Teaching guide 6 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
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Teaching guide 6.
Teaching guide 6: The suicide of Europe: 1914-1945.
A. Multiple choice.
1.- c) Undermined confidence in the liberal parliamentary system, and d) highlighted the need for greater international cooperation.
2.- c) Serbs.
3.- a) Czechs.
4.-c) The participation of Austro-Hungarian officials in the investigation of the shooting, and e) to ban PanSerbian propaganda.
5.- d) Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
6.- a) Russia.
7.- e) 4 August 1914.
8.- d) 32.
9.- c) Bulgaria.
10.- d) 65 million.
11.- e) 5 million British soldiers.
12.- a) Austro-Hungarian Empire.
13.- e) 900.
14.- e) New Zealand.
15.- a) Denis Papin, c) Thomas Newcomen, and e) James Wat.
16.- b) Light bulb, and d) phonograph.
17.- a) Thomas Alva Edison.
18.- d) 1895.
19.- e) Guglielmo Marconi.
20.- a) Alexander Graham Bell.
21.- c) Nikolaus August Otto.
22.- e) France.
23.- b) Alberto Santos Dumont.
24.- d) 2007.
25.- b) 1976.
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26.- a) 1820.
27.- d) 27 million.
28.- a) The UK in 1884.
29.- b) Count of Saint Simon, and d) Charles Fourier.
30.- c) The United States.
31.- a) The German Socialist Workers Party, c) the Spanish PSOE, and e) the Italian Socialist Party.
32.- b) The French SFIO, d) the English Labour Party, and e) the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party.
33.- a) Prussia.
34.- e) Mexican constitution of 1917.
35.- c) Martov.
36.- e) None of them.
37.- a) Karl Liebknecht, and e) Rosa Luxemburg.
38.- a) Josef Ganz.
39.- d) The March on Rome.
40.- d) By democratic elections.
41.- d) Four.
42.- a) The Struggle for Law.
43.- c) Mussolini.
44.- b) The Soviet Union.
45.- a) Adolf Hitler, and e) Philippe Pétain.
46.- d) France.
47.- e) Portugal.
48.- d) France.
49.- c) Won the 1933 elections in Spain.
50.- e) None of them.
B. Concrete questions.
1.- Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, murdered in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, being his murder the main cause detonating First World War. He was the son of the younger brother of the emperor Franz Joseph of Austria.
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2.- Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed on 28 June 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia nationalist group. He made it to hurl defiance at the Empire, as Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the same Empire that had Serbs and Croats subjugated, and who wanted independence.
3.- The Austro-Hungarian Empire tried to prevent the rise of nationalisms through non-toleration to aspirations of sovereignty, and the full employment of its police, secret services and army to maintain the status quo.
4.- Nationalists in the Austro-Hungarian Empire tried to impose the independence of their own nationstate through the creation of a series of secret nationalist societies which sought to hurl defiance at the Empire through the assassination of political figures in order to resist them. They also used propaganda.
5.- The troops of the Triple Alliance were in disadvantage because they would have to fight in two fronts, one is the East side against Russia, and the other is the West side against UK and France. In order to overcome this difficulty, the plan of the Germans was to send Lenin back to Russia in order to trigger an internal revolution that would made Russia to leave the war.
6.- The mobile warfare gives way to the trench warfare in September 1914 as a result of a French counteroffensive, thus limiting the ability of the Germans to keep advancing and, as none of them could defeat the other in order to have some movement, the mobile warfare was over and the trench warfare had begun.
7.- The poilus were the French soldiers killed in the conflict during the Trench Warfare period. They were so called poilus because that means hairy, and as they did not have the resources to be able to shave while in the trenches, they were hairy.
8.- We call WWI an apocalyptic conflict because of the big amount of countries fighting in it (32), and the huge human damage produced by it, in which 65 million soldiers fought, 10 million died, 19 million were wounded, and 35 million were maimed, in addition to more than 14 million civilians who died as a result of the conflict.
9.- State power was strengthened as a result of WWI because the effort of the war necessitated major state intervention in all areas of citizens’ lives, especially in the economic and social spheres. All the interventionist measures abated after the war, but no country reverted entirely to the liberal system in place in 1914.
10.- The urbanization of the Western World in the 19th was the grow of cities due to the movement of people from the countryside to the cities in order to work in factories. It affected social equilibrium as it made the working class grew, but it still stood in sharp contrast to the wealthy class, each time richer and the working class even poorer, with no asset but their children.
