Film Narrative Part 5 (2016)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M)
Grado Comunicación Audiovisual (Bilingüe) - 2º curso
Asignatura Film Narrative
Año del apunte 2016
Páginas 4
Fecha de subida 21/04/2016
Descargas 6
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Más en www.Unybook.com gperez1793 FILM NARRATIVE 3. Adaptation as translation vs. appropriation.
An adaptation onscreen can re-envision a well-worn narrative for an audience inhabiting a very different cultural environment, and their relationship to the original source may itself change. Literariness is liquid, and can be conveniently used. It's faithful, but at the same time it can change. (As Vis a Vis is an adaptation or not of Orange is the New Black)By looking at a new adaptation, we learn something about our society.
'The novel has a single material of expression, the written word, whereas the film has at least five tracks: moving photographic image, phonetic sound, music, noises, and written materials. In this sense, the cinema has not lesser, but rather greater resources for expression than the novel', Robert Stam.
4. The seemingly authorless text.
Some texts have been adapted so many times and into so many different versions that the original source may seem to be lost. These narratives questions the original authorship and invite viewers to challenge their own memories, as they challenge audiences to find where the original source really lies.
Urtext refers to the original text which is so close to the adapted material that one might think it is a (nonadmitted) adaptation. The word comes from Biblical studies, where it refers to the text that is believed to precede both the Septuagint and the Masoretic text. In Music, Urtext means the version of the music as it was created by the composer. An example could be the Harry Potter film saga, which can be seen as film material that adapts literary material that adapts film material (Star Wars).
5. The 'unfilmable'.
The debate around what is or is not film material is challenged constantly by the manipulation of texts which have traditionally be seen as difficult to adapt. One example is Don Quijote, that all of its adaptations fails to succeed (Naked Lunch, Tristram Shandy...).
ADAPTATION OF TIME 1. The film as temporal media.
A shot, by the very definition of it, has a preconfigured duration. Unlike painting or photographs, the existence off a shot relies on the duration of it. Thus, a shot is a spatial unity as much as it is a temporal one. In film grammar, there are a number of time marks that help us establishing the temporal characteristic of the narrative.
2. External time vs. Internal time.
External time: refers to the time of the projection or viewing of the film.
Internal time: refers to the actual time of the events narrated in the film narrative.
There is an intrinsic relationship between the two. Unlike literature, the times of film are fixed and determine the viewer's use of them. This has to do with the distinction between story and plot, the first one meaning the relation of facts to be told and the second one the mediated selection and use of them in Más en www.Unybook.com gperez1793 the final narrative. The steps taken from story to plot involve the delimitation of an ending and a beginning, a selection of the events, the ordering of them... For all these steps there are different procedures, which will be presented in the following paragraphs.
3. Duration and rhythm.
Genette makes a distinction between isochronic and anysochronic times. The former refers to the time of the story being the same as the time in the plot. How does this operate in literature vs. film narrative? According to Genette, there are 5 basic uses of duration: pause, scene, summary and ellipsis (there are 5 but we study 4).
They are essential to determine the final rhythm, which is defined as the effect produced in a narrative by the combination or arrangement of normal elements, as length of scene, speech and description, timing, or recurrent themes, to create movement, tension, and emotional value in the development of the plot.
3.1. Scene: For Genette, a scene is a situation of isochcrony, that is, a relationship of equality between the times of the story and the times of the plot, i.e., the discourse time is identical with story time. In cinema, there have been a number of experiments, including The Rope by Hitchcoock (he tried to made a film with just one take, but he had to fake the sequence shot).
3.2. Summary: discourse time is speeded up. A usual example is the representation of the character's childhood at the beginning of many films. In just a few minutes, spectators learn enough about that character's past, in densely packed sequences.
-Sequence shot: are long takes that extend for an entire scene or sequence. They are composed of only one shot with no editing and demand technical expertise. This technique essentially removes the editor from the process, only taking in information that the camera can gather directly (sequence shot of GoodFellas).
They do this because they want to work with time.
3.3 Ellipsis: is one of the most important narrative devices and, when properly used, can enhance the possibilities of the story. It consist of omitting a portion of the sequence of events so as to allow the reader to fill in the narrative gaps. According to Genette, ellipsis can be explicit (if the omitted fragment is referred to) or implicit, and determined (the spectator knows the length of the omitted time) or undetermined.
There are many film procedures for this technique. There can be elements in the image (a calendar), graphic notes, dialogues, references to clothes and settings...
4. The time of narration.
The narrator is always in a specific temporal position relative to the story that is being told by him/her.
There are four kinds of narration: 1. Subsequent narration: the most common temporal position. The narrator tells what happened in some past time.
2. Simultaneous narration: The narrator tells his/her story at the very moment it occurs.
3. Prior narration: The narrator tells what is going to happen at some future time. This kind of narration often takes the form of a dream or prophecy.
Más en www.Unybook.com gperez1793 4. Interpolated narration: this complex type of narration combines prior and simultaneous narration. For example, a narrator tells what he experienced during the day (after the fact), and also includes his current impressions about these events.
WRITING FOR THE PERFORMERS 1. Text and subtext.
1.1. Everything (everything?) is in the word: all we have is the word, we use words. Cinematographers have other sources, such as images, but we only have the words, that sometimes can be a limitation, but at the end there is nothing like the words. Our limitation is also our strength. Also we have the non-word: silence. It is extremely useful for us. When there is silence, it is the time of the spectator to fill in the blanks, to discover the text, anything could be happening. It's our responsibility to write silence, we have treat it as if it was a word.
2. The subtext.
'What the text hides, what moves the actor say what he says, do what he does'. Stanislavsky. Spectators pay to see the subtext. It is what the text acts, but also what the text means. Examples: Line: I love you.
Subtext: I need you, I can't stop lying to you, I want your money, I need more time, You are great, but not for me, Please don't kill me...
In order to include it in the text (but without actually including it) the text needs to be very strong and firm.
When the actors read the script, they should be sure about what you mean with the words. (Good example of this: As good as it gets).
Performance and silence.
1. 'Silence is never more audible than when the last sound of music has died away', Max Picard, The World of Silence.
2. 'If you don't understand my silence, you will not understand my words'.
Working with actors.
-Action verbs: what the character does in order to get what s/he wants. (1. to another character; 2. from his/her point of view). Actions with a clear goal.
DON'T She's angry (with him) He's arrogant He's in love He wants to be popular He's insecure She is a manipulative lady BETTER She wants to destroy him She despises He wants to take care of her He wants everyone to look at him He wants to be liked She lies The goal is what the character wants and the intention is what the character does to reach the goal.
Más en www.Unybook.com I want I need I want I need VERB to awaken to reduce to get to destroy REVEIVER my father's my lover's Mary's the children's gperez1793 ANSWER enthusiasm.
tears.
admiration.
joy.
The first column of the table is the urgency. The conclusion of your script is that at the end, people would be working with your words, your action verbs. This is what remains after your script have been filtered.
...