Teaching guide 5 (2016)

Ejercicio Inglés
Universidad Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (URJC)
Grado International Relations - 2º curso
Asignatura EU Political history
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 14
Fecha de subida 28/03/2016
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Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos Teaching guide 5. The apogee of European nation-states (1815-1914).
A. Multiple choice.
1.- e) France.
2.- c) Alexander I of Russia.
3.- a) Lord Castlereagh.
4.- a) The United Kingdom.
5.- b) The 1830 French constitution.
6.- c) 4.250.000 7.- d) Russia.
8.- b) Spain, and d) Prussia.
9.- c) Benjamin Constant, and d) Pierre Pail Royer Collard.
10.- a) 1820 Spanish revolution.
11.- e) Verona.
12.- c) The UK supported independence of Spanish America, and e) the fact that Russia accepted the independence of Greece.
13.- b) The birth of the Belgian State, and e) British Electoral Reform Act of Lord Grey.
14.- a) France.
15.- c) Spain.
16.- e) The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
17.- c) Final Recess.
18.- d) Confederation of the Rhine.
19.- d) Gave birth to the Germanic Confederation.
20.- b) Was a “top down” approach to German Integration, and d) decided to create a Great federation of German States including Austria.
21.- c) Represented the submission of Prussia to Austrian hegemony.
22.- e) Permitted the French occupation of Central Italy.
23.- c) Permitted the occupation of Southern Italy.
24.- d) Wanted to integrate Southern Italy in a unified Italian kingdom.
25.- b) Napoleon’s III defeat at Sedan.
26.- e) 1870.
27.- c) Created a unified state.
Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos 28.- b) Included Austria.
29.- e) Did not include Austria.
30.- c) 1871.
31.- c) The Ems Telegram, and d) the foundation of the Second Reich.
32.- d) Alexander II.
33.- d) Defended the Decembrists rebels in trial.
34.- a) The Russo-Japanese War.
35.- d) The Meiji Era.
36.- b) War between French-Sardinian armies and Austria.
37.- a) Prussia.
38.- a) Austro-Hungarian empire, and c) German empire.
39.- a) The United States, c) Italy, and d) the United Kingdom.
40.- e) Namibia.
B. Concrete questions.
1.- It had a different meaning because in North America the Congress was made up of the representatives elected by the people, and in post-Napoleonic Europe it was made of the representatives sent by the king of each country, who were not democratically elected.
2.- With the Holy Alliance they wanted to recover the legitimacy of the Ancien Regime, that is, the divine legitimacy of the sovereign, thus forgetting about the popular legitimacy stressed by the American and French Revolutions.
3.- It was the system under which the leaders of Austria, Prussia, Russia and United Kingdom agreed to meet in regular congresses by which to examine the situation in other European countries, thus preventing revolutions in them and, in case there were any, decide whether to intervene or not. It can be seen as an attempt at European integration because they acted jointly in order to preserve something they had agreed to.
4.- Liberal meant, politically speaking, a new model of state characterized by written constitutions, generally guaranteeing citizen’s fundamental rights and liberties; by the use of parliamentary system; and by the ability of the nation to set the course of public policy through its elected representatives.
5.- The first pattern was based on the conception of natural law of a social contract between the government and the people that legitimized state power. The second one was that constitutions were granted by the state whereby monarchs accepted and placed limitations on their own power. The last one was the Napoleonic model, a constitution drafted by the executive power and submitted to a plebiscite.
6.- The essential difference was that while the American declaration only applied to all Englishmen, the French one established that every human being has those rights regardless of his origins, nationality, or culture.
Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos 7.- Von Savigny rejected the idea of adopting Napoleonic Codes because in Germany Napoleon was seeing as a foreigner. He said that they had to look for the historical origin of German Law in order to create a pure German Law, thus using a nationalist argument.
8.- They implemented it through the creation of a system in which the people chose electors who then voted for the representatives. In each district citizens were divided into three electoral colleges, each of which represented a third of the total taxes paid in the district. So citizens in colleges one and two were fewer and wealthier than those in college three, thus having more voting power than the ordinary citizens.
9.- It succeeded because after his death, Regent Queen Maria Cristina had to allied with the liberals in order for her daughter to rule, as the population was divided between Elizabeth II and Carlos Maria Isidro, brother of the king Fernando VII.
10.- Its essence was lowering the income requirement to vote and giving Parliamentary representation to industrial cities that previously had no representation, as was the case of Glasgow and Manchester. To do so, it eliminated 165 rotten boroughs.
