UNIT 2. The making of the UK: Early settlers, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland (2014)Apunte Inglés
Apuntes elaborados con las clases de Marta Bosch
Vista previa del texto
THE MAKING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM
1. EARLY SETTLERS
a) THE CELTS
In the Neolithic age, Ireland became an island.
In greek keltoi (hidden people), in latin galli (cf. Gaul, Galicia). They were developed in the central and eastern Europe in the 8th BC.
1st period: HALLSTAT PERIOD (8th) Relatively advanced tribes: · salt mines · trading relations with the Greeks · use of bronze and iron 6th BC Increase in population + competition for land -> new lands. They expanded to Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, Iberia, Franc and the British Isles).
2nd PERIOD: LA TENE PERIOD (5th BC) 8th BC – 3rd BC: Expansion. Covered the whole British Isles.
3rd BC – Pushed back to central Europe Relegated to “finisterres”: The Celtic Fringe: Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Gaelic, Britain, Scotland, Isle of man.
Decline in the continent: Attacks from the Romans in Gaul during the 1st BC.
· Battle of Alesia (52BC): Julius Caesar defeated the Gauls.
The romans didn’t reach the British Isles until 1st AD (after domini) CELTIC CULTURE IN THE BRITISH ISLES Arrival of different tribes: - Goidels (6th BC): Hallstatt culture gaelic a k-celtic > irish, scottish, manx - Brythons (4th BC): La téne culture p. gaelic > welsh/Cornish - Belgae (1st BC) from South Belgium they were advanced civilization (plough) SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT THE CELTS - Oral culture - Archaeological remains (e.g. Hallstatt & la Tène) - Roman writings and of other classical authors (Julius Cesar, the conquest of Gaul) - Christian monks 1 CELTIC ART • POLITICAL & SOCIAL ORGANIZATION - the King the tribe/clan - Chieftain – “tanistry” system of successions - druid - tribal, descentralized organization • RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION - Polytheists · Human heads were very important. The soul is in the head, so the best way to kill is cutting the head.
· Water ·nº3 appears a lot - Druids. The most important religion. 20 years of training to be druid. Immortality of the soul.
• CULTURAL INHERITANCE (characteristics, stories…) The culture of celts was transmitted through orality (easy to remember, strategies to memorize). Because of the oral culture, the eloquence characteristic became very important.
Also, there was a sophisticated technique of communication as mnemonic devices (rhyme, repetition, alliteration) and artificial and elaborated exaggerated language.
Story of Lucian of Samosata (2nd AD) “The Celts call Heracles Ogmios in their native tongue, and they portray the god in a very peculiar way. [...] He is dressed in the lion's skin. [...] But I have not yet mentioned the most surprising thing in the picture. That old Heracles of theirs drags after him a great crowd of men who are all tethered by the ears! His leashes are delicate chains fashioned of gold and amber, resembling the prettiest of necklaces. Yet, though led by bonds so weak, the men do not think of escaping, as they easily could, and they do not pull back at all or brace their feet and lean in the opposite direction to that in which he is leading them. In fact, they follow cheerfully and joyously, applauding their leader and all pressing him close and keeping the leashes slack in their desire to overtake him; apparently they would be offended if they were let loose!” In Ireland, the influence of Celts was much more than in the other British Isles. Celts lived in Ireland until 1169, the Anglo-Norman invasion.
Ireland: the legend of Blerney Blerney was a man who said pleasant things which were not true.
In the 16th century, Dermo McCarthy had a castle. Queen Elizabeth I asked him to give her his castle. He would reply with his eloquence saying yes, but never happened (“yes, I love you, I’ll give you soon…) The myth tells if you kiss the stone, you will be eloquent.
7th-12th: Golden Age of Gaelic Literature in Ireland The Celtics learnt Christianity and there were monks that built monasteries. These monks wrote a lot in Irish language. It was Gaelic literature but they introduced some Christian aspects.
- The book of the dun cow. The ulaids were a group of Celts from Ulster and Cuchulain was the hero of this story.
