3.1. International Regimes (2016)Apunte Inglés
Introduction to International Regimes
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3. Emerging agendas in international political structure.
3.1. International Regimes Are sets of rules that state have established to regulate behaviour and activity within specific areas.
They can be defined as: “Sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area of international relations”.
Their aim is to make International Relations easier by organising how international relations operate. For instance: Transport, Security, Environment and Economy.
3.1.1. International Organisations vs International Regimes International organisations are formal, permanent bodies generally established by states.
On the other hand, International Regimes are generally agreed upon by states and establish rules and norms but don’t necessarily establish new formal bodies.
SOME EXAMPLES OF INTERNATIONAL REGIMES a) Transport: postal service, air traffic, etc.
b) Security: arms control treaties, e.g. nuclear non-proliferation regime, arms trade treaty, etc.
c) Environment: Convention on Biological Diversity, Kyoto Protocol, etc d) Economy: GATT/WTO, IMF, etc.
3.1.2. Different Views on International Regimes: REALISM • Regimes enable states to coordinate and generate benefits for them.
• States use their power in situations that require coordination to influence the nature and conditions of regimes.
• Power is the central feature of regime formation (and of international relations).
3.1.3. Different Views of International Regimes: LIBERALISM • Regimes enable states to collaborate and promote the common good.
• Regimes emerge from the need to overcome the obstacles to collaboration imposed by the anarchic structure of the international system — some form of order is necessary.
• Regimes can promote globalisation and a liberal world order, with a more reduced role of states.
3.1.4. Varying Degrees of Formality Some international regimes are highly formalised agreements and can even involve the setting-up of new international organisations.
Other international regimes operate on an informal basis, based on the existence of precedents / the predictability of behavior of the other actors.
Marta Busquets IPS 2016 3.1.5. 4 Components: From principles to decision-making 1. Principles: coherent theoretical statements about how the world works (e.g. global welfare will be maximised by free trade).
2. Norms: general standards of behaviour, rights and obligations of states.
3. Rules: lower-level forms of behaviour, which allow to introduce exceptions and address conflicts between principles and norms (e.g. establishing differences between developed and developing countries in free trade).
4. Decision-making procedures: specific prescriptions for behaviour, e.g. voting systems 3.1.6. Case Study: The Arms Trade Treaty (2013) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2QIxN_L8-Y "The Arms Trade Treaty is a historic response to the human suffering caused by the widespread availability of weapons both during and after armed conflicts. For the first time ever in an international treaty, States must not transfer weapons or ammunition if they know that they would be used to commit certain war crimes. The ICRC calls on all States to sign, ratify and implement the Arms Trade Treaty and fulfil its promise to reduce human suffering." 3.1.7. Key Actors and their roles • States: they adopt and ratify treaties and take responsibility for making them work.
• Treaty / regime bodies: annual or periodic conferences, permanent secretariats, etc. which allow for decision-making and revision. Sometimes a permanent unit coordinates the action of states, provide support, facilitate knowledge transfer, etc.
• Regional bodies: e.g. EU, OAS (Organisations of American States), AU; which may adopt complementary rules and adopt common positions in global negotiations (ex.EU Common Position on Arms Export).
• UN and other international organisations, which may reinforce (or hinder) the implications of a regime.
• Civil society organisations, in advocacy, monitoring roles, etc.
3.1.8. Some Observations • The complexity of issues addressed by contemporary international regimes leads to many actors being involved - states can rarely act on their own.
• A wide range of forms of relation can be established between actors, from mutual ignorance or formal conflict to collaboration and forms of integrated governance.
• International regimes will generally require integration at regional and, particularly, national level, including in national legislation.
Marta Busquets IPS 2016 3.1.9. Some Relevant Legal Terms • Adoption: the act by which an international document (e.g. treaty, convention) is agreed upon and signed by different states.
• Ratification / acceptance / accession: the act by which an international document is integrated in national legislation.
• Reservation: declaration made by a state which aims to exclude or latter the legal effect of certain principles or rules of an international document.
• Party: legal name accorded to states that have ratified, accepted or acceded to an international document ("Party to the Convention / Treaty", etc.).