11.- The only Italian state that preserved liberalism after the 1848 revolution was Piedmont, under Victor Emmanuel II’s rule, who refused to abolish the constitution granted by his father, the Albertine Statute. In order to maintain the liberal regime against Austria, he sought aid from Napoleon III at the initiative of his first minister, Count of Cavour.
12.- German nationalism had a French origin as it started to develop with Napoleon's invasion, creating a sentiment of rejection to the thing imposed by him, a foreigner, and who made German people to feel threatened and humiliated, thus creating a sentiment of unity between them and strengthening their unity in order to fight him back.
13.- The Holy Roman Empire, or first Reich, was abolished on August 6,1806 by Francis II under Napoleon’s pressure and after this last one had created the Confederation of the Rhine, made up of 16 states that previously were part of the Holy Roman Empire.
14.- Prussia's reaction to the Germanic Confederation was the creation of a customs union, called Zollvereign, which then all the German states wanted to join.
15.- First, all the rebels' demands were accepted and a constituent assembly was convened.
However, the army, loyal to the Crown, counterattacked, and the Emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his nephew Franz Joseph, who suspended the constituent assembly and promulgated a new constitution that was ultimately suspended. Then he allied with Russia and divided Hungary into various provinces, thus ending the Hungarian rebellion.
16.- The consequences in Prussia were a Bottom up approach to Prussian constitutionalism, although it failed, as the National Assembly was elected by universal suffrage and as it approved a constitution for Germany and offered the King the crown. However, he rejected it.
17.- The main difference between their visions was that Balbo wanted the monarch to play an essential role in the state, while Cavour thought that the parliament should be the centre of the new political regime.
18.- It was a bottom up process as the conquest of the territories was formalized through the convocation of constitutional assemblies which, once elected, approved their incorporation into the Sardinian Kingdom. Besides, the procedure was concluded by a referendum in which the people were asked whether they accepted their integration into the new Italian Kingdom.
Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos 19.- It was the situation in which Rome was, with the Pope and the Italian state claiming its ownership. As the Pope was its owner, no sovereign dared to defy him, until Garibaldi, supported by the people, decided to conquer Rome and end with the Papal States. However, the Roman question would not be solved until February 1929, when Mussolini gave nowadays’ Vatican State to the Pope.
20.- It was different because in the Italian case it was a democratic movement from the people, adopting a parliamentary regime. In the case of Germany, unification was brought about by the princes of the various Germanic states, led first by the Emperor of Austria and later by the King of Prussia. In this case integration was legitimized through diplomatic agreements between sovereigns, while in Italy it was through popular vote.
21.- It was Bismarck’s fight against the Catholic Church, in an attempt to restore German national identity, based on Protestantism. In order to do so, he made the Church to lose its privileges in the German states, disbanded monastic orders, assumed the right to name priests, and gave priority to civil marriage.
22.- Bismarck did not consolidate a parliamentary regime because he never accepted the imperial government depending upon a majority in the Reichstag, insisting that it be freely appointed by the Kaiser. Thus, the Emperor continued to unilaterally control the government.
23.- Bismarck did not unify Germany, as it was a federation and he never wanted the small states to disappear. Besides, the real unification of Germany would not come about until after World War I, with the foundation of the Weimar Republic in 1919.
24.- The Napoleonic Wars had not any constitutional consequences in Russia, as it only brought the ideas of the French Revolution to the country, without any constitutional changes been introduced during Alexander I’s reign.
25.- His biggest achievement was to order for the first time Russia’s legal system, compiling all its laws and thus making possible for the country to create its first written constitution, that of 1906.
26.- Tsarist Russia became a constitutional monarchy in 1906, when the first Russian constitution was accepted under the reign of Nicholas II, establishing a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary regime, along with some civil liberties and universal male suffrage. The constitution stipulated how the tsar was to exercise his prerogatives, and that he had to share his power with an elected parliament composed of two chambers. Russia would remain a constitutional monarchy until 1917, when the two revolutions broke out.
27.- It did as it made Japan to copy Western ways and processes in order to strengthen itself and not to be dominated any longer by Western powers. So it created a permanent and professional army during the Meiji Revolution, thus becoming the model to follow in Asia and changing permanently the continent.
28.- The consolidation of the nation-state model in the nineteenth century decisively transformed jurisprudence, furnishing law with a political dimension and meaning, as it gradually evolved into an instrument of the state.
29.- The Prussian problem concerning colonialism was that, as it unified so late and France and Britain had dominated the colonial expansion, it could only barely manage to occupy Namibia, Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos something that was clearly frustrating because the German Empire had become a major industrial power in need of war materials and new markets.