Cuchulain was called Satanta originally. Satanta was the son of the God and a human mother. He had a king uncle (Conner) who had to have dinner to the house of Culain, and invited his nephew. Satanta had to play hurling and then he would go to the dinner. There, Culain asked if someone more had to go. If so, he would left the dog out of the house to protect them. The king didn’t remember about his nephew and he said no. Then, when he heard the dog, he remembered Satanta. All of them went out and saw Satanta. Nothing had happened.
2 There was when they realised that Satanta was a hero. So, he was called Cuchulain because of “the haunt of Cuculain’s dog”.
- The conversation of the old men. It’s about a hero, Finn MacCool and Fianna Eireann, a worrier of Ireland. Talks about of the battles they did in the 3rd AD.
b) THE ROMAN INVASION Julius Caesar had been fighting with the Celts, which were defeated in 56 BC. In 55-54 BC he sent expeditions to explore Great Britain, but only to have a look. It was an indirect Romanization because they get more treat between the Romans and Celts.
Julius Caesar died in 44 BC and there was no invasion until 43 AD with the imperator Claudius because he needed to do something to impressive Rome. Romans found easy to invade the Lowlands (South East of GB).
Not everyone accepted the Romans, so there was some resistance.
Queen Boudicca of Norfolk (Look Boudicca.doc) In the lowlands was a military province of the Roman Empire called Britannia.
The uplands were not settle by the Romans because of its difficult access and the attacks they received from Ireland (Scots) and the North (Picts).
There was the Hadrian’s Wall not to allow Picts attacks enter to Britannia. It’s the Northern limit of Britannia and there were a castle every mile. It was built between 122-127 AD and it’s 4m high per 118 kms.
The Romans centralised the Government in Londinum to make sure the control of all their provinces in Briannia. The Romans spoke Latin and the Celts their Celic languages.
Effects of the Roman Invasion - They built the 1st cities like Londinum (temples, agora, amphitheatre, baths...), and others like York, Bath… - Name of the cities: ‘-castrum’ (a camp or fortified town) - Network of roads (often the routes of earlier Celtic roads) - Chickens and vegetables: cabbages, peas, plums, apples, cherries - The pound (currency) - Christianity 4th AD: Official religion of Roman Empire Romans had a centralised model established on dioceses Pope at top of the hierarchical structure Gradual conversion of Celts to Christianity. Monastic organization St. Alban, the 1st native martyr of Christianity 3 2. ENGLAND a) THE TEUTONIC INVASION: ANGLES, SAXONS AND JUTES After the Romans left, came the Teutonic invasion.
Why did the Romans leave? Roman withdrawal - Romans abandoned Britannia in 407 as Rome was threatened by Germanic tribes.
- When Romans left, Vortigern (a Celtic leader) became the ruler of South-East Britain. Meanwhile, there were continued attacks from Picts and Scots.
The invasion started with widespread migratory movement of Germanic people on the mainland of Europe at that time.
Exists a legend which tells that Vorigern asked Hengist and Horsa to help him against the attacks from Picts and Scots.
The King Arthur could be a Celtic leader who fought against the Anglo-Saxons, but there are too many different stories about who he was.
The Anglo-Saxon heptarchy from the end of the 6th. The most important groups were the angles, Saxons and jutes. Some Celts were killed.
Kent (Jutes) Sussex, Wessex, Essex (Saxons) Mercia, East Anglia, Northumbria (Angles) Anglo-Saxon conquest: Britons escaped across the English Channel to Wales, Cornwall, and later, Ireland.
There was a reversed situation in terms of religion.
6th: Conversion to Christianity: The pope sent St. Augustine there. The Anglo-Saxons accepted the conversion because they thought they would be better seen by the Celts. It was introduced the Episcopalian system. The pope did the Synod of Whitby, in 664.
This Roman priest decided the Christian church should follow the Roman system.
Language (old English) Angles left their name to ‘England’ and there was a superiority number of angles (than Saxons, jutes…), and they had an early writing.
