Teaching guide 3 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
Vista previa del texto
Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos Teaching guide 3: The transition from universal model to state model and its consequences.
A. Multiple choice.
1.- d) The Council of Constance (ending of the Western Schism).
2.- a) Brought Enlightened Absolutism for the French kings.
3.- d) Occupation of Rome by Italian Troops in 1870.
4.- a) Charlemagne (800).
5.- d) The Cortes of Leiria of 1254.
6.- c) The burning of the works of the Spanish Jesuit Juan de Mariana in Paris in 1610.
7.- b) Was imposed by kings themselves.
8.- d) Was based in the study of Justinian’s Corpus Iuris Civilis.
9.- c) By Ius Commune as it was considered as “ratio scripta” of Legal legitimacy, and e) the capacity of political survival of the Prince.
10.- a) Look for preventing chaos and maintain social order, d)justified absolute monarchy, and e) represented a decisive rupture with the old pyramidal feudal social structure.
B. Concrete questions.
1.- The origin was the bull Clericis laicos that forbade all secular princes from demanding or receiving extraordinary subsidies from the clergy, and forbade the clergy from paying such subsidies unless they received authorization to do so from the apostolic see.
2.- He said that as French kings had been consecrated at Reims since the time of Pepin the Short (the first to receive episcopal anointing), French kings ruled by “divine right” and, therefore, did not require legitimization by the pope.
3.- He made it by seizing and imprisoning the Pope in what is known as the Anagni Outrage.
Then he relocated the papacy from Rome to Avignon, where it remained under Philip IV of France’s aegis.
4.- One of the issues was the bull Clericis laicos, forbidding secular princes from receiving subsidies from the clergy. Another issue was the legitimacy, with Philip IV arguing that his legitimacy was by divine right. The last issue between them would be the seizing and imprisoning of the Pope and the relocation of the papacy to Avignon.
5.- It dredged up the old premise that the collegial relationship took precedence over the monarchical conception of ecclesiastical power.
6.- The sack of Rome was decisive because after this event Popes would never try to intervene openly on European Politics, thus seriously diminishing Papal power.
7.- It was good because he created the Vatican state, which had been taken from the pope by the time of the Italian reunification, so Mussolini gave them back to the pope.
1 Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos 8.- They respected the pope’s religious authority but the Church of France was constituted as an autonomous organization, free of Roman control. Besides, they did not recognize pope’s supremacy in the political sphere and affirmed that they received their legitimacy directly from God.
9.- Dante in his De Monarchia defended the vision of a universal monarchy. For him, religious and political power should be separated, with the state been ruled by a monarch different from the Pope.
10.- What changed with Napoleon is that the imperial idea no longer relied on tradition but on brute power. He also created a new kind of monarchy, becoming “Emperor of the French”.
11.- It was Germany during the reign of Wilhelm I, his son Wilhelm II, and the First World War, that is, between 1871 and 1918. In this period Germany was in its Second Reich, with imperial ambitions and with some colonial possessions.
12.- No, he headed the Spanish Empire, but as he was not elected German Emperor he could not aspire to the imperial title. However, he had the title of universal monarch.
13.- The British Crown was never constitutionally an empire, although Queen Victoria was formally named “Empress of India”.
14.- He made Francis II to lose 16 states and, with that pressure, he abdicated in August 1806, as Holy Roman Emperor, and the empire disappeared with him. The most important consequences were that 16 states gained independence and that they could raise an army in order to defend themselves from outer influences.
15.- It depends because he did a plebiscite in order to ask the French people whether they accepted his constitution or not. So he was not fully democratic but he took people's opinion into account.
16.- They abandoned papal legitimation from 1211 on, with kings Alfonso II and Sancho II, who confronted the papacy and were excommunicated and stripped of their rights to legitimately occupy the throne. However, it was Alfonso III who managed to overpower the papacy by winning the support of the Portuguese Cortes.
17.- It might be considered revolutionary as it limited the Pope's power, establishing that he should not get involved in political issues. At the same time, it stablished a difference between the religious realm and the political one.
18.- In the Middle Ages kings’ sovereignty was justified on Roman legal texts with principles such as Rex in regno suo est imperator and princeps legibus solutus est. However, the pope was still considered the supreme authority.
19.- It was called Ius commune because it was featured in a common language (Latin) and a common legal culture, and because it was studied in universities all over Europe.
20.- The state appeared in Italy during the Renaissance as the only solution to anarchy and the permanent state of chaos they were suffering. However, these new states were a result of brute power, calculation, and reflection.
