF DETERMINERS, PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS, VOICE AND MOOD.
1. POSSESIVES AND PRONOUNS In Spanish we don't tend to use possesive pronouns when talking about parts of the body or personal items. However, we use them when talking about personal relationships.
In Spanish we use personal pronouns especially when making an emphasis, while in English they're always used.
Some examples: o o o o o o o Se quemó el dedo - She burnt her finger Se tiñó el pelo - She dyed her hair Mi familia - My family Mi profesor - My teacher Olvidó el sombrero - She forgot her hat Me lavo las manos - I wash my hands Se hizo daño - She hurt herself 2. SPANISH 'SE' The spanish 'se' is used as a personal pronoun, as a reflexive pronoun, as a reciprocal, an impersonal and also for the passive.
Some examples: o Se lo dije - I told him o Se está afeitando - He's shaving o Se escriben a diario - They write to each other daily o Aquí se come bien - You can have a good meal here o Se les enviará una carta - They will be sent a letter 3. PLACE PREPOSITIONS, PRE?-POSITIONS, PASSIVE VOICE, SUBJUNCTIVE There are three types of place prepositions: o At-type: The place is a point o On-type: The place is a line or a surface o In-type: The place is an area or a volume Some examples of place prepositions: o Está en la parada del bus - She is at the bus stop o Están todos en la clase- They're all in the classroom o Está en el cajón - It is in the drawer o Está en la mesa - It is on the table Examples of pre?-positions: o ¿Con quién vives? - Who do you live with? o ¿Qué miras? - What are you looking at? o Eso es lo que busco - That's what I am searching for o ¿A dónde? - Where to? Examples of passive voice: o This book sells well - Este libro se vende bien o We were taken to the hospital - Nos llevaron al hospital o Taxes won't be reduced - Los impuestos no van a bajar o She doesn't like being stared at - No le gusta que la miren fijamente Subjunctive: Very often used in spanish, exceptional in english (after demand, suggestion etc) TOPIC 2. PART 3. GENERAL TRANSLATION PRACTICE. TEXT: LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC TEXTUALITY FACTORS.
Text is the correctly built and semantically meaningful verbal utterance produced by addressers and presented to addressees, either orally or in writing.
A text is a well-formed utterance with a well-defined meaning. But it has to be congruent as well. If this is done, the text will become contextualized and acquire pragmatic significance, beyond purely semantic meaning.
Meaningful text is what we call discourse.
Discourse may consist of texts which are: a word, a phrase or a sentence, either simple or multiple.
But these are micro-discourse levels. Discourse analysis focuses on longer stretches of meaningful text beyond the level of sentence, and considers: o o o Intrasentential cohesion, the internal organisation of sentences Intersentential cohesion, the relation between sentences Coherence, the overall meaning and value of sentence sets Textuality factors are the same but may work in different ways depending on the specific languages, which affects translation.
At the level of intrasentential cohesion, transposition means that, when translating, a change in the word category must often be made. There are many kinds of transposition: o o o o o o o Adverb to verb: He'll be back soon / No tardará en llegar Adverb to noun: Early last year / A principios del año pasado Adverb to adjective: That wall paints very easily / Esa pared es fácil de pintar Verb to noun: We haven't heard from him for a long time / No hemos tenido noticias suyas Noun to verb: Without the slightest hesitation / Sin dudar ni un momento Adjective to noun: A medical student / Un estudiante de medicina Adjective to verb: It's getting dark / Esta oscureciendo Modulation: Meaning is the same, but the ways to express it can be different according to languages, which affects translation. Modulating is changing from one way of expression to another as appropiate without changing the meaning: o o o o Concrete - abstract: No word from Washington yet / Seguimos sin noticias Part - whole: To go for a sail / Ir a navegar Part - different part: At arm's length / Al alcance de la mano Point of view: He took an exam / Se presentó a un examen While transposition has to do with form (cohesion), modulation refers to pragmatic meaning (coherence) Compensation: Sometimes it is difficult to produce a straight translation where the progression 'form and meaning' follows exactly the same grammatical flux as in the ST. So it often happens that part of a sentence needs to be undertranslated for the sake of idiomaticity, and it has to be compensated by overtranslating another part or another related sentence. Example: o The atmosphere in the big gambling room had changed. It was now much quieter. / El ambiente había cambiado por completo en la gran sala de juego, que ahora se encontraba más tranquila.
TRANSPOSITION MODULATION COMPENSATION Change in word category COHESION Change in way of expression COHERENCE Under and overtranslating BOTH ...