They left more things: **Not specific gods to know for the exam! Four of the Anglo-Saxons gods gave the English language names for the days of the week: - Tiw, the god of war: Tuesday - Woden, the clever one-eyed leader of the gods: Wednesday - Thunor, the thunder god: Thursday - Frige, the love-goddess: Friday Predominance of Kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon Heptarchu and Bretwaldas (‘king’ in Anglo-Saxon) 4 · 7th Century: Northumbria – King Edwin Edinburgh, Christianity · 8th Century: Mercia – King Penda they kill - King Oswald king Edwin - King Offa: Offa’s Dyke He made a wall to protect England against Celts · 9th Century Wessex – King Alfred (849-900): Creation of Danelaw (area which contains the Vikings) He was a very important premotor of culture: translate Latin text. Joined all South-West to Wessex **Now, the Vikings will start attacking in Britain, but the Anglo-Saxons will be there and their Kings too. There will be a mix.
· 10th Century Edward the Elder (900-924): Annexation of Danelaw b) THE VIKING INVASION They also can be called as Scandinavians, Norse or Danes The Viking Age was in 800-1050, approximately. They were in Russia, the Mediterranean and in Asia. Also they sailed the North Atlantic (Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland).
The Vikings had superiority in shipbuilding technology and sailing skills.
They reached the British Isles at the end of the 8th century, almost the 9th. There was a Viking raid on Lindisfarne monastery in 793. There were no defence and they took all things (gold…).
The Norse reached the north Great Britain and also Ireland. There they also raid monasteries and there was a settlement in Dublin (mid-9th century).
In Scotland they settled Iona, Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides… Shetlands & Orkneys were given to Scotland in the 15th century and Hebrides was part of the Viking kingdom until the 13th century.
In Wales the Vikings were evaded until the mid-9th century.
The Vikings remained the Scottish Isles for longer than in any other part of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Vikings explored the Wels coast from their bases in the Irish Sea region.
England was not attacked by the Norse, if not by the Danes.
Warfare Anglo-Saxons ≠ Vikings The King Alfred defeats the Vikings and confined them to the Danelaw area, Peace of Edington (878).
Rather than replace the former Anglo-Saxon culture, the Vikings were assimilated.
They left some vocabulary: - the suffix –by (‘village’): Grimsby, Derby - thorpe (‘a new village’): Scunthorpe - thwaite (‘a meadow’, ‘a piece of land’): Lothwaite and from Danish: sky, egg, skin, sister Anglo-Saxon and Viking Kings · Anglo-Saxon King: Ethelred the Unready (978-1013) · A Viking King, Swen Forkbeard (1013-1014): King of Denmark and England. He was succeeded by his sons: · Cnut the Great (1014-1035) · Harold Harefoot (1035-1040) · Harthcnut (1040-1042) 5 · An Anglo-Saxon king, Edward the Confessor (1042-1066). He was ‘the Confessor’ because he was very religious (built Westminster Abbey). His mother was a Norman princess.
Edward the Confessor promised William the throne but the council wanted an Anglo-Saxon king, not a Norman king. This council wanted Earl Harold Godwinson.
c) THE NORMAN INVASION BUT, in 1066, William decided to conquest the Viking area. So, there start the Norman period. Harold marches to the South to stop the Normans. But Harold lost in front of William in the Battle of Hastings (because they were tired to attack the Vikings and the Normans had horses an arches that they didn’t have).
The Normans (on horseback) attack from both sides the English soldiers, who are all on foot, and protect themselves with a wall of shields.
The Bayeux Tapestry (1077) is a museum which explains what happened in the Battle of Hastings. Is the museum of Bayeux in Normandy. It’s made in England to commemorate events leading up to the Battle of Hastings.
It’s 70 metres long and 0,5 metres wide. It has 58 scenes portraying the progress of William I of England to the throne.
William I built lots of castles all around England. All of them had a Motte (mound) and a Bailey (enclosure).
Some of the castles are: - Pevensey Castle (Sussex). The traditional site of the Norman landing in 1066 - Colchester Castle. Built on the foundations of Roman Temple. Has the largest Norman Keep in Europe (46x34) - The Tower of London and The White Tower were originally built as a Norman castle Also, there were some changes that were introduced by William I. The monarchy was more centralised and William made all citizens to accept the King as their own king as taking an oath of allegiance.
In 1085 William orders the Doomsday Book survey: the bulk of the land was owned by the king and some further 250 people, very few landowners who own the land.
