2.Globalisation: Introduction and Main Features (2016)Apunte Inglés
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2. Globalisation and International Relations
2.1. Introducing Globalisation
What elements do you associate with Globalisation? Free trade, economic competitiveness,
interdependence, cultural diversity, capitalism, inequalities, exchange of information, multipolarity,
expansion of international law, decrease of international wars, standardisation, threats, relocation,
migration, loss of identity, centralisation of capital, new communication technologies, stabilisation
of the core/periphery theory, emerging countries, etc.
2.1.1. Areas of Impact of Globalisation ECONOMIC GLOBALISATION One of the most visible and criticised aspect of globalisation. Some may view globalisation exclusively as a economic process. Economic globalisation is featured by: a) Emergence of global markets, through unified and worldwide trade, finance and production patterns.
b) Rise of multinational corporations.
c) Global financial markets d) Economic crises rapidly spreading across borders.
MILITARY GLOBALISATION a) Expansion of arms trade --> developing mechanisms of control (Arms Trade Treaty).
b) Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction c) Growth of transnational terrorism d) Increasing discurse of insecurity across borders e) Increasing number of private actors related with the military field (private armies).
LEGAL GLOBALISATION a) Expansion of international law in a wide range of areas (e.g. human rights, trade...) --> thematic regimes b) Setting-up of international legal institutions (ICC, ICJ).
ECOLOGICAL/ENVIRONMENTAL GLOBALISATION a) Identification of the problem: shared environmental problems (e.g. climate change, rainforest destructioN and other threats to biological diversity.
b) Emerging global environmental awareness.
c) Serting-up of multilateral responses and regimes of global environmental governance.
CULTURAL GLOBALISATION Marta Busquets IPS 2016 a) Homogenisation trends through the global dissemination of popular culture (e.g. brands, characters, cultural references).
b) Global media corporations and communications networks.
c) Reaffirmation of diversity, including local/national/regional identities as well as other forms of difference.
SOCIAL GLOBALISATION a) Increasing intra-regional and cross-regional migrant flows.
b) Emergence of global social movements. Organisations of civil society trying to adress globalisation TECHNOLOGICAL GLOBALISATION a) Mobile and digital technologies accelerate change within societies. Accelerates the patterns of change in societies in the dimensions of everyday life.
b) Increased opportunities for individual participation and cross-border influence and knowledge transfer. Internet platforms contribute to the spread of initiatives. States exchange information and knowledge.
c) Potential "digital divide" and exclusion, within and between societies. It is a thread that different groups within societies or between societies that due to the prominent access to technology, limit their access to what happens in the world (because you don't have access or the tools to understand the content in the platforms).
POLITICAL GLOBALISATION a) Adoption of liberal democracy as a form of government in an increasing number of countries (at least formally).
b) Strengthening of regional spaces c) Setting-up of new global forums and spaces involving a wide range of actors.
d) Domestic and international spheres in policy become increasingly blurred. Events that happen internationally influence domestic policies that usually is based on international directives. Nowadays all ministries have a international relations department because policies are more focused on external measures (less autonomy).
e) Emerging international role of formally domestic actors (e.g. cities, regional government).
Substate actors increasingly have their role in the international sphere.
2.1.2. Common defining threats a) Shortening of distances: social, political and economic activities in one part of the world influence. "Global village" there are massive geographic distances that are interconnected.
(physical) b) More intensive interconnectedness of processes in all areas. Notion of being in a interconnected world in which you can not isolate yourself. (abstract) Marta Busquets IPS 2016 c) Acceleration of global interactions and pace of changes d) As a result of this, "local", and "global" become more closely entangled --> increasingly awareness of the global changes in the notions and experiences of time and space.
2.1.3. Globalisation: A diversity of Views PERSPECTIVE IN SOME IR THEORIES: a) Realism: globalisation may affect our social, economic and cultural lives, but it does not fundamentally change the international political system of states.
b) Liberalism: globalisation crystalizes long-term transformation of world politics --> states are no sealed units, the world is a cobweb of relations.
c) Marxism: globalisation is the latest stage in international capitalism, which further deepens inequalities. Globalisation could be a new that reinforces the role of private capital and reduces the ability of certain countries to act. Another form of capitalism domination.
d) Postcolonialism: globalisation amounts to continuity with the colonial forms of the past.
remains an expression of imbalance of the global north and the global south.