30.- It was Bismarck’s way of designating Central Europe. It implied a pan-Germanist statecentric imperium, in opposition to France and United Kingdom’s empires in African and Asia. Its cultural sphere comprised the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, the Congress of Poland, and the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire.
C. Concepts.
Restoration. It was the system agreed at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon. With it, the old European monarchs were reinstalled in their kingdom, and old boundaries were resettled. It was an attempt to erase the principles emanating from the French Revolution and maintain the old religious justification for the power of monarchs.
Congress of Vienna. It was a congress in which European statesmen met in order to provide Europe with a long-term peace plan after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. It was held from September 1814 until June 1815. It established a balance of power and restored old boundaries, placing each monarch in his kingdom, as a return to the Ancien Régime.
Holy Alliance. It was an alliance between the monarchs of Russia, Austria and Prussia. It provided for the legitimation of power that had been in force during the Ancien Régime, and tried to erase the belief that the people instead of the king constituted the nation. It provided for those powers the capacity to meet and decide whether to act or not in other European countries in order to prevent the advent of a new revolution.
Metternich System. It was the system established after the Congress of Vienna of 1815, named after his pioneer, Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, the Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire at that time. It was a system based on counterweights, with the four main European powers safeguarding the order established by themselves over Europe, even intervening if they deemed it to be necessary.
Ancien Régime. Also known as the Old Regime, it was the monarchic, aristocratic, social, and political system established around the fifteenth century in Europe. In it, the power laid mainly in the king, who could delegate some issues in a representative chamber, which most of the time was only to counsel the king and which only represented the clergy and nobility, with few representative of the Third Estate, especially if we take into account that they were the majority of the population.
Louis XVIII’s Charte. Charter issued in 1814 by France's king Louis XVIII by which he tried to restore the Ancien Regime in France. It was a unilateral concession, laying down the foundations for a parliamentary regime. In order not to give power to the masses, he established censitary suffrage, thus not allowing a huge majority of the French population to vote.
Indirect suffrage. It is a voting system in which the people choose the electors, who are the people that then will choose between the candidates for an office, electing one. In the nineteenth century, it allowed for states to have some kind of “universal" suffrage while curtailing people's real capacity to elect their representatives.
Censitary suffrage. It is a voting system in which the people allowed to vote is elected depending on their income. That means that, usually, the richest people in society are the ones able to vote, Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos although it depends on the level of income the government establishes in order to allow people to vote.
Ideological nationalism. It is a doctrine named by Smith consisting of the sentiments within European groups united by their linguistic, cultural and historic ties. It holds six basic ideas. The first one is that humanity is divided into nations, each with its own character, history and destiny.
The second is that the nation is the sole source of political power. The next is that loyalty to the nation takes precedence over other loyalties. The fourth that to be free, human beings must belong to a nation. The fifth holds that nations require maximum autonomy and self-expression; and the last says that global peace and justice can only be built on the basis of a plurality of free nations.
Volksgeist. It is the unique spirit of the people of a nation, possessed collectively by them. This concept was initially coined by the German philosopher Herder, who did it in 1801. This idea has been used to encourage the German-speaking peoples to forge a national and cultural identity.
However, with time its meaning has been changed and developed, encompassing a lot of fields.
Liberal Oligarchy. It was the wealthy, liberal bourgeoisie who managed to seize power after the Restoration by imposing representative, parliamentary-based regimes which replaced or at least restricted royal prerogative. It was thought to be a legitimate power laying in the nation, in the citizens as a whole, but in fact it was not, as the ruling class were those richer and the people able to vote was very few, with censitary suffrage been very common, or with a system of universal suffrage that did not allow for a real democracy.
Doctrinaires Liberalism. They were moderate liberals who viewed monarchy as compatible with the establishment of a constitutional regime. They openly called for individual liberty vis-à-vis the state and the establishment of a regime characterized by civil and political freedom and based on adequate education. Two important thinkers of this movement were Pierre Paul Royer-Collard and Benjamin Constant.
Revolutionary Liberalism. It was a more radical approach to Liberalism than that of the Doctrinaires, based on a more extremist class whose members sought a radical break with the Ancien Régime and monarchy, calling for the re-establishment of Jacobin principles. For them, sovereignty laid not on the king but in the nation, and the nation should adopt constitutions setting down national principles and regulating the functioning of the state through its representatives.
