Lectura 7 (2017)Ejercicio Inglés
Vista previa del texto
Tremblay, R. (2007). The development of youth violence: An old story with new data.
European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 13: 161-170.
1. Comenta la figura 1 del texto en relación con la siguiente frase: “In contrast to hypotheses concerning the late onset of antisocial behavior, Nagin and Tremblay (1999) did not find any group of boys in which there appeared to be an “onset” and the maintenance of high levels of physical aggression for a significant number of years after the age of six.” (Tremblay, 2007, p. 163).
This statement strongly differs from the one that could be called the most “obvious” (regarding human aggressive behavior) , supported by big names such as the World Health organization or Surgeon General, which basically consider that the period of time where humans behave more violently is adolescence (12 to 18 years old), due to the increase of physical and cognitive strength, together with a decrease of adult supervision and the access to features of the adult life such as sexuality, transportation and money. As the figure number one shows, Nagin and Tremblay’s hypotheses, totally contrasts with the one just explained. According to these authors the aggressive behavior is more common among kids before adolescence (ages 6 to 10) because the majority of the groups showed in the graph (low, and moderate frequency of aggressive behavior groups, which represent a massive majority of the global sample ,80% approximately), have got the tendency to decrease with time. The only group that doesn’t decrease after the entrance to the teenage world is the one formed by high frequency violent children (4% of the sample), which will even increase its frequency after the age of 12. Teenagers from this group will commit a lot of crimes, violent acts and even be arrested numerous times, thing that will generate the famous and misleading peak of delinquency in adolescence.
2. Una vez leído el texto: ¿Crees que el autor propone que el comportamiento violento es innato, o aprendido? Guillem Campillo unybook.com The author treats this issue explaining different points of views such as Rousseau’s, who defended the fact that kids are born good and benevolent, but they end up being corrupted by an evil society, or John Locke’s opinion, radically different, regarding infants as selfish machines striving for pleasure and power, born unfit for society.
Following Darwin’s steps, Bridges and Goodenough, realized a study which proved that violence was present in babies’ behavior even before 2 years of age. Such violent behavior had never been given importance to before because the strength of such infants is too limited to hurt anyone, but it’s just as St. Augustine of Thagaste said 1600 years ago: “Thus it is not the infant’s will that is harmless, but the weakness of infant limbs”.
According to the author this aggressivity take please because when babies develop physical abilities before mental ones, so if a baby desires a toy he will try to take it by force (he doesn’t know how to ask for it) and if he sees his intentions frustrated he will act even more violently. However, as infants grow, most of them will learn by imitation that the use of cognitive skills will be more rewarded and useful than the use of force and will chose them, however some kids will grow in a violent environment and regard violence as a mean for obtaining goals, and stick to the violent methods. In short, the author considers that the aggressive behavior is inherent, because after all, infants don’t have to learn to aggress but not to aggress.
3. Argumenta si los mismos argumentos que llevan al autor a explicar la conducta violenta, deberían servir para entender otras formas de delincuencia, como la delincuencia contra la propiedad.
I think that, indeed, the arguments exposed by the author that lead to violent conducts can as well be used to explain, at least, some of the crimes against property. The most obvious property crimes that could be related to violent conduct, are the property crimes involving violence itself. Robbery for instance, understood as taking someone else’s property (valuable objects or money) using force and/or threat. If you analyze this felony it’s actually not really different from the first violent conducts explained in the text and mentioned in the previous questions: when an infant wants to acquire the property of an object, a toy for instance, will instinctively try to get it by force. In both cases, we can see someone with poor social skills that have decided to fulfill his objectives through the easy way. Other property crimes such as larceny, burglary or shoplifting, even though they don’t involve violence can actually be explained by Guillem Campillo unybook.com analogy: if someone wants to steal something and can do it without violence he will definitely do it. However, other crimes such as vandalism or arson, are difficult to relate to what I have just explained but in fact, they could be related to the human tendency to explore and try new things in search of new emotions, just like little babies do when they explore, violently, they physical surrounding.
4. Plantea la relación de la teoría del autor con las modernas teorías biológicas.
A great number of the diverse actual approaches of the criminological biological theories, can be easy related with the theory of Tremblay. For instance, theories regarding the relationship between delinquency and intelligence can be related to the fact that the authors mention that kids in an environment where violence is not tolerated will likely leave behind aggressive conducts because they will relate violence to punishment and failure. However, even in a favorable environment, a kid with a low IQ, with difficulties to learn, will have difficulties to learn such concepts, and make him stick to violent methods. Differently, a kid with a high IQ, even if he grows u in an unfavorable environment, will quickly learn that violence is not the key to success, and will abandon it. We can also relate the author’s theory with the ones that relate delinquency and personality. According to these theories, personality features such as extroversion or impulsivity can be directly be related to getting involved in deviate acts.