11.- The proletariat, also known as the Fourth Estate, is a new social class emerging with the growth of cities and industrialization. It comes from the Latin proles, meaning “off-spring”, thus called because its members had no assets but their own children. In Tilly’s words, the proletariat are those who worked for wages, using means of production which they had little or no control.
12.- European workers became class conscious in the wake of the publication, on 21 February 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’ Communist Manifesto, because from that moment on being part of the Teaching guide 6.
proletariat meant belonging to a social group who wore the label as a badge of honour, and did not have anymore a derogatory meaning.
13.- Marx and Engels were a perfect team as Marx was the theorist, the thinker, while Engels was just part of the affluent Prussian bourgeoisie, able to financially maintain Marx throughout his life.
14.- The essential difference between both revolutions was that the one from 1830 was a bourgeois revolution, while the 1848 one was an uprising of the masses.
15.- He was against social rights been included in the 1848’s French Constitution because he viewed those rights as utterly incompatible with the individual rights which the liberal state ought to ensure. In his view, accepting these postulates meant opening the door to the return of political authoritarianism.
16.- Laws of social protection were first made in Bismarck’s Prussia in order for him to secure the support of the working class, which was the majority of the population, so the opposition from the bourgeois parties in the Reichstag could not affect him in a significant manner.
17.- This Congress was decisive because in it Lenin’s ideas at which he advocated revolutionary radicalism and the triumph of the proletariat by violent means prevailed, setting the foundational ideas of the 1905 and 1917’s revolutions. Also, here is the point when there appeared Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
18.- They were decisive because they allowed Lenin and all the leading Russian revolutionaries, who had exiled after the 1905’s revolution to Switzerland, to travel to Saint Petersburg in a special train via Helsinki.
19.- The Russian Revolution of 1917 affected WWI in the way that, thanks to the revolution, Lenin got power and decided to drop the war, thus signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty to cease hostilities against Germany and losing significant territories.
20.- The Revolution of October 1917 transformed politically European Socialist movements by dividing socialists all over Europe, with ones wanting to join the new Communist International while others did not. As a result, in 1920 a number of communist parties arose which were splinter groups of formerly socialist bodies.
21.- The Third Way was a compromise between the old parliamentary system and the communist revolution which organized and backed parties appealing to the masses of workers with platforms of aggressive social reform in a desperate attempt to prevent the triumph of Bolshevism.
22.- Stalin’s constitution, as underwent constant changes governing aspects which would normally be dealt with by ordinary laws, had a different nature from ordinary Western constitutions, as his was not the supreme or fundamental law of the state, which is the more or less common feature of Western constitutions.
Stalin’s constitution was created in a legislative state of law, meaning that the constitution was like any other law, without any special guarantees. Meanwhile, ordinary Western constitutions are made in a constitutional state of law, with the constitution being at the top of the law hierarchy and containing some guarantees for its reform and interpretation, something that in Stalin’s constitution did not exist.
23.- They call them the New Princes because their power structure is based on a leader elected in conventions at which cadres of elites are elected which end up enforcing party discipline, particularly Teaching guide 6.
when it comes to drawing up electoral lists. The CPSU or the NSDAP were responsible as they followed the same electing and structure pattern.
24.- Schmitt justified the establishment of all powerful regimes saying that the situation at that time called for the reestablishment of a direct link between the individual and the state, instead of one mediated via a so-called “representative assembly” whose laws corrupted this relationship.
25.- The essential principle of the New Deal was the protection for the common man from the ravages of the Great Depression. It was revolutionary in the US Constitutional tradition as it wanted the state to intervene to stimulate the economy, something that was clearly against Liberalism and its principle of state non-intervention.
26.- Totalitarianism triumphed in many European countries as a result of the Soviet Revolution because these leaders embraced a state model according to which the government actively intervened in the economy and adopted measures necessary to prevent social injustice, thus making the workers happy so a revolution would not take place in their countries.
27.- We could say that Japan was responsible for the Russian revolution as it took place after the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-1905, thus mining the population and discrediting the tsar.
28.- The event that caused the end of the Second Spanish Republic was the Asturias Revolution of 1934, led by the PSOE secretary, who never accepted his defeat in the elections of 1933, thus breaking the Republican legality for the first time. The same thing happened in 1936, when the leftist coalition won and the right wing parties refused to accept the outcome, thus starting the Spanish Civil War.
