Anglès Criminològic apunts (2014)Apunte Inglés
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ANGLÈS CRIMINOLOGIC SCHUMACHER
The Free Dictionary
The Chicago Manual of Style
2 texts a classe , a llegir i analitzar ( preguntes)
2 examens 30% cada un , tipo test , 10 preguntes de vocabulari i de conceptes. ( ex : fraud )
A violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code
created by people holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are
subject to sanctions by state authority, social stigma, and loss of status.
OFFENCE 1. A violation or infraction of a moral or social code; a transgression or sin ( pecat).
2. A transgression of law; a crime.
MISDEMEANOR 1. A misdeed.
2. Law A criminal offense that is less serious than a felony and generally punishable by a fine, a jail term of up to a year ( fins a un any) , or both.
FELONY ( Falta, delito) 1. One of several serious crimes, such as murder, rape, or robbery, punishable by a more stringent sentence than that given for a misdemeanor.
2. Any of several crimes in early English law that were punishable by forfeiture of land or goods and by capital or other serious punishment.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE The system of law enforcement, the bar, the judiciary corrections, and probation that is directly involved in the apprehension, prosecution, defense, sentencing, incarceration, and supervision of those suspected of charged with criminal offenses.
Llegir text : Garland, David : A culturalist theory of punishment? In: Punishment Society ( web) , 11 (2) , ( 2009) , p. 258-267 .
Llegir I entendre. ( Es comentarà a classe) .
JUDICIARY (buscar) CORRECTION ( after) 1. Punishment intended to rehabilitate or improve.
2. The treatment of offenders through a system of penal incarceration, rehabilitation, probation, and parole, or the administrative system by which these are effectuated.
PROBATION 1. The act of suspending the sentence of a person convicted of a criminal offense and granting (concession, te lo conceden) that person provisional freedom on the promise of good behavior.
2. A way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them; a defendant found guilty ( ha sido encontrado culpable) of a crime is released by the court ( tribunal ) without imprisonment subject to conditions imposed by the court.
PAROLE ( LA CONDICIONAL) 1. Early release of a prisoner who is then subject to continued monitoring as well as compliance with certain terms and conditions for a specified period.
2. The duration of such conditional release.
APPREHENSION The act of seizing ( apoderar) or capturing ( capturer) : arrest.
Agafar algo sota el teu control.
ATTORNEY 1. A person legally appointed or empowered to act for another 2. (US) a lawyer qualified to represent clients in legal proceedings, or a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice.
( se diferencia del solicitor , porque puede firmar documentos legales, es una persona que te representa, a veces se dice , pero no es como un abogado , es mas que eso.) ( representante legal) BARRISTER AND SOLICITOR BARRISTER 1. Also called barrister-at-law ( in England) a lawyer who has been called to the bar and is qualified top lead in the higher courts.
2. (in Canada) a lawyer who pleads in court.
3. (US) a less common word for lawyer.
SOLICITOR 1. (in Britain) a lawyer who advises clients on matters of law, draws up legal documents, prepares cases for barristers ,etc.., and who may represent clients in certain courts.
2. (in the US) and officer responsible for the legal affairs of a town, city, etc.
(departamento legal ( solo para aconsejar) PLAINTIFF AND DEFENDANT PLAINTIFF ( el demandant) The party that institutes a suit in a court . Now replaced by claimant.
DEFENDANT ( l’acusat, persona que es defensa contra algo ) A person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law.
The act of bringing criminal charges against someone.
The institution and conduct of legal proceedings against person.
The lawyers acting for the Crown to put the case against a person.
The institution and carrying on of legal proceedings against a person.
Two types : inquisitorial and accusatorial.
Inquisitorial – especially indicating a form of prosecution in which proceedings are secret and the accused is questioned by a prosecutor who acts also as the judge.
Accusatorial – specifically indicating a form of prosecution in which one is publicly accused od and tried for a crime and in which the judge is not also the prosecutor.
POLICY A plan or course of action, as of a government political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters. ( mi empresa o mi gobierno tiene esa política ( vol dir politica en el sentit de decisions o ideals) THEFT (robo en general) ( robatori , tant de grans quantitats com de baixes quantitats, encanvi hurto , es fins a cert valor) The unlawful taking of the property of another; larceny: the prevention of theft.
b. An instance of such taking: several car thefts.
2. Obsolete Something stolen.
1. (Law) criminal law the dishonest taking of property belonging to another person with the int ention of depriving the owner permanentlyof its possession 2. something stolen 1. the act of stealing; larceny.
BURGLARY The act of entering a building or other premises with intent to commit theft. ( allanamiento de morada).
ROBBERY ( ROBO) The act or an instance of unlawfully taking the property of another by the use of violence or intimidation.
CRIMES AGAINST PEOPLE : HOMICIDE ( homicidio) , homicidi és d’una persona contra una altre. Però pot ser sense intenció.
Synonym of MUERDER , murder és més bestia ( la intencionalitat més bestia , és murder.
MURDER : The unlawful killing of another humanbeing without justification or excuse. ( ASSASSÍ) MANSLAUGHTER : The unjustificable, inexcusable , and intentional killing of a human being without deliberation, premediation and malice.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE : System of practices and institutions directed at maintaining social controls,deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who break the law.
Objective : enforcing criminal/penal law CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAW: Criminal law is concerned with dangerous or harmful behavior and acts. It is a legal system that provides a specific definition of the different criminal activities and prescribes to them a punishment.
It must be prosecuted by the state.
Civil Law is set of rules that govern the transactions between individuals.
CRIMINAL LAW: To define an activity as a crime we need 4 elements : Capacity, conduct, responsibility, and defenses.
ACTORS IN A TRIAL : JUDGE : A public official with authority to hear cases and pass sentences in a court of law. A public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of justice.
SOLICITOR, BARRISTER ( UK),ATTORNEY (US), LAWYER: One whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in court or in other legal matters.
PROSECUTOR, GENERAL ATTORNEY: A lawyer empowered to prosecute cases on behalf of a government and its people.
conceptes d’un jutjat ( aprendre) CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM : Complex organization Various stages for appeals ( recursos ) : Police malpractice, withholding ( ocultacion ) of evidence, judge bias , faulty forensic evidence,etc.
In many cases we don’t even reach a trial : short trial ( procés curt ) after guilty confessions or plea baraining ( negociacion de la acusacion) ( but this can force innocent people to confess a crime).
ENGLAND AND WALES The Criminal Justice System is made up of six agencies : ·Police Service ·Crown Prosecution Service ·Her Majesty’s Court Service ·National Offender Management Service ( comprising prisons and probation) ·Youth Justice Board CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM - UK Criminal justice also involves judges and magistrates, defence solicitors, local authorities, the education system, the health sector and voluntary organisations ( such a Victim Support).
Other stakeholders include Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships ( or Community Safety Partnerships in Wales) and the Legal Services Commission… ( falta ) Courts and judiciary tribunals – The structure of the courts EXÀMEN 8 D’ABRIL 3 preguntes de 25%, només es pot respondre amb anglès, s’ha d’entendre.
ES PODEN PORTAR DICCIONARIS O PC AMB TRES LINKS (TRADUCTOR I DICCIONARI) SERÀ UN TEXT D’UNES DUES PÀGINES I MITJA Meta-narrative , una palabra se relaciona con muchos conceptos.