Riego’s Revolt (1820) and Liberal Triennium. Riego’s Revolt was a Spanish liberal revolt led by Major Rafael del Riego who in early 1820 managed to orchestrate a rebellion in Seville by the troops of Ferdinand VII intended to send to America to subjugate pro-independence rebels. As a result, the king capitulated and restored the 1812 constitution, a liberal one, and the Liberal Triennium started. The king was under the control of the Cortes until September 30, 1823, when the Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis got to Cadiz and making them to surrender, ending the Liberal Triennium.
July Monarchy (France). It was the new regime emerging after the “popular revolution” that took Paris in July 1830, overthrowing the absolutist king Charles X and imposing a constituent assembly, inspired by Riego’s Revolt in Spain. From it, a new regime emerged in the form of a constitutional monarchy under the king Louis Philippe of Orleans.
Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos Electoral Reform Act (1832). It was a law approved by the British Parliament on June 4, 1832 thanks to the leadership of Lord Grey. It introduced a redistribution of electoral districts, eliminating 165 rotten boroughs and giving parliamentary representation to new industrial cities, lowering also the income requirement to vote. It favoured the urban bourgeoisie.
Albertine Statute (Piedmont). Liberal constitution promulgated by the King of PiedmontSardinia, Charles Albert, father of Victor Emmanuel II, on March 4, 1848. It persisted, despite the revolution's failure, as a symbol of free Italy, as it was not abolished. By promulgating it, he wanted to create a monarchy limited by parliamentary action, creating a two-chamber parliament.
Confederation of Rhine (1805). Confederation of Germanic states created by Napoleon in 1805 after his victory at Austerlitz, which replaced the old Holy German-Roman Empire. The treaty constituting it was signed on July 12, 1806 by 16 founding states, with Napoleon as its protector.
After the formal dissolution of the Empire, more states decided to join the Confederation, being 36 in 1808.
Germanic Confederation (1815). It was the confederation replacing the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine, as was disposed in the Congress of Vienna. It was made up of 39 states under the Emperor of Austria, which represented a reversion to the structure of the Holy German-Roman Empire. However, it was a weak union in which the states maintained their total independence, only meeting sporadically in assemblies that represented the sovereigns of their states, not their citizens.
Zollverein (1818). It was a reaction to the Germanic Confederation by the Kingdom of Prussia, which decided to establish a customs union, making interior customs to disappear and increasing the tariffs for those not belonging to the Zollverein. It provoked an increase in economic activity, and made all German states to want to form part of it. By 1834, all the states of the Germanic Confederation had been incorporated into the Zollverein.
Frankfurt Parliament. It was a constitutional assembly charged with drafting a Prussian constitution for the 39 German states part of the German Confederation. It was constituted on May 18, 1848, after the revolution that broke out in Berlin and with the agreement of King Frederick William IV. However, and after having made the constitution establishing the German state and creating a government consisted of an emperor and an elected parliament, the king decided to reject the crown offered to him, as accepting it would mean being appointed by an elected assembly and renouncing his dynastic legitimacy.
Frederick William IV of Prussia. He was the successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, being King from 1840 until 1861. He was the one ruling during the time of the Frankfurt Parliament, and he decided not to accept the crown and title offered to him by his parliament, which proposed him to be the Emperor of the Germans in 1849. He did not want to accept them as it would have meant that his legitimacy emanated from the people, and that the people were the ones forming the nation, something he would never accept as he was very conservative.
Erfurt Union (Punctation of Olmütz). It was the new attempt of the King of Prussia of creating a union. It was joined by small states that would elect a parliament, which would meet in Erfurt, and adopt a constitution presented by the King of Prussia. However, Austria opposed to that union and put pressure on Frederick William, the King of Prussia, until he accepted all of Austria’s conditions in the Punctuation of Olmütz of November 1850, by which the Erfurt Union was dissolved and the Austrian Empire again ruled over the German states.
Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos Prussian Constitution (1850). It was adopted on 31 January 1850, under the reign of Frederick William IV of Prussia. It was far less liberal than the federal constitution of the German Empire.
It granted a lot of power to the monarch, and divided the system upon two chambers. The lower one was elected by censitary suffrage, with small powers and not ability to control the government. The upper chamber was largely controlled by the conservative Junkers, although Rhenish and Westphalian mine owners enjoyed certain important influence.
Camillo Benso (Count of Cavour). He was the first minister of King Victor Emmanuel II, and a patriot determined to bring about a united Italy, helping in the process of reunification by supporting Garibaldi’s campaigns to unite Italy. For him, the parliament should be placed at the centre of the new regime arising after the unification, and after it he was named Prime Minister of Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II. Son of Charles Albert, he was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia at the time of the Italian Risorgimento. His first minister was Camillo Benso, the Count of Cavour. After the reunification, in 1861, he became the King of Italy, being the first king of Italy since the 6th century.
