History. Explaining Industrial Revolution (2013)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad Pompeu Fabra (UPF)
Grado International Business Economics - 2º curso
Asignatura International Business & Economic Law
Año del apunte 2013
Páginas 1
Fecha de subida 22/06/2014
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2nd trimester

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The  Industrial  Revolution  may  not  be  consider  a  period  of  economic  growth  itself;  it  may  be   better  regarded  as  a  period  of  incubation  in  which  the  groundwork  to  future  growth  was  being   laid.  It  was  a  phenomenon  that  happened  in  Western  Europe,  but  specially  without  Britain’s   leadership  it  might  not  happened  at  all.     The  intellectual  foundations  of  the  technology  which  made  the  Industrial  Revolution  came  out   of  the  Enlightment,  in  which  Britain  was  an  active  participant.     What  made  the  Industrial  Revolution  into  the  “great  divergence”  was  the  persistence  of   technological  change  after  the  first  wave.  This  means  that  it  didn’t  peter  out1  but  it  was   followed  by  a  second  wave  of  innovations  (after  1820),  less  spectacular,  but  these  innovations   were  the  ones  that  made  production  costs  go  down,  spread  the  application  to  new  and  more   industries  and  sectors  and  eventually,  showed  up  in  the  productivity  statics.   Why  England?  Its  ability  to  stay  out  of  military  conflicts  in  its  own  soil,  political  system  that  was   capable  of  reinventing  itself  and  introducing  reforms  without  violence,  a  capitalist,  productive   and  progressive  agricultural  sector  and  an  institutional  agility  that  allowed  it  to  adapt  to  a   changing  environment  (diapos).  Furthermore,  Britain  could  rely  on  a  class  of  trained  artisans   and  mechanics  who  were  capable  of  making  new  technologies  and  this  was  the  major  factor  in   the  leadership  role  of  Britain  in  the  Industrial  Revolution.    Britain  already  had  a  relative  large   proportion  of  people  in  non-­‐agricultural  activities  and  a    shipbuilding  industry,  mining  sector   and  a  developed  clock-­‐instument  making  sector.    British  society  channeled  their  creative   energies  to  those  activities  that  were  most  useful  to  future  technological  development  in  the   market.  Skills  were  transmitted  through  an  apprenticeship  system:  instruction  and  emulation   working  for  the  private  sector.  Social  elite  with  an  unusual  interest  in  technical  improvement,   its  ability  and  willingness  to  absorb  and  apply  useful  ideas  generated  elsewhere,  a  well   transport  system  favoured  by  nature  and  improved  by  investment  and  a  propitious  location  of   some  resources,  specially  coal.                                                                                                                             1  Peter  out:  agotarse   ...