Caso Práctico Beyoncé (2016)

Apunte Español
Universidad Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC)
Grado Publicidad y Relaciones Públicas - 3º curso
Asignatura Estructura del sistema de medios
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 29
Fecha de subida 04/10/2017
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Aunque es breve el temario, es conciso y es lo que el profesor requiere en la asignatura. Además de complementar con los casos prácticos que el mismo propone en clase. Importante asistencia a clase, muchas cosas de las dichas en clase en el examen son puestas

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ESTRUCTURA DEL SISTEMA DE MEDIOS  CASO PRÁCTICO 1 Prof. Javier López Villanueva PRINCIPALES CUESTIONES A TRATAR 1.- ¿Qué estrategia siguió Beyoncé con su disco? 2.- ¿En qué medida crees que el lanzamiento fue diferente a otros de la industria de la música? 3.- ¿Qué reacciones negativas se pueden dar en la cadena de valor de la música con lanzamientos de este tipo? 4.- ¿Qué nos señalan estos desarrollos del papel y el poder de las estrellas?   9 - 515 - 036 R  E  V  :     O  C  T  O  B  E  R     2  0  ,     2  0  1  4           A  N  I  T  A   E  L  B  E  R  S  E   S  T  A  C  I  E     S  M  I  T  H     Beyoncé     I   remember   seeing   [Michael   Jackson’s]   Thriller   on   television   with   my   family.   It   was   an   event.   We   all   sat   around   the   TV   and   I’m   now   looking   back,   I’m   so   lucky   I   was   born   around   that   time.   I   miss   that   immersive   experience.  Now  people  only  listen  to  a  few  seconds  of  a  song  on  their  iPods.  They  don’t  really  invest  in  a   whole   album.  It’s  all  about  the  single  and  the  hype.  It’s  so  much   that  gets  between  the  music  and  the  artist  and  the   fans.  I  felt  like   ‘I  don’t  want  anybody   to  give  the  message  when  my   record   is  coming   out.  I  just  want   this  to   come  out  when  it’s  ready,  and  from  me  to  my  fans.’  I  told  my  team  ‘I  want  to  shoot  a  video  for  every  song  and   put  them  all  out  at  the  same  time.’  Everyone  thought  I  was  crazy,  but  we’re  actually  doing  it.  It’s  happening.   —  Beyoncé,  explaining  her  December  2013  album     release   It   was   a   few   minutes   after   midnight   on   December   13,   2013.   While   Parkwood   Entertainment   president   and   chief   executive   officer   Beyoncé   Knowles—known  simply  as  Beyoncé,   and   one   of   the   music  world’s  biggest  superstars—was  on  a  flight  to  Chicago  from  Louisville  where  she  had  given  a   concert,  her  company’s  Manhattan  office  was  still  buzzing  with  activity.  Lee  Anne  Callahan-­‐Longo,   Parkwood’s  general  manager,  was  staring  at  her  computer  screen  and  hit  ‘refresh’  one  more  time.   And  that’s  when  she  finally  saw  the  change  she  and  her  colleagues  had  been  eagerly  anticipating:   Beyoncé’s   new,   self-­‐titled   album   was   now   available   for   downloading   via   the   Apple   iTunes   Store.   Within  minutes,  Callahan-­‐Longo  would  give  the  green  light  to  share  the  news  that  everyone  involved   had   kept   a   closely   guarded   secret   for   so   long,   using   an   AutoPlay   video   on  Beyoncé’s   Facebook   account  and  a  simple,  one-­‐word  message  on  her  Instagram  account  (see  Exhibit 1):  “Surprise!”   The  release  was  likely  to  do  just  that.  It  was  the  result  of  a  set  of  criteria  that  Beyoncé  herself   had   set  for  her  fifth  solo  album,  explained  Callahan-­‐Longo:  “She  told  us,  ‘I  want  my  fans  to  be  able  to   listen   to   it   first   without   any   filters,   and   I   want   it   to   be   a   visual   album   that   has   a   video   for   every  song,   and  I  don’t  want  the  album  to  leak.’”  The  team  at  Parkwood,  which  Callahan-­‐Longo  described  as  “a   management,   music,   and   production   company   that   is   owned   and   at   the   highest   level   operated   by   an   artist,”  had  chosen  to  release  the  entire  album  at  once  and  exclusively  via  iTunes,  without  any  prior   promotion—a   significant,   and   potentially   very   risky,   departure   from   how   music   was   traditionally   released.  Sony  Music’s  label  Columbia  Records,  with  whom  Parkwood  partnered  on  recorded-­‐music   activities,  shared  the  costs—and  therefore  also  the  risk—of  the  album,  which  had  been  one-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half   years  in  development  and  was  a  particularly  expensive  proposition  because  of  the  many  videos.   Tonight,  the  two  dozen  Parkwood  and  Sony  employees  who  had  been  at  Parkwood’s  offices  all   evening  to  help  execute  the  daring  launch  would  get  a  first  glimpse  at  the  market’s  response.  How   would   fans   and   music   industry   insiders   react?   Would   the   album   be   able   to   find   a   large   enough   audience  even  without  traditional  promotional  activities?  And  would  there  be  any  adverse  reactions,   for  instance  from  traditional  music  retailers  refusing  to  carry  the  physical  album  later?  As  Beyoncé’s   plane  descended  into  Chicago,  she  would  soon  learn  whether  her  big  gamble  was  paying  off.         Professor   Anita   Elberse   and   Stacie   Smith   (MBA   2014)   prepared   this   case.   It   was   reviewed   and   approved   before   publication     by     a     company   designate.   Funding   for   the   development   of   this   case   was   provided   by   Harvard   Business   School   and   not   by   the   company.     HBS     cases     are   developed   solely   as   the   basis   for   class   discussion.   Cases   are   not   intended   to   serve   as   endorsements,   sources   of   primary   data,     or   illustrations     of   effective    or    ineffective  management.     Copyright  ©  2014  President  and  Fellows  of  Harvard  College.  To  order  copies  or  request  permission  to  reproduce  materials,  call  1-­‐800-­‐545-­‐7685,   write   Harvard   Business   School   Publishing,   Boston,   MA   02163,   or   go   to   www.hbsp.harvard.edu.   This   publication   may   not   be   digitized,   photocopied,  or  otherwise  reproduced,  posted,  or  transmitted,  without  the  permission  of  Harvard  Business  School.           515-036 Beyoncé The Music Industry in 2013 The  Market  for  Recorded  Music—Physical  and  Digital   By  some  estimates,  the  total  music  market  in  the  United  States,  covering  both  live  and  recorded   music  sales,  was  worth  $15  billion  in  2013.  Already  the  largest  segment  at  close  to  60%  of   revenues,   live  music  revenues  were  expected  to  grow.  As  far  as  recorded  music  was  concerned,  revenues   from   physical  sales  had  been  declining  steadily  in  recent  years,  and  only  accounted  for  15%  of  total  music   revenues   in   2013,   with   digital   sales   making   up   the   remaining   25%.   Within   digital   music,   downloads   (offered  by  retailers  such  as  Apple’s  iTunes  Store)  were  expected  to  remain  dominant,  but  streaming   (for  instance  through  Spotify)  was  expected  to  show  double-­‐digit  growth.  Globally,  recorded   music   alone  was  a  $20  billion  market,  with  physical  revenues  also  being  in  danger  of   being  overtaken  by   digital  revenues  (see  Exhibit 2 for  various  industry  statistics).1     In   the   market   for   paid   downloads,   iTunes   was   the   market   leader   in   the   US   with   an   estimated   share  of  close  to  65%.2   After  enabling  its  25-­‐billionth  download  in  February  2013,  Apple  revealed  that   its  store  averaged  15,000  downloaded  songs  per  minute,  totaling  $1.7  billion  in  revenues  in  the  last   quarter  of  2012  alone.3   Apple  was  thought  to  have  600  million  iTunes  user  accounts,  the  lion’s  share   enabling  “one-­‐click  buying”  without  the  need  to  re-­‐enter  credit-­‐card  information.  In  June  2013,  Apple   had   introduced   a   free,   advertising-­‐supported   Internet   radio   service,   iTunes   Radio.4   Many   industry   insiders   believed   the   move   to   be   a   competitive   response   to   the   rapid   rise   of   streaming   services   such   Spotify,   which   gave   users   access   to   an   assortment   of   millions   of   songs,   either   supported   by   an   advertising  model  or  by  a  subscription  model  with  a  user  fee  of  around  $10  a  month.   The  iTunes  Store’s  dominant  position  in  digital  music  made  it  also  the  biggest  player  in  the  overall   market   for   recorded   music.   Apple’s   share   was   estimated   to   be     around     40%,     followed     by     Walmart   with   10%,   Amazon   with   9%   and   Target   with   5%.5   The   rise   of   online   distribution   channels   facilitated   the  ‘unbundling’  of  music,  allowing  music  consumers  to  download  or  stream  individual  songs   rather   than   full   albums.   That,   in   turn,   had   hurt   album   sales.   So   far   in   2013,   Justin   Timberlake’s   The   20/20   Experience  –  1  of  2   was   the   only   album   to   sell   over   two   million   copies,   marking   it   the   lowest   top-­‐seller   since    Nielsen  SoundScan  began  tracking  recorded-­‐music         sales.6   Releasing  Music       Most   up-­‐and-­‐coming   and   established   artists   of   some   popularity   were   signed   to   record   companies   that   helped   them   record,   distribute,   and   market   music.   In   2013,   after   years   of   industry   consolidation,   there   were   three   large-­‐scale,   ‘major’   record   companies   left:   Universal   Music   Group,   Sony   Music   Entertainment,   and   Warner   Music.   Each   covered   various   so-­‐called  imprints   or  ‘labels’  with  their   own   rosters   of   oftentimes   dozens   of   artists.   Sony,   for   instance,   had   three   premier   labels:   Columbia   Records,    Epic,    and     RCA.   When   marketing   new   albums,   the   major   labels   often   relied   on   what   Rob   Stringer,   chairman   of   Columbia   Records,   referred   to   as   “the   machinery   to   launch   a   record,”   which   typically   included   securing  “promotional  appearances,  radio  airplay,  and  other  ways  to  generate  hype  before  the   record   comes  out.”  