Risorgimento. Also known as the Resurgence, it was the 19th century movement for Italian unification that culminated in the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, although it would not be fully unified until 1870, when Rome was finally incorporated. It aimed to integrate the different Italian states and form a single nation-state, transforming Italy into one of the great European powers.
Plombières Agreement (1858). It was a secret verbal agreement between Napoleon III, emperor of France, and the Count of Cavour, chef minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. It was an alliance between both kingdoms in order to help each other to fight Austria and get it out of Italy, thus paving the way for Italian unification and independence. In exchange for France's help, Piedmont-Sardinia decided to give it the territories of Nice and Savoy.
Red shirts (Garibaldi). It was the name given to the army of Garibaldi because of their clothing, as they used red shirts. They were volunteers that fought with him during the Annexation of the South and his other military campaigns in order to reunify Italy.
Roman Question. It was the issue of what was going to happen to Rome after the Italian unification, as the people fighting for the unity of Italy thought Rome was a crucial part of it, wanting to name it its capital, and at the same time the Pope refused to give it up, as it was part of the Papal States. Furthermore, no king dared to defy the pope, finally being Garibaldi the one conquering Rome. However, the Roman question did not end here, as still the Pope claimed sovereignty over it. The issue was eventually closed in February 1929, when Mussolini gave the Vatican City to the Pope.
Iron Chancellor (Bismarck). He was Germany’s head of government and chancellor from 1862, when King William I appointed him as head of his government, until 1890, when he was taken out of charge by King William II. He has been named as the iron chancellor because he managed to forge Germany into one single nation and to transform it into Europe’s leading power. He also did not hesitate in challenging the parliament by promulgating a series of decrees necessaries to secure the money necessary to bolster Prussian military power.
North German Confederation (1866). It was the confederation replacing the German Confederation, created by Bismarck after defeating Austria, led by Prussia and made up of the Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos 21 states north of the Main River, with Austria remaining excluded. It was structured as a federal government assuming some of the powers of its 21 member states. It was presided over by the King of Prussia and its chancellor, and presided two assemblies: the Reichstag, representing the German people and elected by universal suffrage; and the Bundesrat, representing the governments of the different states. The federal government had sovereign jurisdiction over all diplomatic affairs, economic policy and military matter, with the army been commanded by the King of Prussia.
Franco-Prussian War. It was the war taking place between France and Germany, from July 1870 until May 1871, while Napoleon III and William I were in power. Germany was the winning power, bearing the German Empire after it. With it, Germany annexed Alsace and Lorraine, and humiliated France by conquering Paris and proclaiming William I as German Emperor at the Palace of Versailles.
German Empire (Second Reich, 1871). It was the Second German Empire, starting in 1871 with the victory over France and lasting until 1918, when Germany was defeated in World War I. It encompassed the reign of William I, Friedrich III, and William II. During this period Germany became one of Europe’s leading powers and developed its industry and its empire, even acquiring some colonies in Africa.
Mikhail Speransky. He was a Russian jurist, author of “On the Fundamental Laws of the State”, who advocated that monarchy’s powers needed to be limited by society. Although he did not propose democracy, he made attempts to introduce the principle of the rule of law in Russia.
He believed that the time called for a constitutional monarchy kept in check by public opinion, with a legislative body to assist this process. He also was the author of the codification of Russian laws, which helped to create the first Russian constitution, that of 1906.
1905 Revolution (Russia). It was the revolution taking place in Russia during the reign of Nicholas II and after the loss of the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. The revolution forced the tsar to accept the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system, being the first time that the tsar shared his power with an elected parliament composed of two houses: the upper chamber and the Duma. He signed a manifesto grating civil liberties and universal male suffrage, and in 1906 he enacted the first Russian constitution.
Armed Peace. It refers to the period encompassing from 1895 until 1911, when European powers started to create alliances in order to feel secure before a possible threat coming from other powers. It was a reaction to the tension created due to the colonial rivalries and economic conflicts. It meant a period of widespread rearmament and the constitution of defensive alliances aimed at regulating colonial expansion, although at the end this “defensive” measure was the cause of the war.
D. General questions.
1.- The main argument the 1815’s restoration leaders, named the Tsar of Russia, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Austria, used was that the established order had been determined by God, and that men could not alter it without endangering peace and justice. This was the same argument used during the Ancien Régime, which was deeply based on Christian religion.