29.- It could be considered legal as he was elected through democratic elections and formed a coalition with Germany’s conservative parties. Besides, it was the Reichstag which gave him full powers through the Enabling Act of March 24, 1933, thus legally allowing him to do whatever he wanted.
30.- The Second Spanish Republic just survived formally to the Spanish Civil War, with a government in the exile in France and then in Mexico. However, it disappeared de facto in July of 1936.
Central powers. It was the coalition composed of the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman Empires, with Italy at the beginning of the war but then changing sides, and ultimately joined by Bulgaria. It was one of the sides fighting in World War I, being the other the Triple Entente.
Triple Entente. It was the alliance between Russia, United Kingdom, and France, supplemented by agreements with Japan and Portugal. In the end, 28 countries ended up fighting on its side. It fought in World War I against the Central Powers.
Sarajevo. It was the city where on 28 June 1914 the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire and his wife were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnia nationalist group claiming for Bosnian independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Franz Ferdinand. He was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, murdered in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, being his murder the main cause detonating First World War. He was the son of the younger brother of the emperor Franz Joseph of Austria.
Teaching guide 6.
Gavrilo Princip. He was a member of the Young Bosnia nationalist group, who murdered Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his wife in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 while claiming for Bosnian independence.
Serbia. It is a country in Southeast Europe, located on the Balkan Peninsula. Its capital is Belgrade, and by the time of the First World War it was under Austro-Hungarian rule. It, as other countries in its environment, wanted independence from the Empire.
Bosnia. It is a country in Southeast Europe, located on the Balkan Peninsula. Its capital is Sarajevo, where the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated with his wife, triggering World War I. By that time, Bosnia was under Austro-Hungarian rule, and it wanted independence.
Balkans. It is a peninsula in Southeast Europe with different and disputed borders. By the time of the First World War, some of its countries were under Austro-Hungarian rule, others under the Ottoman Empire, other under Russian influence, and a few of them were independent.
Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, and existed from 1867 until 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. It consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region, the Kingdom of CroatiaSlavonia, under the Hungarian crown. The Empire fought World War I in the side of the Central Powers.
Conscription. It was the principle of compulsory military service, which used to be especially implemented in times of war, as to guarantee the necessary amount of people fighting for the country. This principle was applied, for example, during the Third French Republic.
Mobile warfare. Also known as Manoeuvre warfare, it is a military strategy that advocates attempting to defeat the enemy by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. It was used in First World War until September 1914, when the French counterattacked the Germans in the Battle of Marne and the Trench Warfare began.
Battle of Marne. It was a battle that took place from 5 September 1914 until 12 September 1914 between French and Germans. It was the French counteroffensive of the French, ending the mobile warfare and marking the beginning of the Trench warfare.
Trench warfare. This mode of warfare began on 12 September 1914, after the French counteroffensive against the Germans. It was characterized by fixed fighting lines, consisting of trenches. In it, troops are significantly protected from the enemy’s small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Battle of Gallipoli. Also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, it began on 25 April 1915, as an attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. After 8 months the British withdrew, defeated, having suffered over 250,000 casualties, the same number as the Turkish soldiers.
Poilus. Name given to those French killed during the First World War during the Trench Warfare. They were so-called because French soldiers in the trenches did not shave, and poilus means hairy in French.
Battle of Verdun. It was one of the bloodiest and largest battles of World War I, and is usually seen as the symbol of the war. It took place on 21 February 1916, when German began a heavy offensive in Verdun, and it lasted until December, with 300,000 soldiers killed for no territorial gains.
Teaching guide 6.
Battle of Somme. It took place from 1 July 1916 until 18 November of that year under the context of the First World War, leaving over one million casualties between dead and injured. It was one of the largest battles of WWI, taking place on both sides of the River Somme in France.
Nivelle offensive. It was a battle taking place from 16 April 1917 until 9 May of the same year, with the result of 100,000 French soldiers dying within a week. It was intended to be strategically decisive, breaking through the German defences, although at the end it was not than successful because of the French Mutinies.
French Mutinies. They began on 3 May 1917 on the Western Front in Northern France during World War I. Their main action took place in the Nivelle Offensive in April 1917. They were solved by General Philippe Pétain, and they were kept secret until decades later.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk. It was the treaty, signed on 3 March 1918, by which Russia withdrew from World War I, pledging to cease hostilities against Germany and suffering significant territorial loses from which Germany benefited. It was signed by the Bolshevik Russian regime emerging after the 1917’s October Revolution.