He  explained:  “You  go   to   radio   with   one   or   more   singles   three   months   before   the   album   release   date,   you   launch   a   video,   and   you   pick   one   or   more   big   television   benchmarks   like   the   MTV   Awards   or   the   American   Idol   finale.”   Once   the   album   was   out,   the   labels   relied   on   additional   single   releases   to   trigger   radio   airplay   and   on   other   promotional   opportunities   to   sustain   interest.   “A   big   opening   is   crucial,   but   the   typical   cycle   for   a   Beyoncé   album   is   at   least   52   weeks,”   said   Jim   Sabey,   Parkwood’s  head  of  worldwide  marketing.   In   recent   years,   however,   artists   and   their   labels   had   on   occasion   deviated   from   this   blueprint—   even   for   very   high-­‐profile   albums   (also   see   Exhibit 3).   Earlier   in   2013,   for   example,   superstar   rapper   JAY   Z—Beyoncé’s   husband   of   five   years—released   his   album   Magna   Carta…   Holy   Grail   by   making   a   deal   with   electronics   giant   Samsung.   On   July   4,   one   million     Samsung     Galaxy     cell-­‐phone     and     tablet   users   could   download   the   album   free   of   charge,   72   hours   before   the   album   was   available   in   physical       2     Beyoncé   515-036 and   digital   stores.   The   first-­‐of-­‐its-­‐kind   partnership,   rumored   to   have   cost   Samsung   $5   million,   was   announced   with   a   lengthy   commercial   that   ran   during   the   National   Basketball     Association     (NBA)   Finals   in   June.7   A   month   earlier,   hip-­‐hop   artist   Kanye   West   opted   not   to   release   a   single   to   radio   for   his   new   album,   Yeezus,   released   in   June.   Instead,   he   promoted   his   album   by   unveiling   the   song   New   Slaves   through   video   projections   in   over   sixty   locations   around   the   world.   He   also   chose   not   to   offer   pre-­‐orders,    which  normally    counted    towards  first-­‐week   sales.8   Beyoncé, the Artist Described  as  “the  most  important  and  compelling  popular  musician  of  the  twenty-­‐first  century”9   by  The  New  Yorker  in  2013,  Beyoncé  Giselle  Knowles  was  born  on  September  4,  1981.  She  grew  up  in   the   Third   Ward   district   of   Houston,   Texas,   and   was   raised   in   an   upper-­‐middle   class   family   by   her   parents   Mathew   Knowles,   a   sales   manager,   and   Tina   Beyincé,   a   hair   salon   owner.   It   was   a   dance   instructor,   Darlette   Johnson,   who   first   discovered   Beyoncé’s   singing   talents.   Recognizing   that   Beyoncé   lit   up   when   she   took   the   stage,   her   parents   went   to   great   strides   to   nurture   her   passion.   At   age   seven,   she   began   performing   at   local   singing   and   dancing   competitions.   Two   years   later,   she   joined  a   girls   group   named  Girl’s  Tyme.  After  making  a   name  for  themselves   in  the   Houston  area,   they   debuted   nationally   in   1992   on   the   television   show   Star   Search   with   what   host   Ed   McMahon   described  as  “a  hip-­‐hop  rapping”  performance.  (They  did  not  win).   Although   the   early   years   were   very   much   a   Knowles’   family     affair,     with     Beyoncé’s     father   managing,   her   mother   providing   wardrobe   and   styling,   her   sister   Solange   dancing   backup,   and   rehearsals  often  taking  place  at  the  Knowles’  family  home,  the  group—by  then  evolved  into  Destiny’s   Child—got   professional   support   when   they   signed   with   Columbia   Records   in   1996.   Destiny’s   Child   self-­‐titled   debut   album,   released   in   1998,   generated   one   major   hit   with   No,   No,   No,   Part   2.   But   the   group  truly  conquered  the  music  charts  with  the  1999  follow-­‐up  release,  The  Writing’s  on  the  Wall,  that   featured  singles  like  Bug  a  Boo,  Jumpin’  Jumpin’,  Bills,  Bills,  Bills,  and  Say  My  Name.  Beyoncé’s  hip-­‐hop-­‐   inspired   vocals   on   the   latter   song   in   particular   were   credited   with   more   fully   positioning   her   at   center   stage.   Despite   rapid   shifts   in  the   group’s  membership,   the   hits  kept   coming,   turning   Destiny’s  Child   into   the   best-­‐selling   female   group   of   all   time.10   In   2001,   Beyoncé   and   her   fellow     group     members   decided  to  pursue  solo     careers.   Studio  Albums   Beyoncé   released   four   Billboard-­‐chart-­‐topping   studio   albums   between   2003   and   2011   (see   Exhibit 4 for  her  discography  and   Exhibit 5 for  more  information   on  her  solo  albums).11   Dangerously   In   Love. Beyoncé’s   highly   anticipated   first   solo   album,   which   she   co-­‐executive   produced   and   largely   wrote   herself,   was   launched   on   June   24,   2003—Columbia   hastened   to   release   it   two   weeks   before   its   original   due   date   because   several   tracks   leaked   early.12   The   album   featured   a   mixture   of   ballads,   mid-­‐tempo   and   up-­‐tempo   songs,   some   hip-­‐hop   collaborations,   and   lyrics   that   centered   on   romance.   The   addictive   “uh-­‐oh”   hook   and   high-­‐profile   collaboration   with   her   then-­‐   rumored   boyfriend   JAY   Z   made   Crazy   in   Love   an   obvious   choice   for   lead-­‐off   single.   The   album   was   promoted   through   heavy   radio   airplay   and   televised   performances   such   as  Saturday   Night   Live,   The   Today   Show   and   even   a  pay-­‐per-­‐view   television   special   in   the   weeks   leading   up  to   the   launch.   The   efforts  paid  off:  Dangerously  in  Love  debuted  at  number  one  on  the  Billboard  Top  200  album  chart,  and   went    on    to    sell    eleven    million    copies    worldwide.    Hit    single    Crazy    in    Love    spent    eight         consecutive   weeks   at   number   one   on   the   Billboard   Hot   100.   In   addition,   although   some   critics   had   challenged   the   maturity   of   her   ballad   style   and   cited   missteps   in   the   latter   half   of   the   album,13   Dangerously   in   Love   earned  Beyoncé  five  Grammys.       14   B’Day. Released   in   September   2006   on   her   twenty-­‐fifth     birthday,     Beyoncé’s     sophomore   solo   album   was   inspired   by   her   starring   role   in   the   Hollywood   film   Dreamgirls,   which   captured   the   evolution   of   R&B   music   in   the   1960s   and   1970s   through   the   perspective   of   one   of   its   bestselling   acts,   The    Supremes.15      She    recorded    the    album    shortly    after    filming    ended.  “I  had  so  many  things   bottled       3     515-036 Beyoncé up,   so   many   emotions,   so   many   ideas,   that   while   I   was   supposed   to   be   on   vacation   I   snuck   into   the   studio   and   recorded   this   album   in   two   weeks,”   she   remembered.   “I   had   a   lot   to   say."16   The   album   included   catchy   songs   such   as   Déjà   Vu   (a   song,   featuring   JAY   Z,   which     would     become     the     first   single),   Irreplaceable,   and   Beautiful   Liar.   Helped   by   the   promotion   and   buzz   around   the   film,   the   three   songs   became   bona   fide   hits,   and   the   album   again   debuted   on   the   Billboard   chart’s   top   position.   It   went   on   to   sell   eight   million   copies   worldwide,   and   was   nominated   for   seven   Grammys.     Seven   months   after   B’Day’s   original   launch,   Beyoncé   released   a   double-­‐disc   deluxe   edition   that   included   three   new   tracks,   as   well   as   the   B’Day   Anthology   Video   Album   DVD.   The   latter   showcased   thirteen   videos  and    was  initially  sold    exclusively  at  retail  chain         Walmart.17   I   AM…   Sasha   Fierce. Beyoncé   took   more   time   to   record   her   third   solo   album,   which   was   released   in   November   2008.   She   co-­‐wrote   or   co-­‐produced   all   sixteen   songs   that   appeared   on   the   album.   It   was   formatted   as   a   dual   disc   album   with   one   I  AM…  side   and   one   Sasha  Fierce  alter   ego   side,  showing  the  contrasts  within  Beyoncé  and  her  artistry:  “The  music  is  upbeat  for  the  dance,  fun   side,   and   it   is   reflective,   passionate   and   serious   for   the   personal   side,”   she   said.18   In   the   weeks   preceding  the  release,  Beyoncé  performed  the  album’s  first  two  singles,  Single  Ladies   (Put  A  Ring  On   It)  and  If  I  Were  a  Boy,  at  the  MTV  Europe  Music  Awards,  on  The  Oprah  Winfrey  Show,  and  during  other   television  appearances.  The  promotion  frenzy  continued  after  the  album  hit  stores,  for  instance  with  a   parody  of  the  Single  Ladies  music  video  on  NBC’s  Saturday  Night  Live  (with  Andy  Samberg,   Bobby   Moynihan   and   Justin   Timberlake   as   her   hilarious   backup   dancers).   The   album   again   topped   the   charts   and   even   received   a   Grammy   nod   for   Album   of   the   Year.19   In   fact,   Beyoncé   became   the   first   female  artist  to  win  six  Grammys  in  one  year  in  2009  (including  the  Song  of  the  Year  award  for  her   smash  hit  Single  Ladies),  and  tied  the  record  for  most  awards  won  in  a  decade  by  a  female  artist  with   sixteen  in  total  in  the  2000s.  Billboard  named  her  Woman  of  the  Year  in  2009.   4. Beyoncé’s   fourth   album—fittingly   named     4—was     released     in     late     June     2011.     “It     was   recorded  over  a-­‐year-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half  period  while  she  was  on  tour,”  said  Sabey.  Beyoncé  delivered   dozens   of   songs   and   ultimately   chose   twelve   for   an   album   that   was   a   mix   of   sassy   up-­‐tempo   and   mid-­‐tempo   tracks   and   soft   ballads,   based   in   rhythm   and   blues   but   with   funk,   hip   hop,   and   soul   influences.   She   performed   on   a   series   of   television   shows   in   April   and   May,   most   notably     on     The   Oprah     Winfrey   Show’s  final  episode,  the  Billboard  Music  Awards,   and   on   American  Idol.   MTV   aired   a   television   special,   Beyoncé:   Year   of   4.   A   deluxe   edition   was   sold   exclusively   at   retail     chain     Target.     