Language - Administration/law: Crown, parliament, reign, royal, state, city, council, evidence, fraud, prison Dress: apron, boot, brooch, chain, collar, jewel Family: aunt, cousin, nephew, niece, uncle Food: bacon, pigeon, sugar, dinner, supper, lemon Military: army, battle, guard, navy, peace, soldier Religion: abbey, convent, lesson, mercy, pity, prayer, saint, sermon, vicar The Normans were more powerful than the Anglo-Saxons.
Normans built the most of English cathedrals.
Norman Kings - William I (the conqueror) 1066-1087 6 - · William II (1087-1100) · Henry I (1100-1135) Stephen (1135-1154). He was the last Norman King, he was exclusively Norman. Later Kings had links with France but not only from Normandy.
The Plantagenet Dynasty - - - Henry II (1154-1189). He was considered one of the great English kings and had large possessions in France: from his mother, heritated Normandy and Britany; from his father, Anjou…; from his wife, Aquitaine, Guienne… He had lots of different territories.
He was good of pacifying England. He restric the power of the church: Constitutions of Clarendon. The conquest of Ireland started (More in unit “Ireland”) Richard I ‘the Lionhearted’ (1189-1199). Son of Henry II. He was good in fighting.
He was succeeded by another son of Henry II: John (Lackland) (1199-1216). He lost the possessions of France.
Henry III (1216-1272) Edward I (1272-1307). He was the most successful king of the medieval English history. He changed the Parliament and he annexed Wales and Scotland. Wales became a principality but had a Prince, he was not officially ruled by England.
Edward II (1307-1327): First Prince of Wales. Then, he became English king.
Edward III returned English language to the Parliament after the French language. English was started to teach in school. Something terrible happened: the Black Death (Plague). Died half of population.
He was succeeded by Richard II. He was 10 when he became king. Considered as a weak king. Edward III past a law saying that salaries would be the same people weren’t agree, and with Richard II saw a possibility. They marched to London to present the demands to the king. There wasn’t an immediate change. Little by little they achieved it and had more freedom to work the land. Pleasant’s Revolt (1381), it wasn’t an immediate change but little by little, yes.
7 3. WALES Before the Act of Union (1536) In Welsh: cymru meant “compatriots” in Brythonic dialect, developed into Welsh language.
In old English called them Wealas “foreigners”. The Anglo-Saxons thought that Welsh were different.
A red dragon is the national symbol of Wales (in their flag) and there is some different legend about him.
In Wales there was Celtic presence with a mosaic of small kingdoms until the 9th century. Also, there was a little presence of Romans (212) and Vikings, but there was no occupation and no invasion by them. Germanic tribes (Anglo-Saxons) had a continued warfare between Celtic tribes and Anglo-Saxons. In 5th century there was a gradual penetration of Germanic tribes in Britain (Wealas). Also, they built Offa’s Dyke. This dyke was built by Offa, the King of Mercia (757-796). There was a boundary between England & Wales, 182 miles. There also was a Norman presence. William I built castles in the border to ensure protection between England and Wales. He started little by little. He sent people to explore the territory and by 1200 the South was part of Britain (Stop fighting) and not the north, the tribes in North remained unconquered (continuing fighting).
In 1275, Prince Llwellyn refused to accept the King. He didn’t want any Norman presents there. He fought Edward I, Edward I won and he put his son, Edward II, in the throne.
There is a castle, Caernarvon castle, which was built by Edward I as a place to invest princes. The last Prince of Wales was invested there in 1969.
1301-1536 Wales was a principality having links with England.
In the early of 15th century (1400-1415) there was a Welsh leader called Owen Glendower who was the last one to attempt to the Independence of Wales. He was the leader of The Welsh Revolt.
There were continued warfare and attacks between Wales and England, but not huge attacks, just to say they weren’t happy being ruled by them.
Wales after the Act of Union Only Henry VIII brang some peace to Wales. In 1536 the Act of Union was signed and Henry VIII gave Wales a fair representation in the Parliament (in terms of number and power). But, he forbid the Welsh language officially (people continued talking, there were still speakers). He wanted to stop the Catholicism in Wales (religion).
