Fonaments: UK Exam (2015)Resumen Inglés
|Universidad||Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB)|
|Grado||Traducción e Interpretación - 3º curso|
|Asignatura||Fonaments per a la mediació cultural en traducció i interpretació|
|Año del apunte||2015|
|Fecha de subida||16/12/2015|
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Hofstede’s layers of culture:
It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how
these values relate to behaviour, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
• Symbols = words, gestures, pictures, or objects that carry a particular meaning which is only recognized by those who share a particular • Heroes are persons, past or present, real or fictitious, who possess characteristics that are highly prized in a culture. They also serve as models for behaviour.
• Rituals are collective activities, considered as socially essential. (ways of greetings, paying respect to others, religious and social ceremonies, etc.).
Examen UK Fonaments S.XX MOST IMPORTANT YEARS 1912: Titanic 1914: Suffragettes movement 1918: WWI 1930’s: car 1939-45: WWII 1953: Coronation St. Party 1962: Miniskirts (economy increases) 1966: World Cup 1967: Color TV/ Immigration 1984: Miner’s strike Examen UK Fonaments BRITAIN AS A NATION Britain: before, it was a simple nation, an island.
1536: England and Wales join together.
1707: Act of Union unites England and Scotland > Great Britain 1801-192:1 Ireland added > United Kingdom 1921: Division of Ireland (Eire) > United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Examen UK Fonaments STANDARD ENGLISH, RP AND BBC Before the BBC, there were a lot of regional dialects.
The Golden Triangle: Oxford, Cambridge and London (wealthy families, well-educated population).
They decided to set this dialect (the correct English), standardize it as the broadcasting English. Globalization of English.
Examen UK Fonaments EDUCATION IN ENGLAND – CULTURAL REFERENCES Grammar school: originally a school teaching classical languages but more recently an academically oriented secondary school.
First Grammar School Canterbury: - To teach Latin in preparation mainly for reading (aloud) and for entry to the Church.
- Grammar, rhetoric, law, poetry, astronomy, natural history, arithmetic, geometry, music, and the Scriptures.
1066 Norman Conquest: - Secular education - French replaces English - Translation by the schoolboys of Latin no longer into English but into NormanFrench 12th century: - Church controlled and secular schools - The monasteries fought back and tried to regain control of the schools.
- Rhetoric becomes as important as grammar and students study the work of Aristotle on logic.
Liberal Education - a preparation for the specialised study of law, medicine, or theology - began to develop: - The Seven Liberal Arts (the trivium of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, the quadrivium of music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy) Examen UK Fonaments 13th century: - Oxford: 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.
1209 -> Cambridge 1226 Organisation with Chancellor mainly to study Arts (rhetoric, grammar and logic) 1349: Black Death (peste negra) INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS 15th century – grammar and song schools joined by ‘independent schools’ National intake -> ‘Public’ schools RENASISSANCE AND REFORMATION Henry VIII and Protestantism New grammar schools - supervised by Church and State William Tynsdale’s New English Bible 16th/17th centuries English Renaissance: Writers: William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More, Francis Bacon, Sir Philip Sidney and John Milton, Examen UK Fonaments TOWARDS A NATIONAL SYSTEM 1660 Reformation of the Monarchy – universities discriminate against non-conformists Urbanisation -> Charity Schools Late 18th century. Industrial Revolution and National state education System NEW TYPES OF SCHOOL - Sunday schools - Industrial schools - Monitorial schools (parrot fashion) - Infant schools - Elementary schools - Technical schools MAIN LEGISLATION TO 1944 Preparatory schools -> fee-paying primary schools 1840 Grammar School Act The Grammar Schools Act 1840 made it lawful to apply the income of grammar schools to purposes other than the teaching of classical languages Great English public schools: Eton, Westminster, Winchester and Harrow Elementary Education Act 1880 insisted on compulsory attendance from 5–10 years.
Fisher Education Act 1918 made secondary education compulsory up to age 14 Examen UK Fonaments Education Act 1944, relating to England and Wales, "the Butler Act", defined the modern split between primary education and secondary education at age 11; it also established the Tripartite System, consisting of grammar schools, secondary modern schools andsecondary technical schools.
TODAY - 1988 Education Reform Act (option of Home Schooling Competition between state schools and choice - 1997 -2010 Academies (private + public $) - Community Schools (LA $) - 2011 Free Schools (Tax payers$) - Foundation Schools (governors) - Voluntary aided (may be Faith Schools or non-denominational) - Voluntary controlled (Church schools and charities) - 3 City Technology Colleges - Grammar Schools SCHOOL EXAMS 1918 - School Certificate (16) - Higher School Certificate (18) 1951 - GCE O level (Ordinary Level) Examen UK - Fonaments GCE A level (Advanced Level) 1986 GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) 2000 AS level (Advanced Subsidiary level) 2001 Entry Level certificate VIDEO EDUCTATION IN ENGLAND Multiracial schools 1930s: o Group gymnastics o Single sex o Architecture: classical, gothic o Learning how to walk straight (book on the head) – comportment -> future wives Post WWII: o Milk during morning break: because families couldn’t afford to give milk to the children at home.