Although     the     full   album   leaked   online   more   than   two   weeks   before   the   scheduled   release   and   did   not   produce   a   number-­‐one   single,   it   was   Beyoncé’s   fourth   consecutive   solo   album   to   debut   at   number   one   on   the   Billboard   chart.   And   4   was   received   favorably:   critics   praised   the   album   for   its   fusion   of   genres,   excellent   tracks,   Beyoncé’s   strong   vocal   ability,   and   the   creative   exploration   of   her   talents.20   It   also   gave  Beyoncé  her  17th  Grammy,  for  Best  Traditional  R&B  Performance  (for   Love  on  Top).   Touring   In   addition   to   releasing   recorded   music,   Beyoncé   toured   frequently   (see   Exhibit 6).   “At   the   core   of   her   being,   she   is   a   performer,”   said   Sabey.   She   toured   Europe   in   2003   in   support   of   her   first   solo   album,   Dangerously  in  Love.   By   2007,   she   played   close   to   a   hundred   shows   across   the   world   as   part   of   her   The   Beyoncé   Experience   tour,   grossing   $90   million.   Six   years   later,   her   resume   included   more   350   shows   performed   on   six   continents,   drawing   an   estimated   ten   million   fans.   Her   fifth   world   tour,  The   Mrs.  Carter  Show   World  Tour,   had   commenced   in   April   2013   and   covered   132   shows   in   69   cities   in   27   countries   over   an   eleven-­‐month   period.  “It   takes   about   a  hundred   people   to   put   the   stage   up   each   night   and   make   sure   everything   is   safe   before   they   take   things   down   and   move   them   to   another   city   to  start  the  process   over  again”  said  Callahan-­‐Longo,  adding:  “And  what  it  takes  for  her  to  do  these   shows…   most   fans   have   no   idea.   It’s   like   running   a   marathon   every   night.   The   stamina   it   takes   to   sing,   dance,   remember   all   of   that,   do   it   all   in   a   cohesive   fashion—and   make   it   look   effortless—is   the   gift  of  a  truly  talented  and    well-­‐rehearsed       performer.”             4     Beyoncé 515-036 Beyoncé  in  2013     By  2013,  living  up  to  her  nickname  “Queen  Bey,”  Beyoncé  was  one  of  the  most  accomplished  and   recognized   entertainers   globally.   The   year   had   been   full   of   highlights.   She   performed   the   Star-­‐‑   Spangled  Banner  for  the  nation  at  President  Barack  Obama’s  2013  Inaugural  Ceremony.  Less  than  two   weeks  later,  she  performed  in  the  coveted  halftime  show  at  the  2013  NFL  Super  Bowl,  a  performance   that   drew   an   estimated   104   million   television   viewers   in   the   United   States.21   “She   did   a   ton   of   research  for  that  show  alone,”  said  Sabey.  “She  watched  every  Super  Bowl  performance  to  see  what   made   some   great   and   others   not.”   A   few   weeks   later,   Beyoncé’s   self-­‐directed   and   self-­‐produced   documentary,   Life  is  But  a   Dream,  aired   on   HBO   along   with   a   corresponding   interview   with   Oprah   Winfrey   on   the   OWN   network.  The  Mrs.  Carter  Show  World  Tour,  announced  less  than  an  hour   after   her  Super  Bowl  performance,  sold  out  in  minutes.22  It  was  on  track  to  collect  more  than  $200  million   in  revenues,  making  it  the  highest-­‐grossing  female  solo  tour  of  the  year  (also  see  Exhibit 6).   Beyoncé, the Chief Executive Officer Establishing  Parkwood  Entertainment   In  2008,  Beyoncé  established  her  own  company,  Parkwood  Entertainment,    named  after    the     street   she   grew   up   on   in   Houston.   Initially   primarily   a   production   vehicle,   by   2011   it   had   become   a   fully-­‐   staffed   entertainment   company   with   management,   production,   digital,   marketing,   and   publicity   departments.   “She   had   been   managed   by   her   father   her   entire   career,”   said   Callahan-­‐Longo.   “But   after   fourteen   years   in   the   business   she   felt   it   was   time   for   her   to   really   go   out   on   her   own.   So   she   assembled  a  team  and  built   a  support  system  that  could  execute   her  decisions.”   A   logical   choice   for   Parkwood’s   general   manager   was   Callahan-­‐Longo,   with   whom   Beyoncé   had   worked   at   Sony   and   subsequently   at   Music   World,   Mathew   Knowles’   management   firm.   “Our   goals   here   at   Parkwood   are   to,   at   any   means   possible,   accomplish   what   she   wants   to   do,”   Callahan-­‐Longo   said.   “She   always   comes   up   with   big   ideas.”   Callahan-­‐Longo   described   herself   as   “a   dream   maker,”   adding:  “It  is  amazing  to  line  up  behind  someone  who  is  so  incredibly  gifted.”   Also  a  member  of  the   team   from   the   start   was   Jim   Sabey,   who   previously   had     served     as     senior     vice     president     of   international   marketing   at   Sony   and   had   worked   for   Mariah   Carey.   At   Parkwood,   he   took   on   the   role   of   head   of   worldwide   marketing.   He   clarified:   “My   role   in   the   organization   is   to   be   analytical—to   understand   and   present   the   facts   behind   decisions,   and   to   know   what   is   happening   in     the   marketplace.”   Sabey  recalled  the  early  days:  “At  the  beginning  it  was  all  about  taking  control  of  the  relationships   —to  work  on  getting  our  arms  around  the  existing  contracts,  agreements,  partnerships,  and  so  on…   You  can  imagine  the  number  of  arrangements  that  exists  for  a  superstar  at  her  level.”  He  added:   “The   goal  was  for  the  company  to  assume    full  control  of  brand         Beyoncé.”   The  Boss   Beyoncé   took   on   the   role   of   president   and   chief   executive   officer   at   Parkwood     Entertainment.   It   wasn’t   just  an  honorary  title;  she   led   and   was  intimately  involved  in  all  major  initiatives.  “Make  no   mistake—she   really   is   the   boss,”   remarked   Sabey.   Callahan-­‐Longo   agreed:   “It   is   disheartening   that   there  are  still  stories   written  where  people  assume   that  just  because   she  is  a  woman,  there  is  a  person   other  than  herself  running  her       business.”     When   she   was   not   on   tour,   Beyoncé   could   regularly   be   found   at  Parkwood’s  offices  in  Manhattan.   “She   doesn’t   often   sit   in   her   office,   though,”   noted   Callahan-­‐Longo.   “She   usually   walks   from   one   office  to  the  other,  speaking    with  the    staff.  She’ll  come  to  my  office  and  talk  to  me,  or  she  will  sit     in   the   back   and   give   notes   on   projects   we   are   working   on.   Or   she’ll   sit   in   Jim’s   office   and   talk   about   marketing   opportunities.”   She   remained   an   artist   first   and   foremost,   said   Callahan-­‐Longo:   “She   has   got  a  really  good  sense  of  the  business  side,  but  she  doesn’t  like   to  live  there   always.   We   often  laugh   5     515-036 Beyoncé about   how   an   hour   into   a   business   meeting   she   will   get   up   and   will   start   walking   around.   I   can   see   it   then—that  I’ve  lost  her,  and   that  I   have  satiated  the  amount   of  business  that  she   wants   to  discuss  that   day.  I’ll  usually  say  something  like  ‘Let’s  stop.  You  are  going  to  say  ‘yes’,  but  you  are  not  listening  to   me  anymore.’  She  knows  herself,  will  laugh,   and  say  ‘You   are   absolutely   right,  I  am  done.’  Because   at   the  end  of  the  day  she  is  an  artist,  and  her  passion  for  art  drives  her.”     Asked  to  describe  Beyoncé  the  business  woman,  Callahan-­‐Longo  noted:  “She  is  smart,   reasonable,   clear   on   what   she   likes   and   doesn’t   like,   very   open   to   input,   a   great   listener,   and   someone   who   sets   super  high  standards.  She  challenges  every  single  person  who  works  for  her.  It  is  always  ‘Well,   why   can’t  we?  Let’s  try.’”  “She  is  sure  enough  of  her  own  place  in  the  artistic  pendulum  that  she  is   willing   to  take  risks,”  added  Sabey.  “We  work  for  a  woman  who  has  no      fear.“   Over  the  years,  Beyoncé  had  learned  to  delegate  more,  explained  Callahan-­‐Longo:  “She  used  to  be   able   to   work   eighteen   hours   a   day.   But   she   is   a   mother   now,   so   that   doesn’t   suit   her   schedule   anymore.”   New   Parkwood   employees   were   encouraged   to   not   mindlessly   follow   instructions   and   instead  voice  their  own  opinions.  “We  are  very  proud  of  our  staff,”  Callahan-­‐Longo  said.  “We  have  a   team  that  is  intelligent  and  capable  of  contributing  to  Beyoncé’s  creativity,  and  executing  her  plans.”   Joint  Venture  with  Columbia  Records   Parkwood   was  in  a  joint  venture  with  Sony  Music’s  Columbia  Records,   Beyoncé’s  long-­‐time   label.   Its   chairman   Stringer   had   first   met   Beyoncé   when   she   was   still   in   her   teens.   As   part     of     the     joint   venture,   Parkwood   and   Columbia   agreed   to   equally   share   the   costs   of   recorded-­‐music   production,   distribution,   and   marketing,   and   also   share   the   resulting   revenues,   while   Parkwood     was     fully   responsible   for   the   creative   execution.   “We   agree   on   a   budget   beforehand,   but   they   produce   the   album,”   said   Stringer.   “At   some   point   Beyoncé   will   present   us   with   the   album   she   wants   to   release,   and  that’s  when  our  work  distributing  and  marketing  it  begins.”   The   two   parties   worked   closely   together   on   those   tasks,   Stringer   indicated:   “We   discuss   how   we   get   the   record   to   fans,   on   a   global   basis,   and   how  we   engage   our   media   and   retail   partners  around   the   world.   That   is   what   we   are   best   at—we   have   the   closest   links,   and   we   know   what   is   required   in   each   market.   Parkwood   obviously   has   those   links,   too—they   are   a   fully   functioning   company,   with   a   lot   of   in-­‐house   capabilities,   from   video   editing   to   publicity   and   marketing—but   it’s   impossible   for   her   staff   to  reach  the  scale  to  cover  the  entire  world.”   “We  have  an  amazing  partnership  with  Columbia,”  noted  Callahan-­‐Longo.  “They  are  our  boots  on   the   ground—they   help   us   to   go   global.   They   also   help   us   with   a   number   of   practical   matters.   For   instance,  when  we  shoot  videos  and  need  insurance,  they  are  already  completely  set  up,  and  we   can   simply  use  their  contracts  or  accounts.  We  don’t  have  to  reinvent  the  wheel.  Plus,  Rob  Stringer  is  a   big  believer  in  Beyoncé  as  an  artist.  More  so  than  ever  before,  it  takes  a  lot  of  guts  to  get  behind  an   artist  and  make  an  investment  in  them.”  The  Parkwood  team  connected  with  Columbia  on  a  daily   basis,  not  just  with  Stringer  but  also  with  the  label’s  marketing  department,  those  who   oversaw   dealings  with  radio  stations,  and  sales  people  who  were  in  touch  with  retailers.  “There  is  quite  a  lot   of  communication  between  us,”  said  Sabey.   Parkwood  Entertainment  in  2013       By   December   2013,   Parkwood   employed   a   staff   of   around   twenty   people   (see   Exhibit 7 for   an   overview   of   the   organization).   General   manager   Callahan-­‐Longo   oversaw     all     departments     and   activities.  “My  goal  is  to  make  sure  whatever  has  to  get  done  gets  done,  and  figure  out  what  I  have   to   put  on  Beyoncé’s  plate  and  what  I   don’t   have  to   put   on   her  plate,”  she  said.  As  head  of   marketing,   Sabey   was   responsible   for   all   outward   facing   business   activities,   including   marketing   and   brand   partnerships.   Angela   Beyincé   served   as   the   vice   president   of   operations   and   often   handled   human   resources  for  the  company.  “She  works  with  the  brand  managers,  the  art  department,  and  the   other   creative  people,”  said  Sabey.  There  were  also  more  unusual  roles,  said  Sabey:  “We  hired  an     archivist   6     Beyoncé 515-036 who   is   in   charge   of   collecting   Beyoncé’s  photos,   videos,   and   audio   tracks.   We   film   everything   and   have  thousands  of  hours  of  footage  to  be  stored  and  cared  for.”   Parkwood  had  in-­‐house  production  capabilities.  “We  develop  most  of  the    content  that    we  put     on   our   website,   and   we   produce   all   the   content   for   our     brand     partners—we     produced     webisodes     and   even   a   Super   Bowl   commercial   for   Pepsi,   with   whom   we   had   a   partnership,”   said   Sabey.   He   explained   that   Parkwood   was   a   full-­‐service   company:   “We   also     do     all     of     our   merchandising   ourselves,   and   we   even   oversee   concert   tours  from   here.   It  may  be   old-­‐school   style,   but  we   like   to  find   the   right   promoter   in   each   country   to   work   with.   Lee   Anne   runs     the     overall     planning     of     the     tour,   hiring  people,  and  moving  stuff  around,  while  I  focus  on  ticket  sales  and  merchandising.”   In  2013,  Beyoncé’s  star  power  was  perhaps  stronger  than  ever.  “She  is  the  most  sure  of  her  brand   of  any  artist  I  have  worked  with,”  said  Sabey.  Describing  what  her  brand  stood  for,  he  said:  “It’s   about  allowing  women  to  be  who  they  are  and  to  feel  empowered  by  who  they  are.  That’s  the  true   core.   You   can   be   different   and   powerful.   You   can   be   sexual   and   non-­‐compromising.   You   can   be   feminine   and   strong.   All   of   those   juxtaposed   values   can   co-­‐exist  in  one  person,  in  one  woman.”   He   gave   an   example:   “There   is   something   very   real   about   Beyoncé   that   people   connect   with.   She   embodies   that   you   can   wear   a   Givenchy   dress   to   the   Met   Ball   and   jean   shorts   and   a   tank-­‐top   to   Walmart—and  be  just  as  comfortable  in  both  places.”     The  brand  strength  came  with  unique  commercial  opportunities.  ”This  is  the  decade  to  build  her   business,”   said   Callahan-­‐Longo.   In   her   early   years,   Beyoncé   had   endorsed   L’Oreal,   Tommy   Hilfiger,   and   Giorgio   Armani,   among   other   brands.   But   by   2013,   priorities   had   shifted   to   more   independent   initiatives   and   collaborative   partnerships.   For   instance,   Beyoncé   had   her   own   fragrance   line   with   fragrance   company   Coty.   She   had   also   signed   on   to   a   multi-­‐year   collaboration   with   Pepsi,   which   included  promotional  support  as  well  as  a  fund  to  aid  Beyoncé’s  chosen  creative  projects.  Pepsi  ran  a   Beyoncé-­‐themed   Super   Bowl   commercial   in   2013,   printed   her   face   on   a   limited-­‐edition   line   of   Pepsi   cans,   and   sponsored   an   upcoming   film   series.23   “They   were   willing   to   allow   her   to   be   the   creative   curator,”   said   Callahan-­‐Longo.   All   such   partnerships   were   coordinated   by   Parkwood   and   not   by   Columbia   Records,   explained   Stringer:   “She   doesn’t   need   me   to   tell   her   how   to   do   a   brand-­‐   sponsorship  deal.  She  has  a  company  that  does  that  all  that  for    her.”   Beyoncé: The Visual Album Recording  the  Album   In   the   summer   of   2012,   Beyoncé   started   recording   her   fifth   album.   Still   nursing   her   baby   daughter,   Blue   Ivy   Carter,   who   was   born   in   January   2012,   Beyoncé   rented   a   house   in   the   Hamptons   and   invited   a   number   of   collaborators,   including   Hit-­‐Boy,   Sia   and   The-­‐Dream,   to   join   her   there.   “I   was     this   woman,   this   mother   trying   to   get   my   focus   and   my   dreams   and   myself   back,”   she   said.   “And   recording   this   was   such   an   outlet   for   me.”24   Callahan-­‐Longo   recalled   the   unique   environment   vividly:   “We  rented  a  house  for  a  month.  Everyone  would  have  dinner  together  every   night   and   break   off  into   different   rooms   and   work   on   music.   She   had   five   or   six   rooms   going,     each     set     up     as     a     studio,     and   would   go   from   room   to   room   and   say   things   like   ‘I   think   that   song   needs   that   person’s   input.’   Normally  you  would  not  see  songs  have  two  or  more  producers,  but  it  was  really  collaborative.”       Although   the   Hamptons   sessions   yielded   a   number   of   great   ideas,   the   album   was   still   far   from   complete   in   October,   when   Beyoncé,   Callahan-­‐Longo   and   Sabey   sat   down   to   discuss     the     project’s   status.   “The   Super   Bowl   was   coming   up   fast,   and   we   had   booked   the   world   tour   at   that   point,”   recalled   Sabey,   who   initially   had   hoped   to   release   the   new   album   shortly   after   the   Super   Bowl,   in   the   run-­‐up   to   the   new   tour.   He   added:   “But   she   just   wasn’t   finished   yet.”   So   the   album’s   release     was   pushed   back,   and   Beyoncé   continued   to   work   on   it.   Two   songs   were   released   in   the   first   quarter   of   2013,   however:   Grown   Woman   was   used   in   a   Pepsi   commercial,   and   Standing   on   the   Sun   appeared   in   an    advertisement    for    clothing    company   H&M.     7     515-036 Beyoncé Meanwhile,   media  speculation  was  rampant.  “It   was  interesting  to  watch  the   media  try  to  make   sense   of   what   was  going   on,”   said   Sabey.   “What   does   this   mean?   Is  she   adrift?   Is  this   well  thought   out?  The  media  were  going  crazy.”  That,  in  turn,  had  an  impact  on  the  Parkwood  team’s  plans,   noted   Callahan-­‐Longo:  “There  came  a  point  where  we  felt  that  putting  out  one  single  eight  months  after  the   Super   Bowl   was   going   to   feel   anti-­‐climactic.   Even   if   it   would   be   the   new   Stairway   to   Heaven,   it   would   not   have   been   enough   to   meet   expectations.   Her   fans   were   begging.   Even   her   most   supportive   super-­‐   fans  were  like,  ‘Good  God,  girl,  where  is  the  new  music?’”   Settling  on  a  Launch  Strategy   In  August  2013,  when  the  album  was  nearing  completion,  Beyoncé  set  three  criteria  for  the  release:   launch  all  songs  at  once  as  a  full  album,  avoid  any  leaks,  and  make  it  a  visual  album  in  which  every   song  is  accompanied  by  a  video.   “Beyoncé   said  ‘I  am  not  going  to  put  out  a  single,’”  said  Sabey  about  the  first  requirement.  “She   did   not   want   her   album   judged   off   of   one   three-­‐and-­‐a-­‐half-­‐minute   song.   She   wanted   it   to   be   seen   as   a   complete   body   of   work.”   “Beyoncé   wanted   the   fans   to   have   it   first,   without   any   filters,”   added   Callahan-­‐Longo.   Stringer   understood   the   sentiment:   “Why   not   let   a   16-­‐year-­‐old   fan   in   Bulgaria   have   the   same   capability  to  judge   as  someone   who  runs  the   biggest   radio  station   in   the   world?   Beyoncé   has   built   that   audience.   And   I   can   imagine   the   normal   release   process   gets   a   bit   monotonous   for   someone   like  her.”   The   “no   leaks”   criterion   was   a   tall   order,   explained   Callahan-­‐Longo:   “This     year,     Katy     Perry’s   album  leaked,  Lady  Gaga’s  album  leaked,  Eminem’s  record  leaked.  They  all  worked  hard  to  promote   their   albums   in   the   months   before   the   launch.   But   the   moment   those   artists   delivered   their   record   to   the  plant  to  have  physical  copies  made,  their  albums  popped  up  illegally  online.”   Beyoncé’s   third   requirement   promised   to   make   the   launch   much   more   complex—and   much   more   expensive.   “My   first   reaction   was   ‘You   are   crazy,’”   said   Callahan-­‐Longo.   “And   I   thought   the   label   was   going   to   have   an   issue   with   making   so   many   videos   and   putting   them   all   out   at   once.”   But   Beyoncé  was  adamant:  “I  see  music;  it’s  more  than  just  what  I  hear.  When  I'm  connected  to  something   I   immediately   see   a   visual   or   a   series   of   images   that   are   tied   to   a   feeling   or   an   emotion,   a   memory   from   my   childhood,   thoughts   about   life,   my   dreams  or   my  fantasies.   And   they’re   all   connected   to   the   music.   