Theme 2 (2015)Apunte Inglés
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Common characteristics à same social category, but they don’t have to interact or identify with each other. ii.
Social category determines experiences and life chances. iii.
Layers change very slowly. iv.
Ether open (change layer) or closed systems (no changing layer). v.
It’s universal but varies depending on the society. vi.
The layers have a strong ideological, cultural and material component. Natalia Casas Gala The main structural axes that differentiate individuals from a social point of view and create an inequality system are: - Material: wealth, properties Gender Race / ethnicity - Religious affiliation Familiar range Power / status Types of stratification systems Slavery Cast Feudalism Social classes • The most extreme one • Race and wealth • No rights for the "servants" • JustiYication to maintain productivity • Status, awarded at birth • Can't be changed, no mixed marriages • Determines the role/profession of the individual from birth • Sistem suported by strong cultural beliefs • Political power and nobility title • Different rights and obligations depending on the layer • Aristocracy, nobility, cleargy ... • Minimal mobility • Wealth and occupation • Social groups with similar socioeconomic characterisitcs • Fluid class system, the class position isn't permanently • Large-‐scale systems and impersonal 3. Social classes at advanced societies Social class: people who share certain funds, which have a great influence on the way of life that they can lead. Upper class rich industrialist, entrepreneurs ... Middle class most professionals and white-‐collar workers Working class manual work or blue collar Natalia Casas Gala Class system: - Established by wealth and occupation. - Based on economic differences, material resources control and possessions. - Social mobility is frequent. - Free marriage. - Relationships are either impersonal or based on obligations. - Total equality does not exist. Theories of social class: Karl Marx Max Weber -‐ Class: “A group of people that have the same relationship to the means of production” à Group membership -‐ Based on: material criteria and wealth -‐ Initial capitalist societies: Ø Two classes (owners production and owners workforce) Ø Relationship between domination and exploitation class Ø Inequality capitalist system (workers à poorer while rich à richer) -‐ Marx’s theory of class -‐ Existence of conflicts over power and resources -‐ Based on: economic criteria, status and power criteria -‐ Marked position based on: technical knowledge and skills -‐ Status (reputation-‐prestige) à lifestyle Erik Olin Wright -‐ Three dimensions of control over economic resources (that allows to identify the social classes): Ø Control over capital investments or financial Ø Control over the physical means of production Ø Control over workforce -‐ Capitalist class à control over everything ≠ working class à no control -‐ In the middle: managers and white-‐collar workers, taking into account two factors: - Relationship with authority - Possession of qualifications and skills Natalia Casas Gala Social mobility • • • • Impact of social mobility: o Open society o Close society • Meritocracy: power according exclusively to merit. Belonging to a stratum = better or worse access to resources. Social mobility: movement of individuals and groups from different socioeconomic positions. Kind of mobility: o Vertical o Horizontal o Combination Mobility depending on time factor: o Intragenerational mobility à within the same generation o Intergenerational mobility à between one or more generations • • Social inequality: the position of subordination and domination that is socially imposed on individuals by the demarcation of different degrees of access to resources. • Unequal differences between individuals, due their structural position. • The most vulnerable groups: o Young and elderly o Women o Immigrants o Unskilled workers o Unprotected people Natalia Casas Gala ...