Compiègné’s Armistice (11 November 1918). Signed on 11 November 1918, it was the armistice by which World War I ended. It was sought by Germany, which feared the consequences of the triumph of the Soviet Revolution that most probably would spread throughout Europe. However, by the time the armistice was signed, Germany had not yet lost one inch of its territory.
Treaty of Versailles (28 June 1919). It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles, France, and put an official end to World War I. It declared Germany as the sole guilty of the War, and imposed on it hard repayment measures to the winning powers (France and UK), and territorial loses, especially concerning Alsace and Loraine, which went back to France, as well as the banning of a professional army. It created resentment among the German population, and led the country to a crisis.
Laissez faire. It is an economic system, embraced in Western countries throughout the nineteenth century, in which the state does not intervene in the economy at all, so transactions between private parties are free from government interference. That means that the state does not impose regulations, privileges, tariffs, or subsidies of any kind.
Social question. It was the dilemma prompt by labour movements between liberal principles and human working conditions. It developed as a consequence of mass migrations from the countryside to cities, where workers expected to find a job and good conditions, but finding harsh conditions, long working hours, and bad salaries, leading to deplorable degrees of human exploitation.
Bismarck's Sozialpolitik. It was the policy of workers’ protection adopted by Bismarck’s government between 1882 and 1889, which could be considered as a precursor of the welfare state. By endorsing them, he could ally himself with the working class, and thus avoid the opposition from the bourgeois parties. This set of laws would be incorporated into the Social Insurance Code of 1911, and enabled the Weimar Republic to expressly recognize the right to social welfare protection.
Communist Manifesto. It was the manifesto published on 21 February 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, in which they proclaimed communist principles, asking working men of all countries to unite and fight against ruling classes, thus losing their chains and being free.
Teaching guide 6.
Proletariat (4th Estate). It was a new social group emerging with the liberal revolution in Europe. They were the poorest and most numerous portion of society, working for the bourgeoisie, which got richer with their job. The word proletariat comes from the Latin proles, meaning “off-spring”, thus called because its members had no assets but their own children. In Tilly’s words, the proletariat are those who worked for wages, using means of production which they had little or no control.
International. It was a text written by Pottier, a transport worker and active in the foundation of the French Workers Party. He was also a member of the First International. In June 1871 in Paris he composed The International after the repression of the Bloody Week, which ended the Paris Commune.
IWA. It was the International Workingmen’s Association, founded in London in 1864, also known as the First International. It gathered a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist, as well as trade unions, all of them based on the working class and class struggle.
Paris Commune. It took place between 18 March and 28 May 1871, after the Paris’ City Council (Commune) decided to launch a socialist revolution against the provisional government in France. It aspired to extend its authority throughout France, but was brutally crushed by the French National Guard.
It had an important impact on the socialist movement, as it convinced Marx to exclude Bakunin form the Socialist International at The Hague Congress of 1872.
Social democracy. It was a political movement which arose when supporters of Marx and La Salle met at Gotha in 1875. Its aim was to control the liberal state by legal means through the corresponding electoral processes, leading to the foundation of several socialist mass parties.
Bolshevik. It was one of the two groups emerging after the Second Congress of Russia’s Social Democratic Labour Party in 1902. It literally meant members of the majority, and defended Lenin’s ideas of revolutionary radicalism and the triumph of the proletariat by violent means. They got to power after the 1917’s revolutions.
Soviet. They were groups of workers and soldiers, designed in the 1905 Russian Revolution by Leon Trotsky. They disappeared after the Revolution of 1905, but re-emerged under socialist leadership during the revolutions of 1917, thus playing an important role in the three Russian revolutions.
1905 Russian Revolution. It was the revolution taking place in Russia after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 at the initiative of Lenin and other socialist leaders. With it the tsarist autocratic regime was ended and a constitutional monarchy was established. Also, some civil rights were granted and the first Russian constitution appeared in 1906.
April Thesis (Lenin). They were published on 3 April 1917, and consisted on Lenin’s revolutionary program.
In them, he called soviets to take power, denounced liberals and social democrats in the Provisional Government, called for Bolsheviks not to cooperate with the government, and called for new communist policies. They influenced the October Revolution.
1917 Russian Revolutions. They were the revolutions that took place in Russia in February and October of 1917. The first did away with monarchy, and the second with private property, thus finishing the job done in the Russian Revolution of 1905, that did away with autocracy. They replaced the traditional political and social order of the Russian monarchy with a collectivist regime led by soviets (groups of workers and soldiers).
Teaching guide 6.
