Traducción General Directa e Inversa- Topic 1 (2015)Apunte Inglés
TOPIC 1. BEFORE TRANSLATING. SELECTING, READING AND ANALYSING THE SOURCE TEXT (ST). INTERTEXT MANAGEMENT: WRITING AND REVISING. COMMON PROBLEMS. BASIC RESOURCES AND TECHNIQUES. THE TARGET TEXT (TT): EDITING CRITERIA.
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COVADONGA SUÁREZ ARGÜELLES – KSUAREZARG
TOPIC 1. BEFORE TRANSLATING. SELECTING, READING AND
ANALYSING THE SOURCE TEXT (ST). INTERTEXT MANAGEMENT:
WRITING AND REVISING. COMMON PROBLEMS. BASIC
RESOURCES AND TECHNIQUES. THE TARGET TEXT (TT): EDITING
1. PRELIMINARIES. BASIC WORKING CONCEPTS Translation is the delayed transmission of the meaning of a source-language writen text into a targetlanguage written text by means of equivalence mechanisms.
Interpretation is the simultaneous or consecutive transmission of the meaning of source-language oral discourse into target-language oral discourse by the same means.
Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of the written word.
The source text (ST) is the text to be translated. The target text (TT) is the translated text Both texts should be equivalent. Literal translation is impossible, and free translation is not true translation.
Equivalence is the single most important concept in translation. Two things are equivalent when they have similar or identical effects; equivalence is therefore the state or condition of being equivalent.
In Spanish, equivalencia is defined as "igualdad en el valor, estimación, potencia o eficacia de dos o más cosas". Equivalence is the quality or state of being alike, of having the same value, function or meaning.
2. MORE ON EQUIVALENCE There are two basic orientations (Königs): o SL oriented (Foreignizing) o TT oriented (Domesticating) o Both orientations have their pros and cons, but you should be consistent.
There are three basic types of equivalence (Rutherford): o Linguistic equivalence: To decode the message and find an equivalent in the target language o Literary equivalence: To keep the literary elements in the target language o Cultural equivalence: To respect the cultural connotations of the source language Pragmatic equivalence: There is pragmatic equivalence between two expressions, paragraphs, texts etc in different languages if they have the same meaning value and perform the same function - even if their respective language forms are different from each other.
E.g.: Perdona, ¿tienes fuego? / Can you give me a light please? is right, while Pardon me, ¿have you got fire? / ¿Puedes darme una luz por favor? is wrong.
Pragmatic equivalence can be considered an aspect of linguistic equivalence, though it sometimes involves cultural aspects.
3. DIRECT / REVERSE GENERAL TRANSLATION Direct translation (DT) is translating into your own language. Reverse translation (RT) is translating into a foreign language.
General translation means that the texts to be translated will belong to the 'common core' of the language, not to specialist registers.
4. BEFORE TRANSLATING: SELECTING, READING AND ANALYSING THE SOURCE TEXT (ST) ST Selection: Reliable platforms and formats - beware of old editions, the internet etc; look for canon.
ST Reading: Read ST as a text and as a text to be translated ST Analysing: Solve main doubts before translating. Use dictionaries and other tools. Decide on initial vs final equivalence. Think in terms of specific equivalences.
5. INTERTEXT MANAGEMENT: WRITING AND REVISING. COMMON PROBLEMS. BASIC RESOURCES AND TECHNIQUES.
Intertext (IT): Provisional text between the ST and the TT. It's dynamic, provisional and commonly has errors. A word-processor is essential, and so is applying resources as needed and consulting doubts.
Some resources are: traditional and e-dictionaries (monolingual and bilingual), encyclopaedic dictionaries, glossaries, synonyms dictionaries, style manuals or machine translators.
Translating technique: o Produce a first draft as close to the ST as possible o Ignore the ST and change your first draft into a second draft as close to the target language and its rules as possible o Produce a third and final draft which is the result of checking your second draft against the ST o Ask someone else to read the third draft 6. THE TARGET TEXT (TT): EDITING CRITERIA The target text is the final result, but it has to be prepared for publication or presentation - it has to be edited Editing criteria will vary depending on the means of transmision of the target text and the intended audience This criteria will have a bearing on: o The general layout - product format, size, type o The specific layout - font type and size, margins o The presence or absence of introduction, footnotes etc.