I   wanted   people   to   hear   the   songs   with   the   story   that’s   in   my   head   ‘cause   it’s   what   makes   it   mine.  That  vision  in  my  brain  is  what  I  wanted  people  to  experience  for  the  first  time.”25   Callahan-­‐Longo  called  Stringer  to  notify  him  of  the  plan:  “He  said  he  needed  to  think  about  it,  but   it  didn’t  really  take  him  too  long.  I  got  a  call  back  two  days  later.  The  first  thing  he  said  when  I  picked   up  the  phone  was  ‘I’m  in.’”  Stringer  recalled  his  reaction:  “To  be  honest,  I  was  a  bit  snow-­‐blind  and   just  put  blinders  on  and  said  ‘We’re  going  to  do  this.’”  Columbia  and  Parkwood  signed  a  contractual   agreement   that   stipulated   the   joint   payment   of   the   videos   in   September.   Stringer   did   have   concerns,   he   noted:   “Were   we   really   going   to   get   this   out   before   Christmas?   Normally   you   take   eighteen   months   to   shoot   five   videos   in   the   cycle   of   a   successful   record—this   would   be   shooting   at   least   a   dozen  videos  in  maybe  a  couple  of  months.  And  she  was  still  tinkering  a  lot  with  the  record.”     Parkwood   and   Sony   gradually   landed   on   the   idea   to   keep   the   album   release   plan   under   wraps.   Beyoncé  explained,  “I  really,   really   wanted   to   surprise   people   and   for   them   to   really   just   hear   the   art   and   for   it   not   to   be   about   the   hype   and   the   promotion.”26   “We   liked   the   idea   of   secrecy,   too”   said   Stringer.  “And  quite  frankly,  we  didn’t  really  have  the  time  to  build  a  traditional  plan  anyway.”   Even   at   Sony,   fewer   than   ten   people   were   informed   of   the   plans.   “It’s   not   that   we   have   an   adversarial   relationship   with   our   record   company,”   said   Sabey.   ”We   don’t.   We   have   an     adversarial     relationship   with  the  inability  to  keep  things       private.”   Turning  to  Apple   In   mid   September,   while   touring   in   Brazil,   Beyoncé,   Callahan-­‐Longo   and   Sabey   met   to   discuss   how   to   best   approach   the   album   launch.   With   the   core   requirements   of   how   Beyoncé   wanted   the     8     Beyoncé 515-036 album   to   come   out   in   the   forefront   of   their   minds,   the   team   tossed   around   the   idea   of   an   online-­‐only   launch.   Callahan-­‐Longo,   Sabey   and   two   Sony   Music   representatives   were   already   scheduled   to   meet   with   Apple   executives   at   its   headquarters   in   Cupertino,   California.   “So   we   decided,   ‘Let’s   see   what   the  marketing  opportunity  would  look  like  if  we  gave  the  album  to  Apple  exclusively,’”  said  Sabey.   “We  knew  it  would  solve  the  issue  of  leaks  if  we  did  not  have  to  print  physical  copies  ahead  of  the   launch   date.     And     Apple’s  corporate  culture  is  one  of  sheer  secrecy.”  Callahan-­‐Longo  added:     “Apple   is  the  number   one   music  retailer   in   the   world.  So  we   decided  to   meet  with   a   core  team  working  under   [Apple’s  vice  president  of  iTunes]  Robert  Kondrk.”   Sabey   characterized  the  conversation  as  a  “solicitation  process”:  “It  was  like  ‘If  we  decided  to  do   this,   what   do   you   think   you   can   do   with   us?’”   Over   the   course   of   a   few   more   conversations   in   the   weeks  after  that  initial  meeting,  the  team  settled  on  a  plan  in   which  Apple  would  receive  the  album’s   tracks  and  videos  shortly  before  the  release  date,  would  “ingest”  it  into  its  system  so  it  was  ready  to   be  downloaded  across  the   world  at  the   agreed-­‐upon  time,  and  would  stage  a  “store  takeover”  at  that   time  in  which  the  iTunes  homepage  was  dominated   by   Beyoncé’s  new  and  previous  albums.   “A  worldwide  launch  like  this,  with  music  and  video  content,  is  something  that  only  iTunes  can   do,”  said  Kondrk.  “We  want  to  bring  Beyoncé  to  millions  of  fans  in  119  countries  at  the  exact   same   moment  and  let  Beyoncé  tell  an  incredibly  immersive  story  with  the  album  and  videos.”  He  added:   “We   do   worldwide   launches   of   music   and   video   content   daily,   but   the   biggest   challenge   with   Beyoncé  is  keeping  it  a  secret.  We  want  surprise  and  excitement  around  this  global  launch.”   Facebook  Agrees  to  Help   On   the   same   day   that   Callahan-­‐Longo   and   Sabey   had   their   initial   meeting   with   Apple,   they   made   another   stop   in   Silicon   Valley:   at   Facebook’s   headquarters   in   Menlo   Park.   There,   they   met     with   Charles   Porch   and   Jonathan   Hull,   who   worked   on   strategic   partnerships   for   Facebook   and   Instagram.   Both  were  part  of  Facebook’s  “Public  Content”  group,  a  small  team  that  helped  public  figures  in  four   verticals—athletes,  actors,  lifestyle,  and  music—make   the  best  use  of  the  platform.  “We  keep  them  up   to   date   on   new   products,   and   we   serve   as   an   educational   resource   for   those   who   want   to   use   Facebook  and  Instagram  creatively,”  said  Hull.  “And  we  listen  to  and  advocate  for  the  verticals  that   we   represent   internally   at   Facebook,”   noted   Porch.   A   third   Parkwood   employee,   Lauren   Wirtzer-­‐   Seawood,   who   as   head   of   digital   had   an   ongoing   relationship   with   Facebook,   also   participated   in   the   meeting.     During   the   meeting   the   Parkwood   executives   played   two   songs,   XO   and   Drunk   In   Love,   for   the   Facebook   representatives  and   shared   some   of   their   plans  for   the   launch.   “We   knew   they   wanted   to   talk  but  we  didn’t  know  about  what,”  recalled  Porch.  “The  songs  really  blew  us  away.  And  it   became   clear   to   us   that   they   were   looking   for   a   partner   who   would   have   their   back,   keep   things   quiet,   and   be   able   to   move   quickly   when   it   came   time   to   not   be   quiet   and   reach   a   wide   group   of   music   fans.”   “We   were   very   happy   and   humble   to   be   a   part   of   the   album   launch,“   said   Hull.   “It’s   exciting   to   help   the   most   creative   people   in   the   world   reach   the   fans   that   care   about   them   the   most.”   Porch   and   Hull   informed  only  a  small  group  of  people  on  their  end.  “We  spoke  in  code,”  Porch  said.   The   two   parties   agreed   that   music   fans   across   Facebook—in   addition     to     the     millions     who     had   ‘liked’   Beyoncé’s   page—would   see   an   announcement   for   the   album   as   soon   as   it   was   available   on   iTunes.   The   album   would   also   be   prominently   featured   on   Facebook’s   music   page   and     related   channels.   “Plus,   we’ll   run   a   Facebook   advertising   campaign   to   reach   as   many   people   as   possible—   that’s   a   cost   we’re   willing   to   incur—and   we’ll   monitor   the   launch   to   make   sure   everything   runs   smoothly,”   said   Porch,   adding:   “Facebook   and   Instagram   are   built   for   this   kind   of   scale.”   Callahan-­‐   Longo   was   pleased   with   those   plans:   “The   biggest   social-­‐media   platform   will   make   sure   every   music   fan  will  know  about  the  album,”  she         said.     Even  though  they  weren’t  aware  at  the  time  that  Parkwood  planned  to  include  a  video  for  every   song   on   the   album,   Porch   and   Hull   recommended   using   a   yet-­‐to-­‐be-­‐launched   Facebook   feature   called   AutoPlay,   which   made   it   possible   for   videos   to   be   played   automatically   in   users’   newsfeeds.   “Beyoncé  is  such  a  visual  artist,  that  we  felt  it  was  perfect  for  her.  They  would  not  have  had  access  to   9     515-036 Beyoncé that   new   feature   without   working   with   us   directly,”   said   Hull.   Porch   and   Hull   also   helped   the   Parkwood   team   think   about   what   they   called   “phase   two.”   “Phase   one   is   the   day   of   the   announcement,”   said   Hull.   “Phase   two   is   about   engaging   fans   once   the   album   is   out.   One   of   our   suggestions   was   to   do   an   #AskBeyoncé   question-­‐and-­‐answer   video   session   on   Instagram.”   Finalizing  the  Songs  –  and  the  Videos   Finalizing  the  songs    and    videos    was    a    down-­‐to-­‐the-­‐wire  effort.  “There  were  songs  that  were    not   on   the   album   as   late   as   October—just   imagine   how   that   complicates   getting   the   publishing   clearances,   and  shooting  the  videos,”  said  Sabey.  Beyoncé  had  recorded  close  to  seventy  songs  that  she  cut  down   to   the   final   fourteen.   “Even   the   final   fourteen   tracks   were   originally   seventeen     songs—she     was   putting  them  together  like  a  mad  scientist,  saying  ‘I  hear  this  song  becoming  part  of  this  song,’”   said   Callahan-­‐Longo.  “But  that  also  meant  we  had  to  get  producers  from  sometimes  very  different   camps   to  agree  to  work  together  to  create  one  piece  of   art.”   The   videos   were   all   produced   within   a   twelve-­‐week   period   in   the   fall,   an   unusually   short  time   frame,  especially  considering  that  Beyoncé  was  touring  at  the  time.  The  last  video  was  shot  in  mid-­‐   November.  Just  as  the  producers  and  other  musicians  working  on  songs  had  no  good  idea  of  the  plan   for   the   album,   the   directors  of   the   videos  were   not   informed   of   other   videos   being  in  the   pipeline.   Seventeen  videos  eventually  made  the  album.     The   finished   album   (see   Exhibit 8 for   a   listing   of   songs   and   videos,   as   well   as     mockups     of     the   planned  iTunes  “takeover”)  was  titled  “Beyoncé.”  “It  just  made  sense,”  said  Callahan-­‐Longo.  “At   the   end  of  the  day,  it  is  the  biggest  reflection  of  who  she  is.  It  really  is  a  statement.”  She  added:  “Some   of   the   subject   matter   may   not   be   the   Beyoncé   that   fans   were   expecting.   But   she   is   not   21   years     old   anymore;  she   is  32.  And  she  has  been   through  a  lot.  She  is  an  artist  who  wants  to  express  every  aspect   of  her  life  and     experiences.”   