21.- He was a foreign person who was asked to rule over a certain city and avoid the struggle for power of the people inhabiting it. However, he was hired only for a certain period of time, being it extended if he managed to subdue rival clans and establish law and order.
2 Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos 22.- Its historicity meant that it was no more than the product of a given society from a given period, and that there was no reason why its authority should be applicable to other periods. So absolute monarchy lost its legitimacy and had to look for a new one, which relied on Natural Law.
23.- According to Machiavelli, power was based on the capacity of political survival of the prince.
He has to overcome difficulties and preserve the state.
24.- He developed sovereignty as an absolute concept because he was overwhelmed by the long and bloody Wars of Religion, which made him a firm supporter of strong and undisputed authority. For him, absolute power takes precedence over everything and everyone else.
25.- Hobbes justified absolutism as the only way of avoiding civil wars and anarchy. In his view, the absolute monarch would be the only one capable of gathering all the wills of the population onto one will.
Roman universalism. It envisages a world ruled by the universal law of Rome and its emperors, with the Pope and the emperor playing a significant role in European politics until the XIII century, when they started to lose their supremacy and importance.
Papal States. They were the territories possessed by the Pope from 754, when Pepin the Short recognized the Pope's territorial domain over the Duchy of Rome, Exarchate and Pentapolis, until 1870, when Rome is occupied and becomes the capital of the Italian state.
Carolingian empire. It began with the coronation of Charlemagne and finished with the death of Charles the Fat in 888. However, Italian kings continued to use the title of emperor until 924.
It encompassed most of central and west Europe.
Holy Roman Empire (first reich). It was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. It included the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, Burgundy, Italy, and many others.
Papal theocracy. Since the late 5th century, and until the 14th, Popes established themselves as the legitimizers of imperial and royal power across Europe. It lasted until the XIV century because, by that time, Philip the Fair of France dared to defy the pope and broke with his legitimacy.
Eastern Schism. It took place on 16 July 1054, when Michael Cerularius and Pope Leo IX excommunicate each other. From that moment on, the Orthodox and Roman Churches remain separated.
Dictatus papae. Document containing 27 statements in which Gregory VII asserts the pope’s supremacy over secular authorities. It was issued in 1075, and was not published in the German Holy Roman Empire, the Iberian Kingdoms, or England.
Gregorian reform. They were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy.
They were in accordance with the principles contained in Dictatus papae.
Investiture contest. It was the most significant conflict between the Church and state in medieval Europe. A series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies, with both wanting to name powerful local church officials. The conflict ended in 1122 with the Concordat 3 Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos of Worms, which differentiated royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops.
Avignon papacy. After the Anagni Outrage, the papacy was relocated from Rome to Avignon, where it remained under the aegis of Philip IV of France. This period started in 1309 and lasted until 1377, when the Western Schism began to take place. It produced a loss of prestige for the papacy.
Western schism. Period from 1378 to 1417 in which multiple popes sought to simultaneously assert and exercise their authority, a situation that provoked a process of constitutional redefinition intended to reunite the Church. It seriously discredited papal authority.
Reformation. It was a schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Luther, Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in the XVI century. Martin Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation with his 1517 work The Ninety-Five Theses.
Protestantism. It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom, along with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy. It was originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
Company of Jesus. It is a male religious congregation created by Saint Ignacio de Loyola in 1540, whose function was to educate the priests of the Catholic Church and evangelize people. It helped the Catholic Church to survive during the Reformation.
Counterreformation. It was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years’ War. It was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, and was composed of four major elements: ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration, religious orders, spiritual movements, and political dimensions.
Act of Supremacy (Henry VIII of England 1534). It is the statement by which Henry VIII, king of England, declared himself the head of the English Church (from that moment on the Anglican Church), and broke with Rome. He also adopted anti-ecclesiastical measures such as the dissolution of monasteries and the confiscation of church lands.
Anglican Church. Through the Act of Supremacy in 1534 Henry VIII nationalized the Anglican Church, naming himself the head of the Church in England. He broke with Rome when Clement VII refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Gallicanism. The king of France respected the pope’s religious authority, but the king endorsed the autonomous organization of the Church of France, free of Roman control. This doctrine was officially approved by a 1682 Assembly of the French clergy at Louis XIV insistence.