So they based their administrations and political relations on the Holy precepts of justice, Christian Charity, and Peace, and they agreed to provide each other aid and mutual support. By using this argument, they wanted to eradicate the principles of the French Revolution (it is the citizens rather than the monarch who constitute a nation; it falls upon the people to create the Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos constitutional framework governing the actions of the state; and it is the nation which should govern, through its duly elected representatives) and impose again the Ancien Régime that prevailed in Europe prior to the American and French Revolutions.
2.- Metternich transformed the sense of the Holy Alliance by legitimizing the principle that the signatory powers could intervene to abort any revolutionary outbreaks. Thus it was agreed that if a state broke Europe’s established order, morally or materially, it was the duty and the right of the other rules (Austria, UK, Prussia, and Russia) to re-establish the stability which had been disturbed. Thus, this provision set the stage for concerted efforts by the powers to maintain the Ancien Régime, as could be seen in the intervention in Spain after Riego’s Revolt of 1820.
He also introduced a clause calling for regular “congresses” by which the powers were to examine the situation in Europe and make decisions, depending on the circumstances, regarding the adoption of appropriate measures to address them. This clause was added after the withdrawal of the Quadruple Alliance’s troops from France in 1818, and was established in a secret protocol, aiming to prevent revolutionary disorders.
3.- The Metternich system could be considered a Forerunner of European integration because the main European powers at that time (UK, Prussia, Austria, and Russia) decided to act together in order to achieve a common objective, which was countering liberals from all over Europe anxious to promote the nation-state model. Although this early kind of integration is very different from the one we have today, which is mainly economic, it made them to act jointly and in concert to preserve the order established at the Congress of Vienna. So, even though it had no economic components, it was some kind of European integration as they all agreed to a common objective and acted accordingly to it.
4.- The Liberal Oligarchy controlled the State by virtue of the representative parliamentarybased regime, as these regimes only represented the affluent because the income requirement to vote was high, thus only allowing those richer to vote, and in order to be elected as representative, you had to be even richer. Even in those states were there was a more “democratic” and universal suffrage, the system was prepared for favouring those with more money or properties, dividing the electorate into electoral colleges depending on their income level, and assigning more people to those colleges with less income, thus giving them less representation.
In this way the Liberal Oligarchy managed to control the State for many years, as in most countries electoral reforms took a long time to me approved or implemented. So although the royal prerogatives were somehow abolished by the parliamentary regime, poor people were still unrepresented and their interests were not heard. Besides, the high requirements to be eligible for being a representative lasted even more time to be abolished, as at the beginning the charge was not payed, so only those wealthier could afford to be elected.
5.- Intellectuals contributed to develop the idea of a Europe of nationalities through the triumph of the Romantic ideal and nationalism as something opposed to the Enlightenment, claiming people’s right to politically and legally organize themselves in states characterized by a people united by their linguistic, cultural, and historical ties. The core doctrine of nationalism was based on six ideas. The first one holds that humanity is divided into nations, each with its own character, history and destiny; the second that the nation is the sole source of political power; the third that loyalty to the nation takes precedence over other loyalties; the fourth that to be free, human beings must belong to a nation; then that nations require maximum autonomy and Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos self-expression; and last that global peace and justice can only be built on the basis of a plurality of free nations.
As a result of this movement, then historians began to search for the origins of their people’s national identities. This ultimately impacted the legal organization of nations, encouraging jurists to discover and apply, through historical research, the nation’s own unique law, which was to be rooted in the spirit of the people. This trend caused the vision of a Europe of nationalities, with new states appearing and some others disintegrating.
6.- The essential difference between Doctrinaires Liberalism and Revolutionary Liberalism was their view on monarchy. For the Doctrinaires, monarchy was compatible with the establishment of a constitutional regime, thus having a more moderate position. However, the Revolutionaries wanted a more radical break with the Ancien Régime and monarchy, calling for the reestablishment of Jacobin principles. For them, sovereignty laid on the nation, not on the king, and the nations should be the one adopting constitutions setting down national principles and regulating the functioning of the state through its representatives. On the other hand, the Doctrinaires called for individual liberty vis-à-vis the state and the establishment of a regime characterized by civil and political freedom and based on adequate education.
7.- Riego’s Revolt and the Liberal Triennium spearheaded the Liberal Revolution from 1820 to 1830 because it was the first successful revolt against a king, in this case Ferdinand VII, who had openly restored absolutism, disregarding the 1812’s Constitution. So Riego’s Revolt came to be a symbol of the Liberal Revolution as after it, Ferdinand VII ended up capitulating and restored the 1812’s constitution. The Revolt also helped the countries in Spanish America to get independence from Spain, as the troops that were intended to be sent there to subjugate proindependence rebels did not arrive on time thanks to the revolt. Thus, its clear success and liberal character, especially if we take into account that Riego was a military, explain why it was the beginning of the Liberal Revolutions that took place between 1820 and 1830.