Parkwood  and  Sony  employees  worked    hard    to    achieve    a    72-­‐hour    manufacturing    turnaround   to   get   the   album   to   retail   as   quickly   as   possible   once   it   was   available   on   iTunes.   But   taking   into   account   the   time   it   would   take   to   get   those   physical   albums   in   stores,   they   knew   it   likely   would   be   a   full   week   before   albums   would   start   to   appear   at   bricks-­‐and-­‐mortar   retailers.   The   team   had   explored   an   extensive   range   of   scenarios   that   would   allow   them   to   begin   the   manufacturing   process   without   putting   the   secret   at   risk.   They   studied   the   possibility   of   manufacturing   blank   discs   in   advance,   printing   paper   packages   in   advance   that   looked   more   like   those   used   for   singles,   and   producing   cardboard   slip   cases   without   a   track   listing   or   album   title.   “Once   the   album   is   out,   the   plan   is   to   quickly   print   a   black   cover   with   “Beyoncé”   in   pink   font   which   we   can   just   slip   over   the   package,”   said  Sabey  (also  see  Exhibit 8b).     To   help   explain   her   vision   for   the   album   to   her   fans,   Beyoncé   shot   a   five-­‐part   mini-­‐documentary,   named  Self-­‐‑Titled  and  directed  by  renowned  documentary  producer  Zachary  Heinzerling.    The     plan   called  for  these  videos  to  be  released  on  her  website    Beyoncé.com,    her    YouTube    channel,    and     on   social  media  (see  Exhibit 9 for  some  screenshots).  Part  one    was    earmarked    to    be    shown   via   Facebook’s  AutoPlay.  “It  sets  the  tone  for  the  online  conversation—what  this  is  and  why,”  said  Porch.   Originally,   the   team   had   eyed   a   November   18   release.   “We   wanted   to   put   out   the   record   before   the   last   leg   of   the   tour   here   in   the   US.   But   we   added   a   song   in   late   October   and   were   still   shooting   a   video,”  said  Sabey.  Stringer  and  some  of  his  colleagues  had  heard  eight  songs  by  then.  “We  felt  we   were  in  good  shape,”  he  recalled.  Sabey  initially  searched  for  a  new  Tuesday  date.  “Normally   albums   come   out   on   that   day,   so   they  can  be  tracked  by  Billboard  for  a  full  week,”  he  recalled,”   But  then  the   boss  asked  ‘Why  does  the  record  need  to  come  out  on  a  Tuesday?  We’re  not  putting  it  in  stores,  so   do   we  care?’”  They  settled  on  Friday  December  13  instead.  “Friday  the  13th   gets  such  a  bad  rap,”  Sabey   joked.   Stringer   remarked:   “We’re   putting   the   record   out   on   pretty   much   the   last   possible   day   before   the   Christmas   holiday.   If   we   wait   one   more   day,   there   is   no   chance   to   follow   it   up   with   a   physical   product   before   the   holiday   break.”   Even   online   there   were   constraints,   Sabey   said:   “iTunes   closes   its   store    on    December    20    and    doesn’t    open  until  early  January.  The  gift-­‐giving    season    causes    so     much       10     Beyoncé 515-036 traffic  on  their  ecosystem  that  they  don’t  allow  for  songs,  art  work,  or  apps  to  be  added—nothing   goes  into  the  store  those  last  two  weeks  in  December.”     Surprise!   Now,   on   the   evening   of   December   12,   the   launch   was   only   hours   away.   While   Beyoncé   was   preparing  to  take  the  stage  in  Louisville,  Kentucky,  the  Parkwood  office  in  New  York  City  was   firing   on  all  cylinders.  At  8  PM  EST,  forty  Columbia  Records  staffers  arrived  for  what  most  thought   would   be  a  Christmas  party.  “We  had  this  whole  Christmas  spread—it  was  lovely,”  noted  Sabey.  “But  some   were  asking,  ‘why  are  we  here?’  So  we  led  them  into  a  conference  room  that  was  set  up  theater-­‐style,   and   basically   played   the   album   visually   from   beginning   to   end.”  The   staffers   were   told   the   album   would  be  released  later  that  night,  and  were  asked  to  keep  it  strictly  confidential.  “They  could   go   home,”  said  Callahan-­‐Longo.  “But  we  said  ‘don’t  talk  or  tweet  about  it.’”   At   around   10   PM,   the   Parkwood   team   and   some   remaining   Sony   staffers   got   down   to   business.   Everyone  was  set  up  in  different  offices,  tracking  the  launch.  “We  delivered  the  album  to  Apple  a  few   days   before   the   launch   date,”   said   Callahan-­‐Longo.   “Each   video   takes   a   couple   of   hours   to   be   ingested   into   the   system,   and  each   had  to  be   checked   for  glitches.   We  agreed   with  Apple  that  they   would  flip  the  switch  shortly  before   midnight  in  New  York   so  we  could  see  it  in  the  store.”  Sabey   said:  “We  were  all  sitting  around  clicking  ‘refresh’  every  few  seconds,  and  googling  Beyoncé’s  name   to  check  if  anyone  had  spilled  the  beans.”  At  the  same  time,  Wirtzer-­‐Seawood  prepped  the  Self-­‐‑Titled   mini-­‐documentary   for   publishing   on   Facebook   alongside   the   album.   The   digital   team   also   added  30-­‐   second  clips  of  all  videos,  images  of  the  album  packaging,  and  links  to  iTunes  on  Beyonce.com.   Concerns           As   the   album’s   unveiling   was   near,   Callahan-­‐Longo,   who   admitted   it   was   “a     nail-­‐biting     time,”   could   not   help   but   think   about   the   risky   nature   of   their   launch   strategy,   and   the   questions   that   remained.   First,  there  were  fears    of    possible technical glitches.  “We’ve  come  so  close  to  the  finish     line—will   we  be  able  to  pull  it  off?,”  she  asked.  “The  worst  thing  you  can  do  is  make  this  loud  noise,  and  then   have   there   be   technical   issues.   That   it   takes   four   hours   to   download     the     album,     for     instance—that   would  be  a  hot  mess.  No  one  knows  exactly  what  the   fan  experience  will  be,  because  it’s  all  new.”   Second,   the   unusual   plan   for   the   release   made   it   impossible to do a full-blown advertising campaign for  the  album.  Parkwood  could  not  rely  on  carefully  scheduled  singles  to  drive  interest   in   the   album   before   it   came   out.   And   placing   advertisements   was   difficult.   “We   couldn’t   call   up   television,  radio,  and  magazines  and  book  ads,  because  then  the  secret  would  be  out,”  said  Sabey.   Sony  had  bought  advertising  space  under  another  artist’s  name  and  could  divert  some  of  that  space   to   Beyoncé’s   album,   but   those   advertisements   would   come   too   late   to   drive   first-­‐week   or   even   second-­‐week  sales.  Parkwood’s  publicist  Yvette  Noel-­‐Schure   had   prepared   a   press   toolkit   with   a   press  release,  30-­‐second  clips  of  every  video,  and  the  mini-­‐documentary,  but  it  could  not  control  how   much  and  in  what  way  those  materials  would  be  used  by  the  media.   Third,   there   were   major   questions   around   how other retailers would respond to     the  exclusive   pact  between  Parkwood  and  Apple.  In  2012,  Target  had  refused  to  carry  the  musician  Frank  Ocean’s   album  after  he  digitally  released  his  album  exclusively  on  iTunes  a  week  before  distributing  physical   copies.27   “We  know  that  physical  retailers  are  going  to  be  upset.  Target  drew  the  line  in  the  sand  on   that  album,  and  they  may  do  it  with  us,  too,”  said  Callahan-­‐Longo.  Stringer  shared  those   concerns:   “Will  other  retailers  follow  suit?  They  may  see  it  as  the  beginning  of  the  end.”  He  admitted  that  he   was  not  the  only  one  worried  about  the  larger  ramifications:  “My  boss  asked  me  ‘Have  you  thought   about  the  consequences  of  what  we  are  doing  here?’  It’s  possible  that  they  will  take  every  piece  of   product  from  Beyoncé  and  Destiny’s  Child  off  their  shelves.”     11     515-036 Beyoncé Even   if   some   retailers   would   agree   to   carry   the   record,   Parkwood   anticipated   problems   in   physical   retail.  “Take  Walmart,  traditionally  our  biggest  partner,”  said  Sabey.  “Most  of  their  supply  chain   and   promotions   for   December   are   booked   in   July.   If   I   said   to   them   tomorrow   ‘I   want   every   end-­‐cap   display28   you  have  in  your  music  section,’  they’d  look  at  me  and  be  like  ‘get  out  of  here.’  They  are  not   going   to   be   happy   no   matter   what   we   do.”   Callahan-­‐Longo   agreed:   “It’s   the   height   of   the   release   season,  and  this  will  come  out  of  nowhere  for  them.”  The  Parkwood   and   Sony   teams   planned   to   call   their   contacts  at   Walmart,   Target,   Amazon,   and   other   major   retailers  the   morning   of   the   release   to   see   how  they   could   support   them,   but  were   unsure   of   the   response.     A   fourth   concern   was   what   the   release     would     mean     for     international markets.     “Beyoncé     is     a   global  artist.  If  we  don’t  sell  as  many  units   abroad   as   we   do   in   the   US,   I   would   consider   the   launch   a   failure,”  said  Sabey.  “And  yet  I  could  not  make  one  phone  call  to  anyone  oversees  to  talk   about   the   fact   that   we   were   doing   this,   to   set   the   album   up   properly   there.   All   the   things   we   would   normally   do   to  generate  excitement,  secure  advertising,  and  secure  retail  space.”  Printing  the   physical  albums  in   overseas   markets   also   was   problematic.   “It   depends   on   the   manufacturing   facility   we   rely   on.   We   already   know   that   the   Japanese   version   of   the   album   wouldn’t   be   ready   until   mid   February.   The   manufacturing  cycle  there  is  just  that  complex,”  he  said.   10,  9,  8,  7,  6,  5,  4…                                                       Now,   a   few   minutes   after   midnight,   it   was   too   late   to   turn   back.   Would     the     album     find     a     large   enough   audience   around   the   world?   And   what,   if   anything,   could   the   Parkwood   team   do   at   this   stage   to   mitigate   any   concerns?   