Spartacist Revolution. It was a communist revolution taking place in recently defeated Germany in January 1919. It was headed by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. It was violently put down by the government of the Weimar Republic under the leadership of the socialist Friedrich Ebert.
Kommintern. It was the Third International or the Communist International’s World Congress, which took place on 2-6 March 1919. It met with the precise objective of fomenting proletarian revolution throughout the world. However, its man effect was the division of Socialists all over Europe, as some wished to join the new Communist International while others did not.
Weimar Republic. It was the political regime established in Germany after World War I, lasting from 1919 until 1933, when Hitler seized power and established the Third Reich. It was at this point when German nation really got integrated into a single state. This state was characterized by independence from any spiritual or religious organization.
March on Rome. It took place on 27-29 October 1922, when Mussolini decided to prove the power and support he had. By it, Mussolini seized power thanks to King Victor Emmanuel III, who handed him power fearing that a civil war might take place. It was possible thanks to the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation.
Fascism. It is a way of government characterized by strong repression of political opposition, restriction of civil rights and liberties, and non-democratic. However, this does not mean that the regime could not be installed through a democratic way, as both Italian and German fascisms were democratically put into power. It goes against communism, and promotes national feelings.
Beer Hall Putsch (Munich). It is the attempt by Hitler to seize power through a coup d’état on 8-9 November 1923. However, the coup fails and he is incarcerated, being this moment when he writes his book Mein Kampf. Nevertheless, he took power 10 years later via election in 1933, quickly imposing a fierce dictatorship.
Acerbo Law. It was the law through which Mussolini made an electoral reform in 1923. By it, the party winning the elections would be awarded two-thirds of the seats in the national legislature, regardless of the margin by which it had won the elections.
Giacomo Matteotti. He was a harsh critic of Mussolini’s government who was kidnapped by a fascist militia on 10 June 1924. His body would be found on August 16.
NSDAP. It was the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), a political organization founded in 1920, months after the failure of the Spartacist Uprising and the foundation of the Kommintern. Then it was joined by Hitler, being the party through which he got to power in 1933.
Reichstag Fire. It took place on 27 February 1933, and allowed Hitler to restrict public liberties a week before the elections to the Reichstag, thanks to the Decree for the Protection of the German People and the State, issued by President Hindenburg. This clearly gave him an advantage in the elections.
Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz). Its official name was Law to Remedy the Distress of People and Reich. It was the law by which the new assembly elected on March 5 granted Hitler full powers, thus giving the fascist dictatorship a legal facade, as being established under the constitutional framework of the Weimar Republic.
Teaching guide 6.
Night of Long Knives (Nacht der langen Messer). It took place between June 30, 1934 and July 2, 1934, when Hitler ordered the Gestapo and the SS to kill the principal leaders of the SA or brown shirts.
Sturmabteilung. Also known as brown shirts, they were the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.
However, with the creation of the Gestapo and the SS Hitler ordered to kill its principal leaders on 30 June 1934.
Geheime Staatspolizei. It was the secret state police, also known as Gestapo, during Hitler’s regime. He ordered them, along with the SS, to kill the principal leaders of the SA in June 1934, and then they were incorporated into the army.
Schutzstaffel. Also known as the SS, they were under Hitler’s orders. They had to kill in June 1934, in collaboration with the Gestapo, the principal leader of the SA. After that both fascist militias (SS and Gestapo) were incorporated into the army.
Anschluss. Expansion of the German territory made by Hitler, who in 1938 annexed Austria abided by England and France in the Munich Agreement of 30 September 1938.
Lebensraum. It was the living space of the Aryan race, which essentially was form Germany eastward. It was defined by Hitler in his book Mein Kampf.
Wehrmacht. It was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 until 1946, consisting of the army, navy, and air force. It seemed invincible until 22 June 1941, when Hitler decided to invade Russia, committing a terrible mistake as it ended in absolute failure, especially after the surrender of Von Paulus, which marked the beginning of the end of Hitler.
Munich Agreement (September 30, 1938). It was the agreement signed on 30 September 1938 by which Chamberlain and Daladier, British and French Prime Ministers, cave in to Hitler on the question of the Sudetenland in an infamous act of appeasement. By it, they accepted Hitler’s annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland.
Non Aggression Pact (August 23, 1939). Signed on 23 August 1939, it was the treaty by which Ribbentrop and Molotov, German and Soviet foreign affairs ministers, divided Poland between them and agreed not to fight each other.
