11/06 - T9 (2014)

Apunte Español
Universidad Universidad Pompeu Fabra (UPF)
Grado Publicidad y Relaciones Públicas - 2º curso
Asignatura Sociology of Communication
Año del apunte 2014
Páginas 3
Fecha de subida 11/06/2014
Descargas 2
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POLITICAL ECONOMY DON’T TRUST THE CORPORATE MEDIA Marxist theory Purpose of examining the institutional structure of media organizations and relate that to the content (how some information is omited or other is emphathised) Schiller Chomsky Dallas Smythe The audience commodity: all non-sleeping time is working time, all the time is sold to advertisers Schiller american culture imperialism and the effects that it has in society “Mass communication and American empire” – 2 functions of the media in USA: 1) promote cultural values inside USA which will preserve the status quo, 2) abroad expand the american imperialism as a form of domination of other cultures and societies “The mind managers” – cultural products’ content: uniformity to many societies, uniform type of content, american audiovisual products are very expensive to produce, other countries try to imitate the original American products (same topics, scripts, etc.) Myths that structure media content: 1) individual and personal choice, which capitalism creates 2) unchanging human nature, if we see violence in tv is because human nature is violent 3) absence of conflict, advertisers don’t like controversity 4) neutrality 5) media pluralism, if there’s so much choice there’s diversity Herman and Chomsky institutional structure is studied and related to content, but some explanations are sometimes difficult to find and to prove “Manufacturing consent: the political economy of the mass media” : one info goes through filters it’s no longer information, it is propaganda 1) ownership: important fot the type of content you will get, media are part of conglomerated companies that have financial interests, and that will never be disclosed (no se dan a conocer sus intenciones economicas) 2) funding: in commercial media funding comes from advertisers, so advertisers have a say in what will appear in the media, so the real content aren’t the real content, the real content are advertisements, and the news are a filler (relleno) 3) sourcing: we experience a continious need for information, two types of institutions satisfy this need (corporations and the government) because they have the material for it, a great view of all the information we get has a lot to do with this institutions 4) flak: anyone criticised for being powerful has the resources to counter the effects of that criticism 5) anti-ideologies: there’s always some anti-ideology, until the 90s there used to be communism, after september 11 that became terrorism, and those are used bu media and government alike to irrellevate other issues, used to deflect tensions information always goes through at least one of those filters, all information stops being information at the point that reaches you; there are interests hidden after news and information this theory da a entender that there’s some conspiracy 12 T9: THE INFORMATION / NETWORK SOCIETY A NEW INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SOCIETY We depend more on electronic communcation 1) Social equality: some make profit of the advantages new media offer, some don’t; technology facilitate participation and decision-making processes; gives us more freedom but lest privacy 2) Quantity / quality of social relationships: it’s easy to get in touch with anybody but relationship quality may decrease; teenagers don’t call each other anymore, they don’t make phone calls SECOND COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION The first communication revolution was because of mass media and telecommunications 1) Structural communication revolution: dimensions of space and time have been overcomed, technology allows us to trascend them 2) Technical communication revolution: structure of connections, less memory and reproduction of content has changed; digital and artificial memories, digital transmission and reproduction of content CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW MEDIA 1) Integration of telecommunication, data communication and mass communication all in a single medium: multimedia – full digitalization of all media (the general use of digital code) – broadband transmission through all connections by cable and by air 2) Interactivity (before the Internet it wasn’t possible): allows action and reaction, defined by different dimensions – space: two-sided or multi-lateral connections – time: degree of synchronicity – behavioural: ability of sender and receiver to switch roles – mental: ability of sender and receiver to understand the messages as sender and receiver 3) Digital code and hypertext: binary code transcended the traditional analog code, tendency to watch uniformity in the content; hypertexts break the typical linear code: user is able to decide the sequence (the sender doesn’t determine the order in which he is going to receive the message) COMMUNICATION CAPACITIES OF NEW MEDIA 1) Speed: new media can bridge large distances 2) Geographic and social reaches: geographic reach of new media is everything, social reach depends on Internet penetration, it is 90% in some places and 5% in others, it is unequal 3) Storage potential: endless in new media, unlike print media’s which is limited 4) Accuracy: binary code allows high accuracy 5) Selectivity: you may choose with who you will communicate, traditional media are directed to a large public so selectivity is low 6) Interactivity: not as high as in face-to-face communication, but also quite horizontal; traditional communication is vertical 7) Stimuli richness: new media help to reproduce reality, it is lower than in face-to-face communication 8) Complexity: not as high as in face-to-face communication, it is sometimes difficult to negociate / decide / explain difficult issues, but level of complexity in new media is overall high 9) Privacy: low capacity of self-protection, a diferencia de face-to-face communication where you can select what to thell another certain person or what to keep for you or your closer circle of friends 13 THE NETWORK SOCIETY Information society: a modern type of society marked by a particular substance: a high information intensity of all activities in society Network society: a modern type of society with an infrastructure of social and media networks that characterizes its form of organization at every level: individual, group/organizational and societal. The basic unit is the individual, linked by networks Mass society: a previous type of modern society with an infrastructure of groups, organizations and communities. The basic units are large collectivities ('masses') organizing individuals FROM MASS SOCIETY TO NETWORK SOCIETY 14 ...