Festival of the Supreme Being (Robespierre). It was the festival where Robespierre wanted to inaugurate the new state religion. He declared that 8 June 1974 would be the first day of national celebration of the Supreme Being, and that future holidays were to be held every tenth day.
Separation between the church and the state. It is a concept stressing the distance in the relationship between organized religion and the nation state. It can be done through the creation of a secular state or through changing the existing relationship of church involvement in a state.
Lateran Accords. They were an agreement signed on 11 February 1929 between Pio IX and Benito Mussolini. Through them, Mussolini gave to the Church a piece of land in Rome, which 4 Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos allowed it to create the Vatican State. It was a way of compensating the Church for the loss of the Papal States back in 1870.
De Monarchia (Dante). It was a book written by Dante in which he defended that religious and political authority should be separated, and that the state should be governed by a monarch different from the Pope.
Universal monarchy (Philip II of Spain). It was a new political figure created by Philip II of Spain.
As he was not elected German Emperor, he decided to declare himself a universal monarch. In practice it was the same as a monarch, but the title emphasized the huge possessions he had as the Spanish monarch.
Emperor of the French. It is the title Napoleon gave to himself in 1804, when he was crowned in the presence of the pope. However, his imperial idea relied on brute power, not in tradition, and he created a new kind of monarchy. He crowned himself Emperor of the French because of the ideals of the French Revolution, and because they had voted in favour of him.
Second reich. Also known as Wilhelmine Germany, it lasted from 1871, when Bismarck proclaimed William I in Versailles, until 1918, when the First World War ends with Germany humiliated in the Treaty of Versailles.
Third reich. Lasting from 1933 to 1945, it was the “empire” built by Hitler. It was effective as far as the centralization of Germany was concerned, but not in terms of Germanizing Europe. The idea of the empire endured at the level of propaganda. It was the last attempt at a European “empire”.
Alexandrine bulls (1493). In 1493, Pope Alexander VI divided the new discovered world between the Spaniards and Portuguese in order to formalize the rights of conquest over those new discovered territories. He did so through the Alexandrine bulls, although at the end they were not respected due to an agreement between both kings.
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). Agreement by which the kings of Spain and Portugal decided the limits of their respective spheres of expansion in the new world, regardless of what the Pope Alexander had said a year later in the Alexandrine bulls.
Peace of Westphalia. It was the peace ending the Thirty Years War. It was established in pursuit of security through a balance of power. However, after it Europe fractured into a series of independent states warring each other to impose their hegemony. It is said that it is the base for our modern states.
Rex in regno suo est imperator. It is a formula created in XIII century. It shows the period when the kings stopped trying to be the supreme authorities of the West and centred on being the supreme authority of their kingdom. That’s why they called themselves “emperors” in their kingdom, as no one had more power than them. The next step would be the independence from the papacy.
D. General questions.
1.- In Anagni in 1302 the Pope Boniface VIII was seized and imprisoned by Philip IV of France, and then the papacy was relocated from Rome to Avignon, where the monarch had it under his aegis. It was transcendent for Universalism as it damaged the image of the pope and monarch started to stop looking for its legitimacy and began to believe in new ways of legitimacy, thus discrediting the power of the pope and the Church. Besides, then there was a continuous 5 Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos struggle for power between different popes, which also contributed to a loss of prestige for the papacy.
2.- The main events that mark papal decline from 1302 to 1520 are the 1303 attack at Anagni, the Avignon Papacy from 1309 to 1377, the Wester Schism from 1378 to 1417, and the publishing of Luther’s work in 1517. The attack at Anagni, as has already been explained, showed the weakness of the papacy and discredited him. Besides, the legitimacy taken from the pope was compromised and monarchs started to look for new forms of legitimacy far from the Church.
The era of the Avignon Papacy, along with the Western Schism, resulted in a considerable loss of prestige for the papacy, a profound crisis of papal authority, and an institutional breakdown in the government structure of the Church. This facilitated the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation, that although took place later, was advanced in Luther’s work published in 1517, which placed the first ideas against the Church.
3.- Gallicanism and Anglicanism meant a separation between England and France’s Church and the Roman one. By doing so, the monarchs achieved a complete independence from the Pope, not allowing him to interfere in his internal affairs or to influence in their decisions. These separations were the first steps towards the separation of the religious and political affairs, and of the separation between state and religion, which is a pillar of nowadays’ society.