8.- The Metternich System started to collapse in 1808, with the uprisings that took place in Spanish America. However, it would not be until 1820 on, with Colonel Riego’s Revolt, when the system would definitely collapse. This coup prevented Spanish reinforcements from reaching the country’s American colonies, and with the refusal of the powers gathered at Verona to intervene in Spanish America, Spain lost most of its overseas territories, maintaining only Cuba and the Philippines. The pivotal actor in this process was the United Kingdom, who refused to intervene in Spanish America as it would favour its colonial interests, although at the end, with the American decision of not allowing Europeans to have influence in America, UK’s plans went wrong.
9.- The French Revolution of 1830 and the July Monarchy influenced the Spanish Liberals approach to the Liberal Revolution giving them the example of a popular revolution, not a military one, and of a constitutional monarchy, with the king agreeing to take a liberal approach.
This was seeing in Spain, when after the death of Ferdinand VII in 1833, leaving no male heir, the country faced the decision of whether to have a female sovereign (Isabella II, daughter of the deceased king) or a male one (Carlos Maria Isidro, brother of Ferdinand VII). In order for her daughter to be Queen, the regent queen Maria Cristina had to ally with the liberals, and when trying to grant a royal charter in 1834, the rebellion of a group of Royal Guard sergeants made her to restore the 1812’s Constitution, which was a liberal one.
10.- The British Whigs reacted to the 1830 revolution not with another revolution, but with the approval of a new electoral law that would widen the right to vote. It was called the Electoral Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos Reform Act, which introduced a sweeping redistribution of electoral districts, and which was passed on June 4, 1832, thanks to the endorsement and leadership of Lord Grey. It eliminated 165 rotten boroughs, while gave parliamentary representation to new industrial cities such as Manchester and Glasgow. Besides, it also lowered the income requirement to vote, favouring the urban bourgeoisie. This Electoral Reform Act of 1832 marked a decisive step towards the democratization of Britain’s parliamentary regime.
11.- The consequences of the 1848 revolution in Italy were the abdication of Charles Albert of Piedmont in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II; the Radetzky’s troops taking Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and the northern Papal sates; Rome occupied by a French expeditionary force which defeated Garibaldi and abolished the Roman Republic, and only then allowed the Pope to return to his states; the fall of Venice; the reestablishment of an absolutist regime and the harsh repression of the liberals; and the becoming of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia as a symbol of national unity.
The consequences of the 1848 revolution in the German territories were, in what concerns Austria, none, as it has supressed. However, in Prussia it did have consequences, as at the end the King granted a constitution establishing a constitutional regime with a bicameral legislature, although this constitution still was hardly democratic, favouring the representation of the wealthy, and the King maintained his privilege of naming and dismissing the ministers.
The consequences of the 1848 revolution in France were the disappearance of the July Monarchy and the Second French Republic was established. Social rights were recognized as fundamental rights, and universal male suffrage was established. However, this would last little as Napoleon III was democratically elected president and established the Second Empire.
Nevertheless, it saw an evolution from despotism towards greater democracy.
12.- As we know, Italians took a Bottom up approach while Germany took a Top down one. This can be explained by Prussian’s King, Frederick William IV, desire of making clear that the establishment of a constitutional regime was the prerogative of the king, and not that of the “nation”. That is why he refused the crown and constitution offered to him by the Frankfurt Parliament, thus dismissing the only possible Bottom up approach to German unification.
In the Italian case, we have that it was the people who wanted Italy to be unified in a single country, and that they were the ones fighting for it, headed in the south by Garibaldi, although we have to recognize the institutional role of the King of Piedmont-Sardinia, Victor Emmanuel II, and his prime minister, the Count of Cavour, who also favoured the unification. However, the German one was only made by the heads of government of each state forming the then German state, thus impeding the population to take participation in the process.
13.- The Kingdom of Italy, initially created in 1861, could not have Rome as its capital as at that time Rome was still part of the Papal States, with the Pope as its sovereign and at the same time the head of the Catholic Church. That is why governments and Catholic sovereigns refused to occupy this territory, as it would meant a direct confrontation with the Church. This was the case of Victor Emmanuel II, who preferred to leave Rome for the Pope rather than defying him. So it was Garibaldi, supported by the Italian public opinion, who dared to do so.