As   Callahan-­‐Longo   finally   saw   the   album   appear   on   iTunes     and     was   getting   ready   to   surprise   fans   around   the   world  with   the   album   announcement,   Beyoncé—who   had   admitted  to  being  “a  nervous  wreck  but  excited”  when  they  touched  base  right  after  her  show   earlier   that  evening—departed  St.  Louis  for  the  next  night’s  show  in  Chicago.  Would  her    big  gamble     pay   off?     12     Beyoncé Exhibit 1 515-036 The  Facebook  and    Instagram  Postings  for     Beyoncé                                     Source:    Beyoncé's  Facebook  and  Instagram  account.     13     515-036 Exhibit 2a Beyoncé The  US  Music  Industry:  Sales  and  Streams  (in  $  millions)       Overall Album Sales (with TEA)a Total Album Sales Physical Album Sales Digital Album Sales Digital Track Sales Share of Revenues from Streaming Total Streams (in billions) b 2010 2011 2012 Mid-Year 2013 % Change from MidYear 2012 443 326 240 86 1,172 458 331 228 103 1,271 450 316 198 118 1,336 210 142 81 61 682 -5% -6% -14% +6% -2% 7% -- 9% -- 15% -- 20% 50.9 -+24%   Source:        Adapted  from  The  Nielsen  Company  and  Billboard’s  2010,  2011,  2012,  and  Mid-­‐Year  2013  Music  Reports,     RIAA.     a  ”TEA”  stands  for  “Track  Equivalent  Albums,”  whereby  10  tracks  sold  count  as  1  album  sold.   b  Includes  audio  and  video.  “Streaming”  covers  subscription  services  such  as  Spotify,  on-­‐demand  streaming  such  as  YouTube,   and  sound-­‐exchange  distributions,             Exhibit 2b The  US  Music  Industry:  Weekly  Album  and  Track  Sales  in  2012  (in  millions  of  units)                           Source:      Adapted  from  Nielsen  Soundscan.   14     Beyoncé Exhibit 2c 515-036 The  US  Music  Industry:  Top-­‐Selling  Albums  and  Digital  Albums  in   2012       Albums   Title/Artist       21 / Adele Red / Taylor Swift Up All Night / One Direction Babel / Mumford & Sons Take Me Home / One Direction Believe / Justin Bieber Blown Away / Carrie Underwood Tailgates & Tanlines / Luke Bryan Tuskegee / Lionel Richie Night Train / Jason Aldean Title/Artist   4,410,000 3,110,000 1,620,000 1,460,000 1,340,000 1 320,000 1,200,000 1,110,000 1,070,000 1,020,000   Digital Albums   Units Sold   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10     Units Sold   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10   21 / Adele Red / Taylor Swift Babel / Mumford & Sons Up All Night / One Direction Some Nights / Fun Lumineers / Lumineers Overexposed / Maroon 5 My Head... / Of Monsters and Men Making Mirrors / Gotye Sigh No More / Mumford & Sons 1,040,000 860,000 780,000 560,000 560,000 470,000 450,000 424,000 390,000 380,000 Source:      Adapted  from  The  Nielsen  Company  and  Billboard’s  2010,  2011,  2012,  and  Mid-­‐Year  2013  Music  Reports.               Exhibit 2d The  US  Music  Industry:  Top-­‐Selling  Tours  in  2012       Artist     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Gross   Madonna Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band Roger Waters Coldplay Lady Gaga Kenny Chesney & Tim McGraw Van Halen JAY Z & Kanye West Andre Rieu Dave Matthews Band Attendance   $228 million $199 million $186 million $147 million $125 million $96 million $54 million $47 million $47 million $41 million Shows Sell-Outs   1,600,000 2,200,000 1,700,000 1,800,000 1,100,000 1,100,000 500,000 400,000 500,000 800,000   72 72 72 67 65 23 46 31 99 41 72 54 51 56 65 9 9 15 2 17   Source:      Adapted  from  Billboard’s  “2012:  The  Year  in  Music.”                         15     515-036 Exhibit 2e Beyoncé The  US  Music  Industry:  Record-­‐Company  Market  Shares,  Mid-­‐Year  2013       All Albums     Universal Music Group Sony Music Entertainment Warner Music Group Others Physical Albums   38% 30% 21% 11% Digital Albums   39% 31% 20% 10% Digital Tracks   36% 30% 22% 13% 37% 28% 19% 14%   Source:      Adapted  from  The  Nielsen  Company  and  Billboard’s  2010,  2011,  2012,  and  Mid-­‐Year  2013  Music  Reports.               Exhibit 2f International  Music  Markets:  Paying  for  Downloads  versus  Subscribing       Source:      Adapted  from  IFPI’s  Digital  Music  Report  2013.                         16     Beyoncé Exhibit 3 515-036 High-­‐Profile  Album  Releases  in  2013:  Select  Examples     Sales (As of Dec. 8, 2013) Artist   Album   Justin Timberlake Kanye West JAY Z Drake Eminem Justin Timberlake Katy Perry Lady Gaga Total Release Date     The 20/20 Experience – 1 of 2 Yeezus Magna Carta… Holy Grail Nothing Was The Same Marshall Mathers LP2 The 20/20 Experience – 2 of 2 Prism ARTPOP March 15 June 18 July 4 Sep. 19 Sep. 20 Sep. 27 Oct. 18 Nov. 5 Physical   2,380,000 600,000 1,080,000 1,230,000 1,410,000 660,000 710,000 460,000 Digital   1,370,000 260,000 450,000 590,000 730,000 370,000 490,000 270,000 1,010,000 340,000 630,000 640,000 680,000 280,000 230,000 190,000     Sales (As of Dec. 8, 2013) Artist     Justin Timberlake Kanye West JAY Z Drake Eminem Justin Timberlake Katy Perry Lady Gaga   The 20/20 Experience – 1 of 2 Yeezus Magna Carta… Holy Grail Nothing Was The Same Marshall Mathers LP2 The 20/20 Experience – 2 of 2 Prism ARTPOP First Week as % of Total Sales Weeks Available Album   38 25 22 11 10 7 5 4 First Week as % of Four-Week Total Sales   41% 54% 49% 53% 53% 40% 56% 56% % Drop from First to Second Week   64% 71% 66% 70% 73% 59% 60% 56% 67% 80% 76% 78% 80% 68% 74% 82%                                           Source:      Adapted  from  Nielsen   SoundScan.   17     515-036 Beyoncé Exhibit 4 Beyoncé’s  Discography  (as  of  December  2013)     Albuma #   Release Date in US   1 2 3 4   Highest Chart Position in US   Dangerously in Love B-Day I AM… Sasha Fierce 4 June 23, 2003 September 4, 2006 November 14, 2008 June 24, 2011 Sales, US   1 1 1 1 Sales, Worldwide   4.9 million 3.4 million 3.1 million 1.4 million 11 million 8 million 7 million 3.2 million     #   Singlesb Album     1 2 Dangerously in Love B-Day 3 I AM… Sasha Fierce 4 4 Crazy in Love; Baby Boy; Me, Myself and I; Naughty Girl; The Closer I Get To You Déjà Vu; Ring the Alarm; Irreplaceable, Beautiful Liar; Get Me Bodied; Green Light If I Were a Boy; Single Ladies (Put a Ring On It); Diva; Halo; Ego; Sweet Dreams; Broken-Hearted Girl; Video Phone; Why Don’t You Love Me Run the World (Girls); Best Thing I Never Had; Party; Love On Top; Countdown; I Care; End of Time     Year   Album/Song   2000 2001 2003 2003 2003 2005 2006 2009 2009 2009 2009 2012 Grammy Awards   Say My Name Survivor Crazy In Love Dangerously in Love The Closer I Get To You So Amazing B’Day I AM… Sasha Fierce Single Ladies At Last Halo Love on Top Best R&B Song, Best R&B Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocals Best R&B Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocals Best R&B Song, Best Rap/Sung Collaboration Best Contemporary R&B Album, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance Best R&B Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocals Best R&B Performance By A Duo Or Group With Vocals Best Contemporary R&B Album Best Contemporary R&B Album Song Of The Year, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, Best R&B Song Best Traditional R&B Vocal Performance Best Female Pop Vocal Performance Best Traditional R&B Performance   Source:    Adapted  from  Nielsen  SoundScan,  Billboard,  Grammy  Awards,  and  case-­‐writer  estimates.     a   Only  includes  studio   albums.   Beyoncé  has  also   released  four  live  albums:   Live  at  Wembley,   The  Beyoncé  Experience  Live,   I  Am…   Yours:  An  Intimate  Performance  at  Wynn  Las  Vegas,  and  I  Am…  World   Tour.   b  Only  includes  singles  that  appeared  on  Beyoncé’s  studio  albums.                 18     Beyoncé Exhibit 5a 515-036 US  Sales  for  Beyoncé’s  First  Four  Solo  Studio  Albums  (as  of  December       2013)     Dangerously   in  Love   Format and Channela     I  AM…   Sasha  Fierce   B’Day       4     Chain Independent Mass Merchant Non-Traditional Digital Total Album Sales 1,970,000 330,000 2,490,000 50,000 80,000 4,920,000 930,000 120,000 2,130,000 50,000 120,000 3,360,000 790,000 80,000 1,850,000 80,000 330,000 3,130,000 250,000 70,000 640,000 80,000 350,000 1,400,000 Total Digital Track Sales 4,170,000 8,810,000 16,300,000 5,990,000   Source:      Adapted  from  Nielsen  SoundScan     a  “Mass  merchants  include  Target  and  Walmart;  non-­‐traditional  sellers  include  Amazon,  Starbucks,  and  concert  venues.           Exhibit 5b US  Sales  for  Beyoncé’s  First  Four  Solo  Studio  Albums  (as  of  December       2013)               Source:      Adapted  from  Nielsen   SoundScan.     19     515-036 Exhibit 5c Beyoncé Beyoncé’s  Top-­‐Selling  Digital  Tracks  in  the  US  (as  of  December  2013)     #   Track   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Album   Single Ladies (Put a Ring On It) Halo Irreplaceable If I Were a Boy Crazy in Love Sweet Dreams Beautiful Liar Love on Top Diva Best Thing I Never Had   I AM… Sasha Fierce I AM… Sasha Fierce B-Day I AM… Sasha Fierce Dangerously in Love I AM… Sasha Fierce B-Day 4 I AM… Sasha Fierce 4   Source:    Adapted  from  Nielsen  SoundScan,  and  case-­‐writer  estimates.                                                                           20   Sales, US Sales, Worldwide   5,400,000 3,500,000 2,800,000 3,100,000 1,900,000 1,800,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,100,000 1,100,000 9,500,000 7,000,000 4,600,000 6,300,000 4,000,000 3,800,000 2,700,000 2,400,000 1,600,000 3,700,000   Beyoncé 515-036 Exhibit 6a Beyoncé’s  Tours     Year   Tour Region   2003 2004 2007 2009-‘10 2013-‘14   Dangerously in Love Tour Verizon Ladies First Toura The Beyoncé Experience I Am… Tour The Mrs. Carter Show World Tour Duration Shows   Europe North America Worldwide Worldwide Worldwide   Nov. 3, 2003 – Nov. 19, 2003 March 12, 2004 – April 19, 2004 April 10, 2007 – Dec. 30, 2007 March 26, 2009 – Feb. 18, 2010 April 15, 2013 – March 27, 2014 9 25 97 108 129b   Source:      Adapted  from  Pollstar.     a  With  Alicia  Keys  and  Missy     Elliot.   b    Includes  planned  performances  as  of  December     2013.           Exhibit 6b Beyoncé’s  Tours:  The  Mrs.  Carter  Show  World  Tour     Dates   Region   Shows   Cities   April 15, 2013 – June 1, 2013 Europe 33 June 28, 2013 – Aug. 5, 2013 North America 28 Sep. 8, 2013 – Sep 28, 2013 Latin America 10 Oct. 16, 2013 – Nov. 9, 2013 Nov. 30, 2013 – Dec 22, 2013 Oceania 18 North America 15 Feb. 20, 2014 – March 27, 2014 Europe 25 Revenues   Belgrade, Zagreb, Bratislava, Amsterdam, Paris, Birmingham, London, Manchester, Dublin, Antwerp, Zürich, Milan, Montpellier, Munich, Berlin, Warsaw, Copenhagen, Fornebu, Stockholm, and Antwerp.