Katyn Massacre. It was the act by which the Soviet Union, after invading Poland, executed more than 27,000 Polish officers in cold blood. The act would not be recognized by the Russian government until 13 April 1990, when Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev publicly acknowledged the Soviet Union’s responsibility for the murders. On October 14, 1992, the Soviet Government finally made public the order of March 5, 1940, which authorized the execution.
Endlösung. Also known as Final Solution or Jewish extermination, it was the attempt by Hitler’s regime to purify German people by containing only Aryan blood, thus exterminating all the other entire groups, as were Jews, gypsies, and people with physical and mental defects, as they could not improve the race.
Wannsee Conference. It took place on 20 January 1942 at Wannsee. In it was decided the implementation of Jewish extermination, also known as Final Solution or Endlösung.
New Deal. It was a program proposed by the US 32nd president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Its central tenet was the protection for the common man from the ravages of the Great Depression. He said that the Teaching guide 6.
state should intervene to stimulate the economy and, in general, to alleviate the situation of the needy.
It was carried out in two phases, one aimed at results in the short term and the other in the long term. It established the first social welfare system, and regulated economic affairs such as minimum wages and work hours.
Popular Front. Left-wing coalitions formed in France and Spain headed by the Communist Party, and supported by Stalin as a way to expand Communist political influence, due to the fact that at that time (1930) Communist parties were still insignificant. In both cases, they won the elections.
Junta de Defensa Nacional. It was created on July 24, 1936 by the ones who perpetrated the military coup. It assumed the whole powers of the state in the territory controlled by the insurgents, who named themselves “nacionales” (nationals), as opposed to the republicans or, in their words, “rojos”. By doing so, they projected the idea that they were forced to go to war to save the Spanish nation from international Communist revolution.
D. General questions.
1.- The assassination in Sarajevo led to World War I because of the tension between the European states and the alliances system, which divided Europe in two blocks. Austro-Hungary, with the support of Germany, severed relations with Serbia, which was allied with Russia, so the tsar ordered premobilization.
However, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia, with Russia mobilizing its army partially. Germany asked Russia not to enter in the war, but Russia dismissed Germany’s saying, and England warned Germany that if it declared war on Russia, it would have to join the conflict.
On July 30, Germany rejected Russia and England’s proposals to limit the scope of the war, so Russia ordered mobilization. Then Germany urged Russians to demobilize, but they did not respond so Germany called for general mobilization, with France preparing for mobilization. On August 1, William II declared war on Russia and 2 days later on France. Then Germany invaded Belgium, dragging England into war.
2.- Thanks to the alliances system 32 countries ended up fighting in World War I, 28 of them on the Allies side and 4 of the Central Power’s one, in a conflict that could have been solved between two states. It dragged Europe into an unprecedented war that left 10 million soldiers dead, 19 million wounded, 35 million maimed, and more than 14 million civilians dead. Most of these deaths came from the battles of Verdun, Somme, Gallipoli, and Nivelle. For instance, the Battle of Verdun left 300,000 soldiers killed for no territorial gains.
All this chaos came in two phases, the mobile warfare and trench warfare. The first, the mobile warfare, lasted only a few months, until the Battle of Marne, when France launched a counteroffensive against the Germans, thus stopping their advance. The Trench warfare phase came right after, been characterized by almost no position movement, and by the use of trenches.
3.- 1917 was a crucial year in the development of World War I as many events took place in it. The first one was on 6 April, when the United States decided to join the war and declared war on Germany, thus favouring the Allies. From 16 April until 9 May, the Nivelle Offensive, that left 100,000 French soldiers killed within a week took place, damaging French morale, which ultimately would led to 3 May’s French mutinies. In order to control them, on 15 May Pétain replaces Nivelle and suspend large-scale attacks against Germans.
Teaching guide 6.
On June 25, the first American troops arrive on French soil, although they would not enter the trenches until October. However, they helped to maintain the situation, as after the 1917’s October Revolution in Russia, it would abandon the war, thus allowing Germany to fight only in one front. This would ultimately benefited Germany and make it won the war, but the support of the US allowed the Allies to maintain the situation previous to 1917.
4.- The consequences of World War I from the perspective of European constitutional history were mainly regarding the strengthening of the executive power. In order to fight the conflict, major state intervention in all areas of citizens’ lives, especially in the economic and social spheres, was needed. The state intervention became common during the war, and although it somehow abated after it, Europe never was able to go back to the liberal system in place in 1914. In fact, during the war the states involved developed the mechanisms of power that would lay the foundations for twentieth-century totalitarianism, being this its main consequence.