4.- The Papal States appear in 754, when he anoints Pepin the Short as the King of the Franks and he, in return, recognized the Pope’s territorial domain over the Duchy of Rome, Exarchate and Pentapolis. They disappeared on 20 September 1870, when Italy is finally reunified and Rome becomes its capital. The Pope feels as prisoner of the Italian State.
However, thanks to the Lateran Accords between Mussolini and Pius XI, the Vatican State was founded. It constitutes an independent state inside the territory of Italy. So now it enjoys sovereignty, is considered as an independent state, and the Pope is its head.
5.- In Dante’s view, Western political constitution had to change and stop being so dependent on the Church’s legitimacy. As he said, religious and political powers had to be separated, and the state should be governed by a monarch different from the Pope. So, in the first place the Papal States should not exist or at least should not be governed by the Pope, who is supposed to be just a religious authority, and not a political one.
6.- The Carolingian Empire ended up divided among different realms, with many different people in charge of each of them, and The Holy Roman Empire ended in 1806, under the pressure of Napoleon. Napoleon’s empire, as well as the Second and Third Reich, was based on brute power and in his person. They lacked a hereditary character and were empires based on personality politics, with a charismatic leader without which most of them would not survive, as was the case of the Third Reich. In that sense, they were very different from the empires founded by Charlemagne and Oton I.
7.- The theocratic legitimation of kings is replaced by the pact based legitimation from the second half of the XII century on. The beginning of this trend was seen in the Portuguese case, when Alfonso II and Sancho II confronted the papacy and were excommunicated, but especially when Alfonso III overpowered the papacy by winning the support of the Portuguese Cortes, which met for the first time in 1254 in Leiria. So Portuguese kings were the first ones whose legitimacy relied on pacts with the social classes than on papal approval.
6 Teaching guide 3.
María Llanos 8.- It showed that papal theocracy was fading away because they decided to completely disregard what the pope had said through the Alexandrine Bulls and create a new division of the New World between them. This division was agreed at the bilateral Treaty of Tordesillas, only one year after the Bulls, what showed that monarchs any longer owed any allegiance to the pope or what he represented, and that they were more dependent on the support of their people than on that of the pope.
9.- The political consequences of the sack of Rome were the decrease of papal power, prestige, and capacity of mediating between sovereigns; and that popes would never try again to intervene openly on European politics. Legally, popes retreated into the spiritual realm, and could only be sovereigns within the territorial limits of their own domains, with sovereigns being supreme than the pope. So at the end, even ecclesiastical law and prerogatives had difficulties when trying to be applied within each kingdom.
10.- It had an influence as they helped kings to justify their power and assert their authority over feudal powers. Their justification for power came from the old Roman law contained in Justinian’s Corpus Iuris Civilis, so it was applied and widely respected, at least until the Renaissance, when it lost its ratio scripta status and began to be questioned, especially because it was from another period and because there were voices claiming in favour of the legitimation given by Natural Law. However, until this happened, the academic vision of law was used to justify the king’s legitimacy.
11.- Ius Commune was called as such because it was studied in universities all over Europe; it featured a common language, which was Latin; and a common legal culture. Besides, it was based on the Roman canonical legal tradition, which was the common origin of all nations. Its justification of royal power was based on Roman legal texts, with principles such as Rex in regno suo est imperator and princeps legibus solutus est. Its consequences were that it allowed for kings to strengthen their power and to gain independence from the pope and the emperor, thus leaving political decisions into the hands of secular authorities.
12.- Machiavelli, Bodin and Hobbes had in common that all of them lived in a period of political turbulence, with no clear leaders and with a lot of people trying to get power and become the monarch of the kingdom they were inhabiting. This situation made all of them bet in favour of a strong monarch that was able to control all the political opposition and the territory under his domain, so social struggle could be avoided. So, in their view, absolute monarchy was good as long as it could avoid chaos and maintain social order.
13.- We can talk about protonationalism as, after the Peace of Westphalia, nation-states were established, stressing their sovereignty. So the different states and monarchs began to struggle against each other, looking for their own supremacy over the others and trying to favour their own interests. So we can talk about a growing national sentiment even before the French Revolution, after which nationalism would appear.
14.- The Peace of Westphalia was so important for European constitutional history because it settled the basis for the separation between state and religion, which is one of the main basis of our current societies and one of the guarantees for a democratic state. Besides, it is usually considered as the beginning of our modern nation-states, as it established that each nation was sovereign in itself, thus completely deleting the influence of the pope or emperor. It also established a system of balance of power between the different European nations, although it was not completely effective as it could not avoid new wars between the different nation-states.