However, he had to fight French soldiers as they were defending the city by orders of Napoleon III who chose to defend the Pope because of the strong Catholic faith of his wife, the Spaniard Eugenia de Montijo. So Garibaldi had to wait until the Franco-Prussian War, when French Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos soldiers withdrew, to enter the city on 20 September 1870. Its annexation was finally consolidated through a plebiscite, and Rome became the capital of Italy.
14.- In 1848 King Frederick William IV of Prussia decided to take the leading role in the German unification process by supplanting the Austrian Emperor and establishing himself as the new champion of all the German-speaking peoples, and convening for a National Assembly to be elected by universal male suffrage. It met in Frankfurt and offered the crown to Frederick William IV, but he decided to refuse it because he wanted the unification to be spearheaded by the Prussian monarchy. He proposed a new German Empire, only accepted by small states, but that at the end did not take shape because of Austria’s opposition, and with Austria again ruling over the German states. In 1850, the Prussian King decided to enact a Prussian Constitution.
In 1861 King Frederick William IV died and William I raised to the throne, appointing Bismarck as the head of his government. In 4 years, he built up an army capable of defeating Austria, thus dissolving the German Confederation headed by it and replacing it with the North German Confederacy, led by Prussia and with Austria excluded. Bismarck drafted the constitution in 1866, which after a few amendments would become in 1871 the Constitution of the German Empire.
15.- Bismarck’s Prussia was not a unified state as it was composed of several small states, each of them retaining most of its competences and its own model of government. Although they shared some institutions and had some common competences regulated through the federal government, the Reichstag, and the Bundesrat, the truth is that Prussia worked more as a confederation of different states than as a single and independent state, as some matters were still competence if the states. Besides, there were differences among them, and there was no willing to make these divisions and differences disappear, as it was even Bismarck’s desire to consider them as separate states, and not as had being incorporated into Prussia.
16.- Bismarck’s Kulturkampf was his radical opposition to the Church, that finally led him to a frontal assault in which he declared on the Roman Catholic Church, as he desired to establish a powerful secular state completely independent of any spiritual or religious organization. In order to do so, he obtained from the Reichstag a series of measures aimed against the Church, which gradually lost its privileges in German states, as Bismarck wanted to consolidate German national identity within the Protestant tradition to which he belonged.
However, unified Italy took the opposite direction regarding the religious question, as although it had to take Rome from the Pope in order to finally have Italy unified, it tried by no means to discredit the Papacy or the Catholic Church. In fact, what it did in order to compensate the Pope was to give him the prerogatives of a sovereign by maintaining the Vatican and Lateran palaces, and granting him a pension from the Italian government. Besides, he was also assured of the absolute freedom of the conclaves, and the Italian state relinquished control of the clergy. So we have that German and Italian approaches to the Church were opposite, with the first trying to erase its influence, and the second giving independence to it instead of taking advantage of the situation and dominating it.
17.- The Liberal revolution took place in Tsarist Russia in 1905, after losing the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 and 1905. The revolution forced the tsar to accept the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. He also signed a manifesto grating civil liberties and universal male suffrage, and on April 23, 1906 he enacted the Russian Fundamental Law containing regulations stipulating how the tsar was to exercise his prerogatives, which is considered the first Russian constitution. In 1906, for the first time, the tsar shared his power Teaching guide 5.
Maria Llanos with an elected parliament composed of two houses: the upper chamber, named the State Council, and the lower one, whose name was the Duma. However, Russian liberals did not really took power as they were not powerful enough in the Duma. Besides, the regime was short-lived, as the outbreak of World War I triggered two revolutions in 1917, and as the tsar never really obeyed the regulations of the 1906 Constitution.
18.- The triumph of the liberal model of state in Europe led to the Armed Peace because it also strengthen nationalist feelings, creating powerful countries and weakening the mechanisms for cooperation and accord between them. Moreover, and by consolidating nation-states, the European political model of stability through coalition built and maintained by Metternich was replaced by a dynamic in which powerful nations squared off against and competed with each other. In addition to this, the unification or creation of new states, as was the case of Italy or Germany, could not be achieved without clashes and wars, thus fostering rivalries and competition among states. To all those conflicts we have to add the contest between European states when it concerned the colonial expansion, with all of them wanting to have more than the others.
At the end, this made them to rearm themselves and to constitute defensive alliances aimed at regulating colonial expansion. However, the international situation created by this practice finally became the decisive cause of World War I, making a local conflict to escalate to unprecedented levels.