Elizabeth I continued Henry VII work, but she did something important for the survival of the Welsh language: she translated the Bible (Prayer book) to ensure Welsh people converting to protestant. She was more interested in the religion than in the language.
The Welsh Nationalist Movement. From mid-19th century there was a reawakening of Welsh national consciousness, identity. This Nationalist Movement was based in cultural differences (it had a cultural aim).
8 There were Welsh educational institutions and a disestablishment Anglican Church (achieved in 1920). The Anglican Church was not the official church in Wales.
In 1925, there was a creation of the Welsh Nationalist Party: the Plaid Cymru.
In 1966, 1st Plaid Cymru MP (Gwynfor Evans) at Westminster.
In 1979, a referendum on home-rule. A heavy population vote NO.
In 1997, a referendum on devolution.
In 1999, the National Assembly was created. 559,419 vote for and 552,689 vote against (50,3% turnout). It was opened in May, with significant political powers but without tax raising ability.
Welsh language 72% no skills in Welsh language 5 % can understand only 23% one or more other skill(s) EVOLUTION: 1891 54% 1961 26% 1991 18,7% 2001 21% National Assembly 2011 19% 9 4. SCOTLAND Before the Act of Union (1707) - - - Celts in 3rd century BC No Romans: Survival of Celtic and Viking background until the Middle Ages Scots in 4th-5th century (Celtic tribe from Northern Ireland) 8th-9th century: Vikings 848, Kingdom of Scotia, under Kenneth Mac Alpin (Celtic king) The Stone of Scone/of Destiny. Edward I took the stone to England. This stone was used first by Kenneth Mac Alpin.
1005-1034 Malcolm II incorporates the South-East 1034, Duncan rules modern Scotland except Isles 1040, Duncan was killed by Macbeth (the King and member of the army) [There is a Shakespeare’s play about this history, but he did some changes and adaptations] 1058-1083, Malcolm III ruled and he was married with Princess Margaret. She went to Scotland after Norman Invasion and married Malcolm III.
In 12th there was an important king: King David. He was Duncan’s son and it’s said he killed Macbeth.
There was a Norman influence in the Scottish lowlands. There were problems between lowlands and uplands, until the battle of Culloden, 1745.
The fight between England and Scotland continued until 13th century. Because of that there was an alliance with France.
Fighting with the English, there were some important heroes. William Wallace (Stirling, 1297) and in 1304 he was executed in London. Robert Bruce was a hero too (Bannockburn, 1314) and in 1328 he was king of Scotland.
In the 16th century (1513) happened the battle of Flodden. The Scottish marched to England and the English defeated them. They killed the king, James IV, and he was succeeded by James V, his son.
The 16th Century James V of Scotland was catholic (Henry VIII wanted a reformation). When James V died, Henry VIII had a great idea: he proposed marriage between Edward VI and Mary Stuart, daughter of James V and she had become Queen of Scots when she only was a child.
Scotland said NO and Henry VIII decided to attack Scotland. Because of that, May Stuart was sent to France for safety (Alliance in 13th century) and her mother, Mary of Guise, became the queen regent.
At the same time, there were some people in Scotland that wanted the reformation (Scottish reformers). They wanted the convert of the Catholics in Scotland to Presbyterian, they control the Parliament (problems monarchy ≠ Parliament).
10 In 1560, when Mary of Guise dies, it meant the end of the French alliance and The Reformation was established in Scotland (to Presbyterian).
In 1561, Mary Stuart returned to Scotland but she was Catholic. At the begin she was accepted by the people.
She married to Henry Darnley. She had a secretary who was a man, who it’s believed to have been killed by Henry Darnley. Then, someone killed the husband, Darnley. Three months later, Mary Stuart married an other man (it’s believed she could have killed his husband).
So, she lost all support in Scotland because of her private life and romances. She had to abdicate. She escaped to England but Elizabeth I caught her and she was executed in 1587.
After Mary abdicated her son, James VI, became king of Scotland. So, there was a union of the Crown: James VI of Scotland and I of England. The Crowns were united by they continued with a separated Parliaments. James VI/I was succeeded by his son Charles I (1625) but he was Anglican and that caused him some problems: Scottish Parliament (Presbyterian) and English Parliament (Puritan).
