Theme 2 (2015)

Apunte Inglés
Universidad Universidad de Barcelona (UB)
Grado Administración y Dirección de Empresas - 1º curso
Asignatura Sociology
Año del apunte 2015
Páginas 4
Fecha de subida 23/01/2015
Descargas 11
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Social  and  class  structure  at  advanced  societies           1. Social  structure  of  advanced  societies       Social  structure  components       A. Population  structure   -­‐ Age,  gender,  if  they  are  immigrant  …   -­‐ Associated  conditions  for  the  biological  reproduction  of  society   -­‐ Family     B. Economic  and  technological  structure  (or  the  social  process  of  work)   -­‐ Activities  responds  to  the  needs  of  production  and   consumption  of  goods   -­‐ Market;  companies;  State/government...   C. Political  system   -­‐ Political  institutions  that  control,  regulate  and  make  decisions   -­‐ Political  parties,  associations;  social  movements...         D. Cultural  or  symbolic  system   -­‐ Believes  and  rules  that  we  receive  form  our  social  inheritance   -­‐ Family;  school;  artistic  or  cultural  institutions;  religion...   2. Social  stratification     Social  stratification:  process  that  makes  the  society  remain  divided  into  different   stratums/layers,  where  whose  members  often  share  similitudes,  such  as   prestige,  power  or  property,  which  is  different  from  others.       - Each  individual  occupies  a  different  place  in  the  social  structure   - Every  society  has  different  levels  of  differentiation  according  to   different  criteria       Socially  stratified  systems  basic  characteristics:   i.
Common  characteristics  à  same  social  category,  but  they  don’t  have  to   interact  or  identify  with  each  other.     ii.
Social  category  determines  experiences  and  life  chances.   iii.
Layers  change  very  slowly.   iv.
Ether  open  (change  layer)  or  closed  systems  (no  changing  layer).   v.
It’s  universal  but  varies  depending  on  the  society.   vi.
The  layers  have  a  strong  ideological,  cultural  and  material  component.           Natalia  Casas  Gala     The  main  structural  axes  that  differentiate  individuals  from  a  social  point  of  view   and  create  an  inequality  system  are:       - Material:  wealth,  properties   Gender   Race  /  ethnicity   - Religious  affiliation   Familiar  range   Power  /  status   Types  of  stratification  systems     Slavery   Cast   Feudalism   Social   classes     • The  most  extreme  one   • Race  and  wealth   • No  rights  for  the  "servants"   • JustiYication  to  maintain  productivity   • Status,  awarded  at  birth   • Can't  be  changed,  no  mixed  marriages   • Determines  the  role/profession  of  the  individual  from  birth   • Sistem  suported  by  strong  cultural  beliefs     • Political  power  and  nobility  title   • Different  rights  and  obligations  depending  on  the  layer   • Aristocracy,  nobility,  cleargy  ...   • Minimal  mobility   • Wealth  and  occupation   • Social  groups  with  similar  socioeconomic  characterisitcs   • Fluid  class  system,  the  class  position  isn't  permanently   • Large-­‐scale  systems  and  impersonal   3. Social  classes  at  advanced  societies       Social  class:  people  who  share  certain  funds,  which  have  a  great  influence  on  the   way  of  life  that  they  can  lead.         Upper  class         rich  industrialist,     entrepreneurs  ...     Middle  class       most  professionals  and     white-­‐collar  workers       Working  class     manual  work  or  blue  collar     Natalia  Casas  Gala       Class  system:     - Established  by  wealth  and  occupation.   - Based  on  economic  differences,  material  resources  control  and   possessions.     - Social  mobility  is  frequent.   - Free  marriage.   - Relationships  are  either  impersonal  or  based  on  obligations.   - Total  equality  does  not  exist.         Theories  of  social  class:   Karl  Marx   Max  Weber     -­‐  Class:  “A  group  of  people  that  have  the  same  relationship  to  the  means  of   production”  à  Group  membership     -­‐  Based  on:  material  criteria  and  wealth     -­‐  Initial  capitalist  societies:   Ø Two  classes  (owners  production  and  owners  workforce)   Ø Relationship  between  domination  and  exploitation  class   Ø Inequality  capitalist  system  (workers  à  poorer  while  rich  à  richer)         -­‐  Marx’s  theory  of  class     -­‐  Existence  of  conflicts  over  power  and  resources     -­‐  Based  on:  economic  criteria,  status  and  power  criteria       -­‐  Marked  position  based  on:  technical  knowledge  and  skills     -­‐  Status  (reputation-­‐prestige)  à  lifestyle       Erik  Olin  Wright   -­‐  Three  dimensions  of  control  over  economic  resources  (that  allows  to   identify  the  social  classes):   Ø Control  over  capital  investments  or  financial     Ø Control  over  the  physical  means  of  production     Ø Control  over  workforce     -­‐  Capitalist  class  à  control  over  everything  ≠ working  class  à  no  control     -­‐  In  the  middle:  managers  and  white-­‐collar  workers,  taking  into  account   two  factors:     - Relationship  with  authority     - Possession  of  qualifications  and  skills             Natalia  Casas  Gala   Social  mobility     • • •   • Impact  of  social  mobility:   o Open  society     o Close  society     • Meritocracy:  power  according  exclusively  to  merit.     Belonging  to  a  stratum  =  better  or  worse  access  to  resources.       Social  mobility:  movement  of  individuals  and  groups  from  different   socioeconomic  positions.       Kind  of  mobility:   o Vertical   o Horizontal     o Combination     Mobility  depending  on  time  factor:   o Intragenerational  mobility  à  within  the  same  generation   o Intergenerational  mobility  à  between  one  or  more  generations   • • Social  inequality:  the  position  of  subordination  and  domination  that  is   socially  imposed  on  individuals  by  the  demarcation  of  different  degrees  of   access  to  resources.   • Unequal  differences  between  individuals,  due  their  structural  position.     • The  most  vulnerable  groups:   o Young  and  elderly   o Women   o Immigrants   o Unskilled  workers   o Unprotected  people       Natalia  Casas  Gala   ...