Each one of them focus on certain elements that are important: a) Realism: importance of states. It is true that are other actors but they remain being one of the most important actors (refugee crisis) b) Liberalism: Interconnectedness and multidimensional nature of globalisation.
c) Marxism: Expansion of global capitalism d) Postcolonialism: Imbalances that exiEsted in the past, remain happening. Being interconnected does not mean there is no imbalance, but that it remains under a different form.
2.1.4. Critiques of Globalisation a) "Globalisation" as a buzzword to present the latest phase of capitalism, aiming to pretend states are powerless in the face of global trends. A pretext to allow governments to do less that what they could do letting capitalism to regulate society.
b) Globalisation as mainly a western phenomenon, the impact of which in other regions is overestimated. Asymmetry and variable geometry of the impact of capitalism.
c) Globalisation as a new stage of Western imperialism which limits the space for values from non-western societies.
d) Globalization is not a neutral process that opens opportunities for everyone but rather one in which, in the name of openness, some people is exploited at the expense of others.
e) Gobalisation gives increasing power to actors which are not accountable (e.g.
transnational corporations, NGOs). Non-state actors are not subjected to control and have the possibility to be less transparent.
2.1.5. Nuancing Globalisation Marta Busquets IPS 2016 a) Some trends observed today had existed earlier. E.g. expansion of international trade growth of private production, WMDs, international institutions, etc. We are crystallizing now a set of trends that have been in existence long time ago.
b) Globalisation is multidimensional and operates at different speeds and intensities.
c) Gobalisation is an uneven, asymmetrical process. Experienced differently across regions, classes, etc. Variable geometry. Within and between societies there is a different level of participation of this process.
d) Changes brought about by globalisation can be intensively experienced on a personal level --> a degree of subjectivity may influence our views and perceptions: in globalisation, politics become very personal (how we see refugees, crisis...). Personal dimension of globalisation.
2.2. Main Features: Impact on International Political Structures 2.2.1. Tensions and Crisis Changes generated by globalisation foster insecurities within and among societies.
Inequalities and exclusion may also increase: Differences between countries and regions become more visible, the agenda of capitalism tens to be privileged, and the technocratic nature of global decision-making (such as health, environment and security) excludes many. There might be a sense of being excluded.
A deep sense of crisis and threat runs through globalisation: Poverty, climate change, erosion of the multilateral order (for example with military interventions in Iraq, Afghanistan, etc.), migration, and others.
2.2.2. Bridging the Global and the Local: A Case Study BRT systems in major world cities Context of development generate tensions between the different areas of globalisation that we have seen up until now. For example, economic progress might generate environmental damages.
A set of narratives and viewpoints • A more “fluid” vision of territories — Inequality has increased within territories of the European Union.
• The increasing economic weight of cities — Globalisation has had an impact in economic growth, and it has affected the economic weight of cities. Although Europe continues to grow, now it does it in a slower speed. In China and Africa, this growth is really speed. At the beginning of globalisation there was the perception that people would stop living in large countries and people would move back to the country in order to work from them with their computers. Nowadays, the 750 biggest cities today account for roughly 57% of global GDP. And they are expected to contribute to 61% of the world’s total GDP by 2030.
• The cultural centrality of cities. The notion of “place”. - Symbolic nature of places gains importance. For example, cities associated with creativity, Marta Busquets IPS 2016 heritage identity, etc. - Cities becomes brands, fashionable places, often more than the countries they represent (Ex.
New York, Berlin, Barcelona), and they position themselves in a city competition.
• The political relevance of cities - Demographic density leads to more intense needs and problems. Cities are complex spaces with people with different interests. - It is mainly at local level that people can influence global politics. It feels like in the “local matters” there is a possibility to “make a difference” with our actions. People are increasingly passionate and self-consciously local.