Apart from that, the Great War benefited women as they started to play a particularly important civilian role as men were fighting in the front. It allowed them to start working and, above all, in the wake of the war they began to win the vote in a number of Western countries, being New Zealand the first one in 1893. Also, the war overturned the liberal model rooted in a limited state.
5.- The Social Question is the desire of the proletariat to be taken into account in the political scene, thus achieving the political influence necessary to alter the constitutional system in Europe which had relegated workers to a life of misery, allowing their conditions to improve. Its origins were in the Industrial Revolution that transformed the agricultural society of the Old Regime. People saw industry as the future, so they decided to leave the countryside and go to the cities, looking for an industrial job. However, their conditions were so bad, with unemployment, long working hours, no mandated rest periods, very low wages, etc. So they found themselves confined to perpetual poverty, and decided to organize into labour movements aimed to transform European economics and society, soon impacting its politics and institutions. Finally, this led to the call into question of the principles of the liberal state.
6.- The main consequences of the Social Question were the achievement of universal suffrage, the replacement of the laissez faire principle by the socialist approach, the appearance of communism, the workers’ organization in political parties, Bismarck’s conservative approach, and the intervention of the state. Universal suffrage was achieved step by step by lowering the income requirement to vote from time to time, although it did not follow the same path in every country. Of course, women’s universal suffrage would be even harder to achieve and took even longer.
The socialist approach to the laissez faire principle came with the influence of Marxist ideas and his revolutionary approach that triggered the appearance of parties looking for seizing power and establishing the dictatorship of the proletariat, been this the first step towards the creation of a state devoid of social classes. It also influenced Lenin and Trotsky’s ideas, which sparked the Russian Revolution of 1905 and finally in 1917 did away with monarchy, establishing a socialist state.
The pressure the socialist movement was exerting due to its significance was reflected in Germany, where Bismarck decided to adopt policies for workers’ protection in order to reduce that pressure. This movement also allowed him to have the support of the working class, especially after 1883, when the legislative measures started to be passed. In the same line, other Western states began to protect people’s Teaching guide 6.
social rights as a consequence of World War I’s catastrophe and the Russian Revolution, especially to avoid a new one in their territory.
7.- Bismarck was not a socialist, first of all, because he was the head of a conservative government and art of the aristocracy, which was not interested in granting protection to workers. However, he adopted policies of workers’ protection in order to reduce the pressure exerted by the socialist movement and to have the favour of the working class, as the bourgeois was opposing him. So, he did it not because he was a socialist, but to secure his position in power. Finally, all these social measures were paid by employers and employees, and not by the state, so at the end he did not build a welfare state in which insurances were backed by the state, but just by companies and workers.
8.- Marx first called for an armed uprising against the liberal established order, seeking the institution of a totalitarian regime: the dictatorship of the proletariat, as the first stage of a process leading to the creation of a state devoid of social classes. However, the failure of the Paris Commune led him to renounce violence, even expelling anarchists form the IWA. From that moment on he established the aim of controlling the liberal state by legal means through the corresponding electoral processes.
So Marx and Lenin’s approaches differed in the way of making the revolution. As we have said, Marx wanted to do it through legal means and without violence, while Lenin made it through arm insurrections, with violence, as we can see in the Russian revolutions of 1905 and February and October of 1917. Besides, he also said that the revolution had to be made by a select group of professional revolutionaries, something that Marx never said.
9.- Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk because he considered World War I as a struggle between capitalists and, as Russia was not a capitalist country any longer, it had no reasons to keep fighting a war that had nothing to do with it. Besides, he was convinced that German workers would not fight against their Russian comrades. In fact, German workers had to fight against the German oligarchies that enslaved them, and not against other people equal to them, belonging to the same social class and with the same problems regardless of the country. Finally, and by stop fighting in the Great War, Lenin could carefully plan the Third International with the aim of fomenting proletarian revolution throughout the world. He partially achieved it, as in the year 1919 a wave of revolutionary processes swept through Europe, precisely starting in Germany.
10.- The Soviet Revolution was followed by a wave of revolutionary processes that swept Europe in 1919, after the end of World War I. However, they did not succeed and the ruling classes decided to organize and to back parties appealing to the masses of workers, with platforms of aggressive social reform in a desperate attempt to prevent the triumph of Bolshevism. This reaction was called the Third Way, a compromise between the old parliamentary system and the communist revolution. This led to the rise of authoritarian leaders as Mussolini or Hitler, both populist leaders who ended up imposing fascist dictatorships which actually did make surprisingly significant progress in the area of labour and economic reform.
