WITTGENSTEIN (2014)Apunte Inglés
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dijous, 6 de novembre de 2014
WITTGENSTEIN (1889 - 1951)
- Born in 1889 (in Viena) — same year as Hitler.
- Hitler will have a big influence in Wittgenstein.
- Member of a healthy jewish family - He had trouble and that’s why he had to go to England.
- He was really interested in mathematics.
- Decided to move to Cambridge to study with the most important teacher of Mathematics.
- He was an extraordinary philosopher.
- One thing is to be able to calculate mathematics and another thing is to understand them. — Wittgenstein was interested in this second dimension.
- Protect his solitude and the silence around him in order to work — He moved to Norway in order to reach this solitude and silence — He wrote during a year his first important work as a philosopher (Tractatus Logico Philosophicus).
- Meaningful sentences — Those referring to facts: describing objects or facts.
- Meaningless sentences — Analytical sentences: mathematical sentences, logical sentences, etc. — They have no meaning.
This ideas don’t describe the world — They are meaningful.
- Absurd sentences — Those dealing with metaphysics, ethics sentences. — God created the World is an absurd sentence because it is something that cannot be checked.
- The language is only meaningful just when it is used to describe facts.
- We cannot speak about things that cannot be reduced to facts: injustice, freedom, etc.
- He proposes to talk just about facts: He doesn’t want to talk about ethics, about justice, freedom, etc. We should leave all this concepts apart, as they are absurd and we cannot reduce them to facts.
1 dijous, 6 de novembre de 2014 NATURAL RIGHT — 1-Human Nature: Right to live, freedom, expression, etc.
IT IS UNIVERSAL (unwritten law)— They cannot be abolished.
*they should be respected in an absolute way 2-Written Laws: The laws become a fact, something that we can check.
*They must respect the unwritten law — When there is a contradiction between political law and natural law, society is able to not obey the political law.
TRAGEDY = Contradiction between natural and political law -The only thing that matters is what can be checked.
“Humans were created equal, with dignity…” this is an absurd sentence, as it is something that cannot be checked.
We don’t know what is just, but we perfectly know what is legal.
Relativism: everybody has moral values and everything can be discussed.
(In our tradition we just can marry one women, while in other traditions they can marry more than one woman).
It is very difficult to find a fundamentation of the human rights — It is very difficult to reach an agreement with everybody and to write a law.
Example: “Everybody has the right to live” but maybe for someone, there are some persons that don’t have the right to live.