Tema 3 - Political Mobilization and Actors [3.1-3.2] (2016)

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Universidad Blanquerna (URL)
Grado Relaciones Internacionales - 1º curso
Asignatura Introduction to Political Science
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 4
Fecha de subida 30/04/2016
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Mar López Barreiro 1r International Relations 2015-2016 T.3 - POLITICAL MOBILIZATION AND ACTORS 3.1 What are ideologies? - - - 1 Ideology (ideologies): system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy (Oxford Dictionary) Ideology: Basic ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture; doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of political, economic, or other system Destutt de Tracy: “the science of ideas” (idea-ology) Hamilton: “system of collectively held beliefs and attitudes advocating a particular pattern of social arrangement” (1987) Napoleon Bonaparte used it in an abusive way against “the ideologues” Marx: best-known political thinker who defined ideology in negative terms - “A set of ideas that is false, deliberately designed to obscure reality in order to benefit a particular class in society” - His aim was to contrast ideology with the truth which his “scientific” socialism was designed to produce Enlightenment - Ideology is linked to this intellectual, social, and cultural movement that stressed the reason and the knowledge in the search for human progress (Descartes, Kant, Rousseau, Diderot, Voltaire, Stuart Mill, etc.) - Traditional ideologies were shaped by the movement - Some ideologies have a pejorative meaning, others adopt a more neutral term Mar López Barreiro 1r International Relations 2015-2016 Liberalism - Dominant political tradition in the West - The core concept is liberty, private property, and rights Socialism - Dominated by the theory of Karl Marx, who described his socialism as scientific path for social change - At the turn of 20th Century, socialism divided into 2 camps, with the communists and the socialists or social democrats - Core socialist principles include equality, community, and cooperation - There’s also a non-scientific Marxism socialism: the utopian socialism Conservatism - The inclination, especially to maintain the existing or traditional order - Political philosophy that wants respect for traditional institutions and the established order - The underlying principles of conservatism are an aversion to rationality, an organic view of society, human imperfection, and a preference for hierarchy Fascism - An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization (in general use) extreme right-wing authoritarian, or intolerant views or practices - A system of government marked by authority under a dictator, with strong socioeconomic controls, suppression of liberties and the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy under the flag of nationalism and racism Feminism - It starts with the assumption that women are unequal to men Environmentalism - Its rise has been the product of severe environmental problems Multiculturalism - Liberal approach that seeks to promote pluralistic states based on many different religious, cultural, and ethnic identities Religious Fundamentalism - It can be characterized by its intention of organizing politics along religious lines 3.2 Political Parties - 2 Definitions: - An organization of people who have the same views about the way power should be used in a country - An organized group of people with similar political aims and opinions, that seek to influence public policy by having its candidates elected to public office - A formally constituted political group that contests elections and attempts to form or take part in a govern (Oxford Dictionary) Mar López Barreiro 1r International Relations 2015-2016 3 - Origins: - With the advent of political democracy, or the gradual process - Universal suffrage was only granted after WWII and the female vote in 1928 - The ways which parties perform these roles depend on: 1. Types of constitutions, federal, or centralized regimes 2. Electoral system and the way of selection of candidates (primaries, bureaucracy of the party, etc) 3. Regulation of the electoral campaigns (television ads, budget limits, etc) 4. Political Culture 5. Political, social, and economical situation Mar López Barreiro 1r International Relations 2015-2016 4 - Funding of political parties: for and against - Public Funding: - Western Europe - Transparency and Accountability - Availability - Private Funding: - Unlimited spending - Pro-business parties gain more influence - Private donations encourages corruption - Electoral Campaigns: - Candidate; - Message; - Time Funding; - Team; - Research; - Networks ...