11.- It is possible to say that Mussolini’s Fascism and Hitler’s Nazism were perfectly legal dictatorship as both were legally appointed and elected. In Mussolini’s case, it was the King Victor Emmanuel III who named him, and the parliament was under his control, as his party had most of the seats (although we have to say that it was thanks to his Acerbo Law, which granted the party winning the elections two-thirds Teaching guide 6.
of the national legislature). Besides, he never repealed the country’s constitutional regime, nor did he dethrone the king, thus respecting the legal framework of Italy.
In Hitler’s case, his party won the elections and even formed a coalition with Germany’s conservative parties. In the following elections, his party won most of the seats, although public liberties had been previously restricted as a result of the Reichstag fire. After the formation of the new assembly, it gave him full powers through the Enabling Act, thus establishing a completely legal dictatorship within the constitutional framework of the Weimar Republic.
12.- He justified the German National Socialist approach by criticizing the liberal model of state and what it meant. First, and according to him, the liberal state was not based on social considerations but on economic ones, as the state could not intervene in the economy. Thus, citizens were left unprotected, and the role of the state of protecting its citizens was not fulfilled at all. So an all-powerful regime had to be established upon the citizenry, but one based on social considerations.
He said that the liberal state had led to the development of intermediary bodies that completely overpowered and subverted the state, which was reduced to obeying their mandates. Therefore, the state failed to fulfil is primordial function of protecting civil society. So again, a powerful regime has to be implemented, one that is strong enough to change these intermediary bodies and protect civil society.
Furthermore, the legal system that limited state power was controlled and determined by the indirect and private powers of society, uncontrolled and unseen, that only look for their own interests. The role of an authoritarian government here is to gather state power in order to be able to defend the common good against these private powers.
For him, the state has become a mechanism and a machine, far away from the citizens, who are the ones making up the state. Therefore, the president has to become the guardian of the constitution, and the state has to adopt a presidential dictatorship that allows for the restoration of the direct link between the individual and the state that never had to be broken, thus erasing the system mediated by a representative assembly whose laws corrupted this relationship.
13.- Mussolini’s idea of vertical unions was encompassed in his program of providing workers with legal protection, and which included other measures as the creation of a mandatory worker’s card for salaried employees. The main idea of the vertical unions was to replace the principle of class struggle with that of corporate promotion, in which the interests of the state, employers, and workers would be collectively managed.
It can be a good idea if the state acts in order to balance the relation between workers and companies, as it can be an important support for workers when it comes to defend their rights against an abusive company. However, it can be bad if the state acts defending the ideas of the company, whether they are fair or not, searching for its own benefit or for the loyalty of the company, providing it with something or not leaving the country in order to be installed in another and leave economic benefits there.
14.- Hitler was a socialist as he took some socialist measures in order to improve the conditions of the working class, although this can be seen as an attempt of countering Communist expansion in Germany.
He launched a policy of state economic intervention which alleviated the massive inflationary crisis that had plagued the country and adopted measures to prevent social injustice, but on a strictly national scale, Teaching guide 6.
rejecting any notions of international solidarity. As a result, in just 3 years the German economy became the world’s second strongest.
He launched massive public works to stimulate the economy, as the German motorways; the rebuilding of the armament industry; and implemented the model based on the mass consumption of goods, which previously was available only to the most affluent. He passed a law for the reduction of forced unemployment, and other legislation to prevent layoffs and child labour. He created a Social Security system, and other welfare measures, including the granting of low-interest loans to engaged couples, major tax reductions for large families, and the construction of affordable housing for one or more families or for those from humble origins. All these policies allowed him to convert Germany into the world’s second strongest economy in only a few years.
15.- The reaction of PSOE’s Secretary General Francisco Largo Caballero to the Right’s victory in the Spanish elections of November 1933 was a bad one, refusing to accept their outcome and leading a revolt throughout Spain, although it only succeeded in Asturias. He wanted to establish a Soviet-style regime, but things were not as expected and he did not have success. His reaction was detrimental to the Spanish II Republic, as it set a precedent. His reaction can be seen as one of the causes sparking the Spanish Civil War as, thanks to it, the right wing parties decided not to accept the February 1936’s elections, thus promoting a rebellion. This time, the army was the one rebelling in July, which marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.