Examen UK Fonaments THE WELFARE STATE Allowing people to live happily Education Health Benefits Introduced in 1945. Just after the end of the war. Britain had already experienced a depression and crisis (the crash of 39), there were rising prices, unemployment… So when the war began, this depression went worse. The government started to think of some solutions, proposals to solve and reduce the problem. The Liberal Politician William Beveridge, described the 5 “giants on the road of reconstruction”: Poverty: to solve it > income > employment Disease: national health service, for everyone.
Ignorance: public schools, obligatory Squalor (bad conditions): housing. The first social housing. The council houses were sold off very cheaply.
Idleness: increase the nº of jobs available to people > nationalization. Many industries were nationalized. So that the government could control the nº of jobs, etc.
MEASURES: Family Allowances Act (child benefits): some money for each child after the first. (familia nombrosa) National Insurance Act: sick pay (baja) and unemployment pay (6 months) National Insurance – Industrial Injuries Act: for people injured at work.
Examen UK Fonaments National Assistance Act: for anybody in need (the last defence against extreme poverty) National Health Service Act: it is still free, (only for the British) 1944 Education Act: the school-leaving age at 15, and introduced free secondary schools. Pupils took test that determined whether they went to grammar school (for academic pupils), secondary modern school (teaching practical subjects), or technical school (to teach practical skills).
Town and Country Planning Act: green belt for rural area New Towns Act: building of new towns.
Children’s Act: for those ones who have been “deprived of a normal life” Marshall Aid: for industry One of the causes of the economic problem of the 1920s was The Gold Standard BRITISH POLITICAL SYSTEM 1066: William of Normandy invaded England and became king. He introduced a new way of making decision (Feudal system). King + a group of Lords.
1215: The Lords wanted more power. > The Magna Carta. The King couldn’t decide anything by his own, he needed the Lords. >> Constitutional Monarch. But the Constitution is not coded.
PARLIAMENT 3 elements: The Queen in Parliament (under God) o represented in the Houses by the mace Examen UK Fonaments o role in state openin gof parliament o closing (proroguing) o granting royal assent to bills passed Bicameral system: The Upper House (House of Lords, House of Peers) The Lower House (House of Commons, “the Commons”) THE ROLE OF THE PARLIAMENT: - Check and challenge the work of the Government (scrutiny) - Make and change laws (legislation) - Debate the important issues of the day (debating) - Check and approve Government spending (budget/taxes) The main business of Parliament takes place in the two Houses. Generally the decisions made in one House have to be approved by the other.
THE HOUSE OF LORDS - 800 members - Life Peers - Hereditary Peers - Bishops (obispos) Examen UK THE HOUSE OF COMMONS 650 MPs (Members of Parliament) > they vote 1 MP > The speaker THE GOVERNMENT - The Prime Minister - The Cabinet (Secretaries of State and Department Ministers) - The Chancellor of the Exchequer (Hacienda, Tesoro Público) - The Opposition LOCAL COUNCIL Country councils - education - transport - planning - fire and public safety - social care - libraries - waste management - trading standards District, borough and city councils - rubbish collection - recycling Fonaments Examen UK - Council Tax collections - housing - planning applications Fonaments Examen UK Fonaments MEDIA IN THE UK NEWSPAPERS It’s a very national factor, everyone reads them 2 types of newpaper’s format · Tabloid: small size. “Easy to swallow”, easy news. Serious, quality newspapers.
· Broadsheet 10 London-based national titles sell an average of 9,540,993 a day 68 English regional dailies (mornings and evenings) together sell 2,085,115 6 Scottish dailies 6 Welsh 3 Northern Ireland Newspaper titles: “Fleed Street” (?), MAIN TITLES AND POLITICAL ALLEGIANCE Daily Express – conservative Financial Times – Labour The Guardian – Labour The Independent – Labour/Liberal Dem The Times – (before: Conservative, when Tonny Blair was the Prime Minister) Labour Daily Mail – Conservative The Sun – (before: Conservative) Labour Examen UK Fonaments THE FOURTH ESTATE Parliament: · Lords Spiritual · Lords Temporal · Commons Tool for scrutinizing government SIMBOLIC DISTINCTION (BORDIEU) - STEREOTYPES · Financial Times Reader: (before: business man, rich, conservative - black umbrella, hat, suit) · Guardian Reader: a liberal politically, industry, labour · Daily Mail reader: a lot of women, middle class, don’t like immigrants, conservative · White van man: aggressive driver self employed, lower middle class, own business · Worcester woman: undecided voter, lower middle class, countryside.
RADIO First radio broadcast: news and entertainment (concerts) When the BBC was set up: big life line for people, and promoted a sort of values (common moral, unity). Not commercial.
BBC 1: youth (music and talks) BBC 2: adults (musical talks) BBC 3: classical and serious music, drama Examen UK Fonaments BBC 4: news, documentary, drama, “intelligent speech”, clamed. Soap opera: The Archers BBC Asian Network: news, features and music for British Asians Capital Xtra: commercial (Flaix fm...) THE EVOLUTION OF POP MUSIC 60’ : BBC was the only radio station that played music US: promotion of the hippie movement, but the UK banned it (sex, drugs...) Pirate Radio Stations: Radio Caroline North, Radio Carolina South… Punk Rock (BBC also banned it) until was championed in the UK because of a DJ (John Peel?) and punk rock began to be broadcasted.