20TH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY (2014)Apunte Inglés
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POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 7
THE 20TH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY
1945 = The end of Europe as the center of the Western World, as the master of the world.
1944: “The dialectic of the Enlightenment” —> Written by Horkheimer and Adorno.
THE DIALECTIC OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT.
-How was it possible this destruction in Europe? -A war is not just the result of a political problem —> The war is the expression of the ruin of a civilization.
-Why was it possible to hate each other in that proportion? *Enlightenment has nothing to do with fascism, but they are dialectic connected.
The Enlightenment was an european movement that claimed for freedom.
-Movement based on the self confidence of human being — We can do many things and we will do it.
-They had to break with the magic conception of reality.
Reality as a way of expressing our ideas.
RATIONALITY = Transform reality into the expression of our ideas Nature and society must become rational scenarios. They must be shape with reason.
-Tradition is not the right place for human being —> Act according to something else.
-“Enchantment of the world” THE QUESTION: How was it possible two world wars if European countries were convinced of Enlightenment ideas? WHY THE WORLD WARS WERE A SURPRISE? In 1914 nobody expected the war —> They expected prosperity, peace and harmony, improvement, etc.
1-Almost a 100 years of peace in Europe (From Waterloo to Sarajewo) —> No big conflicts or general wars.
*People had enjoyed peace for a 100 years —> They didn’t thought in terms of war.
[Titanic —> Was unsinkable, nobody thought about a possible sink of the ship. They didn’t have an alternative to a possible accident —> Europe was the same in the period before the two world wars].
*We need to think that security is a dream —> A war is always possible! 2-History was considered as progress —> Our generation is in better conditions than the previous generation, and so on. [History = Progress] 1-Technical progress —> No doubt there is technical progress 2-Moral progress —> Are we really progressing in moral terms? WHAT DOES MORAL PROGRESS MEAN? -If history is not progress, then who are we? -Where did this big mistake come from? POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. UNIT 7 1-We give too much importance to technology —> Gives us power 2-Success of neopositivism —> We can describe reality but we cannot judge it.
3-Liquidation of Enlightenment philosophy.
Sense of history: Who are we? Where this big mistake come from? *There was moral confidence in Europe before the World War —> Then, how was it possible? We need to have HATE in a systematic way —> this violence is not a result of improvisation.
HOW WAS POSSIBLE SO MUCH VIOLENCE? -Concentration on technique —> Technology is used against the enemy.
*Instrumental reason (technology) Technology is a system of life, is an expression of civilization —> Historical form of will to power.
-There is no limit to technology —> Constant transformation without knowing the limit *Everything seems very rational, but in fact everything is irrational.
Technology is extremely dangerous, as we don’t know what we are doing.
Nihilism —> When we don’t have the answer to the question: WHY? Technology continues after the destruction of Europe —> It’s like a second creation It’s a system of life.
WE WANT AND WE LOVE POWER —> technology gives us this power.
Technology is will to power —> Enlightenment has been forgotten and it has turned into the contrary.
We are in hand of irrationality —> We love the sense of power, even though it’s irrational.
*It was possible because during all this time we had been seduced by power and irrationality = Technology.
When everything works we have reasons to be worried and concerned —> The price we’ll have to pay is extremely high.
What is a machine? After the World War —> Lost of trust in ourselves and human being.
*In political philosophy there is one simple goal: NEVER AGAIN —> Avoid violence.
Civilization: Changes violence for words and arguments.
Violence is the worst thing —> Such as Hobbes and Machiavelli.
HOW TO AVOID VIOLENCE? Most important contribution of politics in our country —> Most important topic.