Los Angeles, Las Vegas, San Jose, Oklahoma City, Dallas, New Orleans, Sunrise, Miami, Duluth, Nashville, Houston, Chicago, Saint Paul, Auburn Hills, Toronto, Montreal, Boston, Philadelphia, Atlantic City, Charlotte, Washington, D.C., East Rutherford, Uncasville, and New York City.
Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Brasília, Caracas, Medellín, Monterrey, Mexico City, and San Juan.
Auckland, Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney, Iggy Azalea, Adelaide, and Perth Vancouver, San Jose, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Dallas, Houston, Louisville, Chicago, St. Louis, Toronto, Washington, D.C, New York City, Boston, New York City.
Glasgow, Birmingham, Manchester, London, Dublin, Cologne, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Barcelona, and Lisbon $50 million $46 million $21 million $36 million $13 milliona --   Source:      Adapted  from  Pollstar.         a  Only  covers  the  performances  up  to  the  concert  in  Louisville,  Kentucky  on  December  12,  2013.   21     515-036 Exhibit 7 Beyoncé Parkwood     Entertainment       – Beyoncé Knowles, President and Chief Executive Officer – – – – Lee Anne Callahan-Longo, Executive Vice President & General Manager Angie Beyincé, Vice President of Operations Jim Sabey, Head of Worldwide Marketing Alisa deRosa, General Counsel – – – – – Todd Tourso, Creative Director Ed Burke, Visual Director Bill Kirstein, Producer Scott Nylund, Design Director Kwasi Fordjour, Creative Coordinator – – – – – Melissa Vargas, Brand Manager Lauren Wirtzer-Seawood, Head of Digital Strategy Sapphira Molina-Hill, Marketing Manager Amber Glaspie, Online Manager Ashlee Senser, Brand Coordinator – – – – – Chelsea Staples, Executive Assistant to Lee Anne Callahan-Longo Brittan Dunham, Archivist Yanique Thorman, Controller Justin Law, Office Manager Caroline Roa, Receptionist – Erinn Williams, Consulting Executive Producer – – – – – Ty Hunter, Head Stylist Raquel Smith, Stylist Sam Greenberg, Executive Assistant to Beyoncé Knowles Yvette Noel-Schure, Publicist for Beyoncé Knowles – US Carl Fysh, Publicist for Beyoncé Knowles - UK – Teresa LaBarbera-Whites, A&R   Source:    Parkwood  Entertainment  company  documents.                                   22     Beyoncé Exhibit 8a 515-036 Beyoncé:  The  Visual  Album         Source:    The  iTunes  Store.         Exhibit 8b Beyoncé:  The  Visual  Album         Source:     www.beyonce.com.     23     515-036 Exhibit 8c Beyoncé Beyoncé:  The  iTunes  Store    Takeover     Mockups               Source:    Parkwood  Entertainment  company  documents.     24     Beyoncé Exhibit 8c 515-036 Beyoncé:  The  iTunes  Store    Takeover  Mockups       (Continued)             Source:    Parkwood  Entertainment  company  documents.           Exhibit 8d Beyoncé:  List  of  Videos,  their  Directors,  and  Shooting  Locations     #   Videos   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Director   Pretty Hurts Ghost Haunted Drunk in Love Blow No Angel Yoncé Partition Jealous Rocket Mine XO ***Flawless Superpower Heaven Blue Grown Woman Location   Melina Matsoukas Pierre Debusschere Jonas Åkerlund Hype Williams Hype Williams @LILINTERNET Ricky Saiz Jake Nava Beyoncé, Francesco Carrozini & Todd Tourso Beyoncé , Ed Burke & Bill Kirstein Pierre Debusschere Terry Richardson Jake Nava Jonas Åkerlund Beyoncé & Todd Tourso Beyoncé , Ed Burke & Bill Kirstein Jake Nava New York, NY Sydney, Australia Los Angeles, CA Miami, FL Houston, TX & Melbourne, Australia Houston, TX New York, NY & London, UK Paris, France New York, NY & Paris, France New York, NY & Melbourne, Australia Sydney, Australia & Los Angeles, CA Brooklyn, NY Paris, France & Melbourne, Australia Los Angeles, CA Dorado, Puerto Rico & New York, NY Rio de Janeiro, Brazil New York, NY   Source:    Parkwood  Entertainment  company  documents.         25     515-036 Exhibit 9 Beyoncé Beyoncé’s    Self-­‐Titled    Documentary:    Some  Screenshots                 Source:     Beyonce.com.     26     Beyoncé 515-036 Endnotes Glenn  Peoples,  “New  Music  Report  Stresses  Strength  of  Live  Biz,  Fate  od  Downloads  Still  Hazy,”  Billboard  Biz  Bulletin,  June  4,   2014.   1   2   Alex  Pham,  “iTunes  Market  Share  Still  Dominant  After  a  Decade,  Study  Says,”  The  Hollywood  Reporter,  April  17,  2013.   3   “iTunes  Hits  25  Billion  Downloads,”  Rolling  Stone,  February  6,  2013.   4     Glenn  Peoples,  “Apple  Debuts  iTunes  Radio,”  Billboard,  June  10,  2013.   5     As  estimated  by  Billboard  in  December     2013.   6   Steve  Knopper,  “Digital  Music  Takes  a  Dive  as  Record  Sales  Slip  Again  in  2013,”  Rolling  Stone,  January  8,  2014.   7   Joanna  Stern,  “Samsung  Buys  a  Million  Copies  of  Jay  Z’s  Album  for  Galaxy  Smartphone  Owners,”  ABC  News,  June  18,  2013.   8   Sean  Michaels,  “Kanye  West  Still  Working  on  Yeezus  Even  Though  it’s  Due  Out  Next  Week,”  The  Guardian,  June  11,  2013.   9   Jody  Rosen,  “Her  Highness,”  The  New  Yorker,  February  20,  2013.   10       “Beyoncé    Biography,”    Billboard,  www.billboard.com/artist/281569/beyonce/biography.   The  Billboard  chart,  published  weekly  by  Billboard  magazine,  ranks  the  popularity  of  songs  (in  the  Billboard  Hot  100)  and   albums  (in  the  Billboard  Top  200).   11   Corey  Moss  and  Jeff  Cornell,  “Beyoncé  Pushes  Up  Release  Date  Of  Solo  Debut:  Destiny'ʹs  Child  Singer  to  drop  Dangerously   in  Love  June  24.”  MTV,    June    2,    2003,     www.mtv.com/news/articles/1472224/beyonce-­‐pushes-­‐up-­‐release-­‐solo-­‐lp.jhtml.   12   Mark        Anthony      Neal,        “Beyoncé:        Dangerously      in      Love,”        PopMatters,        July        10,        2003,         www.popmatters.com   /review/beyonce-­‐dangerously/.   13             The   Grammy   Awards   (“Grammys’)   are   accolades   given   out   annually   by   the   National   Academy   of   Recording   Arts   and   Sciences,  and  arguably  the    most    prestigious  awards  for       musicians.   14   Shaheem   Reid,   “Beyoncé   Asks   Women   To   Battle   Over   Her   For   Backing-­‐Band   Roles,”   MTV,   June   19,   2006,   www.mtv.com/news/articles/1534575/beyonce-­‐wants-­‐women-­‐battle-­‐over-­‐her.jhtml,   and   Jennifer   Vine-­‐yard,   “Beyonce’s   Triple   Threat:   New   Album,   Film,   Fashion   Line   Before   Year’s   End,”   MTV,   May   31,   2006,   www.mtv.com/news/articles/1533201/beyonces-­‐new-­‐projects-­‐album-­‐movie-­‐fashion.jhtml.   15   Shaheem  Reid  and  Sway  Calloway,  “All  Eyes  on  Beyoncé,”  MTV,  August  14,  2006,  www.mtv.com/   bands/b/beyonce/news_feature_081406/index2.jhtml.   16   MTV  News  staff,  “For  The  Record”  MTV,  February  13,  2007,   www.mtv.com/news/articles/1552323/  mariah-­‐carey-­‐ new-­‐face-­‐pinko.jhtml.   17   Adler,  Shawn,  “Beyoncé  Writes  A  Letter  To  Fans,  Saying  She  Has  ‘Taken  Risks’  On  Upcoming  LP,”  MTV,  October  2,  2008,   www.mtv.com/news/1596212/beyonce-­‐writes-­‐a-­‐letter-­‐to-­‐fans-­‐saying-­‐she-­‐has-­‐taken-­‐risks-­‐on-­‐upcoming-­‐lp/.   18   19       “I    AM…    Sasha    Fierce,”    Metacritic,  www.metacritic.com/music/i-­‐amsasha-­‐fierce/beyonce/critic-­‐reviews.   20         “4,”    Metacritic,   www.metacritic.com/music/4-­‐2011/beyonce/critic-­‐reviews.   Phil  Gallo,  “Beyoncé’s  Super  Bowl  Halftime  Show  Draws  Estimated  104  Million  Viewers,”  Billboard,  February  4,  2013.   21   Jordan   Zakarin,   “Beyoncé   Announces   World   Tour   Dates   After   Super   Bowl   Halftime   Performance,”   Billboard,   February   4,   2013,  and  Ray  Waddell,  “Beyoncé  ‘Mrs.  Carter’  Tour  Tickets  Selling  Out  Fast,”  Billboard,  February  12,  2013.   22   23   Ben  Sisario,  “In  Beyoncé  Deal,  Pepsi  Focuses  on  Collaboration,”  The  New  York  Times,  December  9,  2012.   24   Self-­‐‑Titled.   25   Self-­‐‑Titled.   26   Self-­‐‑Titled   27   “Target  Will  Not  Carry  Frank  Ocean’s  ‘Channel  Orange,’”  Rolling  Stone,  July  12,  2012.   28   These  are  displays  located  at  the  end  of  aisles  in  the  store.         27   ...

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