The Scottish Church wrote a National Covenant (1638) to defend the Presbyterian Church.
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (1642-1649) The Parliament agreed that they didn’t want the King.
The 1st part was won by the Parliamentary Army (1646).
Then, Cromwell wanted to have the power and abolished the Presbyterian. So, he decided to go through the rest and go alone. The Scottish Covenanters support Cromwell against Charles I during Civil War (1642) but later change sides. They decided to replace Charles II, son of Charles I.
Cromwell abolishes the Scottish Parliament and then he joins England, Scotland and Ireland (all the island) into the Commonwealth (he named himself Lord Protector of England because there was no monarchy between 1653-1658).
In 1658, Cromwell got sick and died. Charles II returned to the throne.
In 1685, when he died, he was succeeded by his brother.
James II of England and VII of Scotland was Catholic.
In 1688, his daughter and his husband (Mary and William of Orange), who were Anglican, decided to take the power of his father (The Glorious Revolution, 1688). At the begin, the Scottish were fine with the change.
Then, William of Orange did something which irritated the Scottish, In 1692, The Massacre of Glencoe.
William of Orange sent 12 people of the army and lived there like holidays. Then, 38 members of the cland were killed.
So, this fact confirmed the sympathizers of James II/VII: the Jacobites. They were the supporters and successors of James II/VII and the Catholics. Highlands were completely against William of Orange. The love to Jacobites was especially high in the highlands.
The Act of Union Mary and William died and they were succeeded by Queen Anne (Mary’s sister) in 1702. The Parliament didn’t want the Jacobites to take the power.
Motives - Economic problems: famine and death (bad harvests).
- No succession. Queen Anne had no children. And England had no direct heir/heiress.
- Scotland was not allowed to trade with the colonies.
11 So, the Parliaments decided to accept the Act of Union in 1707. Both had something to offer and something to win.
Scotland win a possibility to trade with the colonies, the Scottish Parliament and the flag was abolished, and they kept the educational system, lay and Presbyterian Church.
England won that Scotland promised not to support the Jacobite side.
The Act of Union established the successor to a cousin of the Queen.
After the Union Reactions The highlanders didn’t agree the act. That’s why in 1745 Bonnie Prince Charles marched to England but he was defeated in the Battle of Culloden. After the battle, the British Parliament decided to bend different things.
Consequences - Expansion of trade and industry - The industrial revolution At the end of the 19th century there was a development of refrigerated ships: rural exodus. In 1830s and 40s the potato crop fails, Clearances (people left because they couldn’t pay the rent of the area).
1934, there was the Creation of the Scottish National Party.
In 1970s there was an improvement of the economic situation: oil fields in Scotland.
1979/1997: Devolution referendums 1999: the Scottish Parliament was created. The opening ceremony was called Holyrood.
12 5. IRELAND Ireland before the Act of Union (1801) There are different names that have been given to Ireland. First, Hibernia was given by the Romans. The Celts, talked about Uib-Ernai to people living in Ireland. Then, they talked about Eire. Nowadays, it’s like that, because the Irish came from Celts.
· There were hominids and then Celts arrived. They brought with them when their Celtic dialect language and it developed into Irish.
· The Romans didn’t invade Ireland but there were commercial relations.
· Then, Christianity was introduced in Ireland by St. Patrick (432). There was an importance of monasticism.
Because of this development in monasteries, there was the Golden Age in literature (6th-9th). The monks in the monasteries wrote lots of books. The most important book was The book of Kells.
· The anglo-saxons didn’t reach Ireland.
· In the 9th century Ireland was divided into 5 provinces ruled by a local king.
· The Vikings only settled in 4 specific places: Dublin, Cork, Limerick and Waterford. They were defeated by King Brian Boru (King of Munster) and the Vikings went out.
The Norman Presence Dermot MacMurrough asked Henry II (the King) for help against some tribes. He accepted and he invaded Ireland in 1169.
Henry II didn’t become king. He decided to be overlord of Ireland which means that the area was him but the workers had liberty. He only wanted the area for economic reasons but they will not take care of them.
