2.3. Political Challenges related to Globalisation (2016)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Blanquerna (URL)
Grado Relaciones Internacionales - 2º curso
Asignatura International Political Structure
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 2
Fecha de subida 15/03/2016
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Marta Busquets IPS 2016 2.3. Political Challenges Related to Globalisation There have been political challenges as a result of globalisation.
2.3.1. Main Challenges faced by Cities • Multiculturalism and integration • Inequality • Violence • Balancing economic growth and sustainability • Managing tourism • Birth rates • Pollution • Use of Big Data • Guaranteeing security • Environmental concerns 2.3.2. 2030 Agenda For Sustainable Development I.
Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted by the UN Summit in 2015.
II.
All countries are expected to integrate this agenda to transform our world.
III. It is expected to influence domestic policies.
IV. For the first time, the agenda includes one goal addressing cities.
V.
Goal 11 is entitled “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
VI. It has also been argued that the achievement of many other goals will also require the involvement of cities and local governments, because they provide access to basic services.
Sectors have interconnection: If you arrange to solve a problem affecting one sector, you might also solve a problem affecting a different sector, because there is interrelation.
2.3.3. Human Rights in Cities - Human Rights Increasingly Become an “Urban” Issue Whereas international human rights law sets obligations for states, recent decades have increasingly seen an involvement of cities in this area. But why? 1. Decentralisation devolves rights-related competences to local and regional governments.
2. Political differences between local and national governments, that may lead cities to raise rights-related issues.
Marta Busquets IPS 2016 3. Specific challenges experienced in accessing rights in cities. “Right to the city”: It is an academic construct.
 In the 1960s, the increasing economic role of cities and the perception that this led to a private domination in the organisation of space led to the affirmation of a “right to the city”. This calls for cities to be “returned” to communities, who should have an opportunity to shape cities collectively.
- Right to the City: Some Current Challenges • Citizen participation in the configuration and coordination of territory as basic space and foundation for peaceful life and coexistence.
• House evictions and problems in access to housing • Limited access to public space because of the absence of spaces for collective gathering, commercial occupation of spaces, etc.
• Rise of security agendas, including restrictions of fundamental freedoms and rise of private security providers.
2.3.4. Why Cities can Guarantee Human Rights Better A. Rights are secured better where democracy exists, and nowadays cities are better positioned for this. This could be exemplified by protection of rights of migrants, people with disabilities, LGBT communities, etc.
B. Rights flourish in diverse and multicultural communities.
C. Public goods increasingly reflect global human rights and are embraced by urban areas — Interdependence of “local” and “global”.
Cities have been increasingly involved in human rights debates, as a result of decentralisation, tensions with central governments and specific challenges such as those embodied in the “right to the city”.
- Key governance-related challenges in cities A. Implementation of the subsidiarity principle: In equal conditions, competences should be exercised by the governmental level closer to citizens.
B. Inadequacy of decentralisation and actual capacities and competences. Often, competences are decentralised without proper attribution of financial resources.
C. Making citizen participation effective, beyond voting, for example, through consultation and engagement. Weakness of civil society organisations.
D. Corruption and limited transparency. How to move towards accountability.
Current challenges include citizen participation, housing, public space and security agendas.
Challenges of governance of cities include the implementation of the subsidiarity principle, limited capacities and competences and transparency, among others.
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