4Marxism: Introduction (2016)Apunte Inglés
Marxism and the Critical Theory - Introduction: Context, structuralism and neo-marxism and Theoretical Influences
Vista previa del texto
Theory of International Relations
4. Marxism and Critical Theory
Cox, R. (1981) 'Social Forces, States, and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory', Millennium Journal of
International Studies, Vol. 10, No.2, pp. 126-55.
4.1. INTRODUCTION 4.1.1. CONTEXT The international politics context has changed when the Critical Theory appears. There are some developments in world politics that leads us to a new and different theory.
1970-1980s: Cold War détente and end of the colonisation. In this period, Liberalism and Realism doesn’t serve the purpose anymore.
• Emergence of new issues in the international agenda: core-periphery and underdevelopment.
These issues are considered as important as East-West issues. From this point, there is a new understanding that will create the concept of 3rd World, with the end of bipolarity.
• Theories need to adapt to these changing world.
4.1.2. STRUCTURALISM / NEO-MARXISM Historical Context After decolonialisation Unit of Analysis Economic capitalist world system Main concerns Core-Periphery relations, driving forces of underdevelopment Image of the World Multi-headed octopus (core) fed by tentacles (periphery) Some thinkers start worrying about the fact that with Realism and Liberalism there will be a perpetuation of the current situation of dominance and underdevelopment. They think that International Organisations only serve the purposes of the most powerful.
4.1.3. THEORETICAL INFLUENCES I.
KANT AND ENLIGHTENMENT: Theories of emancipation and perpetual peace by changing power relations. We can emancipate ourselves from theories, and this will enable us to think differently and change the reality. Human beings can evolve.
II. MARX AND ENGELS: • Production paradigm and class struggle: Between those who have the means of production and those who have the labour force — It is an unequal relation. There will be a relation of exploitation.
• Historical materialism and emancipation — The production paradigm is always repeated throughout history.
Marta Busquets Theory of International Relations • GRAMSCI: He also focuses on social hegemony and civil society.
III. FRANKFURT SCHOOL (1920s): Reaction to positivism and rejection of “totally administrated societies”. They will put emphasis in the how, the way we study social sciences in general. We cannot study the social sciences by replicating the methods of natural sciences. Totally administrated societies: You will reproduce these societies and the only thing you will only be concerned on administrating them, not changing them.