He gave ¾ of the island to the Norman knights.
Irish chiefs who resist are pushed back to the West.
English colonists become “more Irish than the Irish”. In 1366 Edward III wrote the Statutes of Kilkenny to stop the integration of anglo-norman tribes to Ireland and banned lots of things.
In 14th-15th century: there were weaker links between England and Ireland. No problems.
Then the Tudors arrived Beginning of the Tudor rule: · Henry VIII: He wanted to reconquer Ireland. He wanted to have real power over Ireland. He declares himself king of Ireland. Henry VIII introduced the Protestant Reformation. The Catholicism was identified with resistance.
13 · Elizabeth I: She made hers the rest of the territory and she decided to do something more: The Policy of Plantations. And the fights in Ulster started.
The plantations in Ulster There was a strong resistance to the policy.
Elizabeth I tried twice without success. And this was the 3rd one.
Elizabeth I eventually carries out the Plantation of 6 counties after the Battle of Kinsale. These counties were owner by Hugh O’Neill (who was a kell). After he lost, the Earls decided to leave.
But not everything was of England yet, only six counties.
When Elizabeth I died, James I finished the Plantations in Ulster (were three left). There was a strong division established between Catholics (Native Irish + Old English, not originally born in England) and Protestants (new English immigrants).
The 17th Century In 1642, the English Parliament abolished the Catholicism in Ireland. Consequently, in 1642, there was a Catholic Confederation of Old English and native Irish.
Between 1642-1649 there was the English Civil War. In 1649 Oliver Cromwell sends “New Model Army” to Ireland. The defeat of Oliver Cromwell in 1652 is known as The Cromwellian Defeat.
Oliver killed a half of the population of Ireland. The division between Catholics and Protestants grew become of a sense of Irish identity was reinforced, Protestants were gave more lands.
Oliver Cromwell soon died and in 1660, they need a king and asked Charles II to be the king. Charles II was succeeded by James II who was Catholic and support the Jacobite cause in 1685 but his daughter take him the power (The Glorious Revolution, 1688).
After The Glorious Revolution, Mary and her husband were kings. Ireland was not agree. There was a war and the Jacobites (Catholics) were defeated by William III in the Battle of Boyne, 1690 (is still celebrated). Then, lots of Jacobites who had lost, left. William III did something else after the battle he decided to pass the Penal Laws, 1695, to the Catholics (they could not vote, they can’t attend schools and the Catholic priests had to leave the country).
Until 1829 there was the Catholic Emancipation Act.
The 18th Century There was all this oppression not allowing the Catholics their religion… There was an Absentee Protestant Landowners (they live in England). Irish that were working the lands had to pay high rents to work them.
Anglo-Irish Ascendancy builds big houses while development of Irish industries is neglected.
The Irish were not happy about that and they started to demand for free trade and a free Irish Parliament. In 1782 there was a Parliament created but it only was made of Protestants.
After all this negative of the English power over Ireland, USA fought for their independence against England an that made he Ireland seen they could do the same. So, there were the first stirrings of political nationalism.
In 1791 a Society of United Irishmen (Belfast) was created and started a rebellion helped by the French. But failed and decided to hand publicly hundreds of people who start the rebellion.
More or less at the same time there was a rebellion, opposed to the Society of United Irishmen.
In 1795 the Orange Society was founded in Ulster to prevent Catholics from acquiring land.
14 The 19th Century In 1801 there was the Act of Union (the official union between Ireland and United Kingdom). So, they were The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (Now, and Northern-Ireland), until 1921.
The Prime Minister was William Pitt who decided to union because he had seed how the French helped the Irish in the rebellion and he was afraid. So, he decided to make the official union between the Parliaments.
Catholics in Ireland (who were oppressed by the Protestants) were not agree with the Union. So, there were some rebellions.
In 1845-1848 the potato crop failed. That created different problems. There was a huge famine in Ireland and the ones who could be eaten were so expensive. Also, there were evictions because Catholics couldn’t sell potatoes, so they couldn’t pay their Protestants landowners. One million people died, one million people emigrated Deep resentment of the Irish population: starvation, massive emigration… Irish people who didn’t move get angrier. They felt more Irish, there were more nationalism and there was a Cultural Revival (late 19th): - 1884: Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) to promote Irish sports - 1893: the Gaelic League to promote the Irish language - Gaelic Renaissance to revive Ireland’s Celtic heritage: Crofton Croker, Lady Wilde, Yeats, Synge, etc… - 1904: Establishment of the Abbey Theatre.
Home rule In 1914 a home rule was promised to Ireland by the UK but it was postposed many times. At the same time, there were people who want more than that and the Irish Republican Brotherhood was created. It was opposed to any form of British rule in the whole of Ireland.
With the 1st World War, the promise was postponed again. In 1916 there was a rebellion called Easter Rising ruled by the Brotherhoods, in support to an Irish republic. This rebellion was cruelly put down.
The Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921). After, the Irish continued supporting the Republican Brotherhood. Some Irish republicans created a political party (1916): Sinn Fein. The leader was Eamonn de Valera.
In 1918 there was a general election in the UK. There was an overwhelming victory for Sinn Fein in Ireland.
Sinn Fein saw this amazing victory and it established and Irish army, called Dail Eireann. They thought they were independents with their own army and proclaimed and Independent Irish Republic but it wasn’t as easy as that. UK wasn’t agree and the English Army (The Black and Tans) were sent to Ireland.
Then, the IRA (who were the Irish Republican Brotherhood) rises in arms to defend the Irish Republic and fought.
In 1921 they reached an agreement: Partition Treaty: Ireland would be divided into an Irish Free State and Northern Ireland (6 Ulster counties part of the UK).
The Irish Free State didn’t become completely independent yet. They would royal the British Crown, but they would be a different country. Some people of the IFS were not agree and in 1922-1923 was a Civil War in the Irish Free State against the Republicans. In this war, the Republicans lost.
Eamonn de Valera changed the name of the Sinn Fail to Fianna Fail in 1933 because he thought it would help to achieve the independence and won the elections in The Irish Free State.
Meanwhile the IRA was continuing fighting and it was declared illegal in the Free State (1936).
After that, in 1937 the Free State made a New Constitution. They were called EIRE, they had no allegiance to the British Crown, and the Catholicism would be the official religion in Ireland… There were now completely 15 independence.
In 1948, they proclaimed the Irish Republic. This was the official moment that they decided to be a Republic and the Republic quitted the Commonwealth.
Finally, in 1973 Ireland joined the EEC.
Flag of Ireland Green: Catholics Orange: Protestants White: Peace between them NORTHERN IRELAND AFTER THE PARTITION TREATY With the Treaty it was agreed that Northern Ireland would have its own parliament, placed at Stormont (1921), but not everyone was agreed with the Treaty: Ulster Catholics (who wanted all together, Northern Ireland and Ireland) and Ulster Protestants (who wanted the 9 counties of Ulster part of the UK).
In 1922 there were riots in Belfast between the unionists (the Ulster Protestants, 9 counties of UK) and separatists (not to be part of the UK).
The problem was that after the partition there was a discrimination of Catholics in Northern Ireland.
In the 1960s because of this discrimination there was a Civil Rights Movement.
In 1969 there were demonstrations in Belfast and Darry and the British sent their army. So, the Catholics fought them with their own army, the IRA (resurgence of IRA).
In 1971, the IRA killed the first British solider, so it made the English angry.
In 1972 there were more demonstrations in Derry and the British Army shot 13 civilians during civil-rights march in Derry, which is known as Bloody Sunday.
So, the British suspend the Parliament of Northern Ireland.
IRA continued with their terrorists attacks to Protestants.
In 1981 members of IRA who were in prison were treated so bad there and they decided to do a hunger strike (Recommended film: Some mother’s son).
Between 1969-1972 there was an area of Derry who proclaimed free themselves. They were separated.
In 1994 the IRA and British army agreed to stop.
In 1998 the Belfast Agreement was signed. There was agreed to give back to Northern Ireland legislative power (not the Parliament yet). The devolution was the Parliament took place 8 May 2007 but it was also depending on Westminster (UK).
In 2005 there were the IRA arms decommissioning and they won’t fight anymore.
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