Unit 7: Training and Development (2016)Apunte Inglés
Unit 7 Human Resources Mercè Mach ADE en inglés A6-B6
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UNIT 7: TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
The strategic importance of training and development
Training and development includes:
Addressing the concerns of employees
Implementing new technology
Improving customer service
Training for costumers
Smoother mergers & acquisitions
Knowledge management and learning organizations
Knowledge management technologies ensure that knowledge from employees,
teams, & units is captured, remembered, stored & shared through intranets. It’s
put into practice among communities-of-practice.
Learning is recognized as a source of competitive advantage.
Training and development within an integrated HRM system It has intentional efforts to improve current & future performance by helping employees acquire the skills, knowledge, & attitudes required of a competitive workforce.
*Training: It’s Improving employee competencies needed today or very soon. A typical objective is to improve employee performance in a specific job.
*Development: It’s improving employee competencies over a longer period of time. A typical objective is to prepare employees for future roles.
*Socialization: It’s learning how things are done in the organization.
The objective is to teach new employees about the organization’s history, culture and management practices. Intense socialization increases employees’ commitment to the success of the company Components of T&D within an integrated HRM system Links to other HR activities Job Analysis & Competency Modelling: Job analysis and competency modelling establish the tasks performed in a job and the competencies required to perform the job well.
Competency models, along with HR planning, also can guide the design of development activities.
Recruiting & Retaining: New employees are socialized. This leads to less absenteeism and lower turnover rates. It also increases dedication and commitment.
Selecting Employees: When training will be provided to new job incumbents, selection practices should emphasize people’s abilities and willingness to learn.
Performance Management: Performance management should be used to identify the need for training and to determine when training activities have succeeded in improving performance.
Evaluating training and development effectiveness Short-term outcomes Long-term outcomes Changes in attitude and feelings of Improved scores on employee attitude line managers and their employees surveys and changes in organizational structure Cognitive learning technical development skill Greater depth and/or breadth of expertise and talent throughout the organization Changes in work behaviours Improved both quality of products and services and customer satisfaction HR professionals seen as contributing Positive to strategic business issues return-on-investment training and for development expenditures The HR triad: Roles and responsibilities in training and development Determining training and development needs Organizational Needs Analysis is an assessment of the short- and long-term strategy and strategic business objectives of the company.
Goals: clearly state goals of T&D activities.
The climate for training is important since a supportive climate improves the chances employees will transfer what they learn.
Resources and Constraints on T&D activities determines the available resources and outlines any constraints that need to be considered when designing the training programs.
Four components of need assessment: Organization Job Person Demographics Organizational needs analysis It assesses short and long-term strategic objectives in order to analyse human resource needs, efficiency indices, training climate and resources & constraints.
It clearly state T&D objectives.
Climate for training Incentives that encourage employees to participate.
Managers who make it easy for employees to attend T& D programs.
Employees who encourage each other.
Rewards for the use of new competencies.
No hidden punishments for participating.
Rewards for managers who are effective trainers.
Job needs analysis It consists of identifying specific skills, knowledge and behaviour needed in present or future jobs. It uses job analysis with competency modelling.
Global leadership competencies at 3M Fundamental Leadership Competencies. New employees should possess these when hired and refine them through experience in successive managerial assignment.
o Ethics and integrity o Intellectual capacity o Maturity and judgement Essential Leadership Competencies.
These competencies are developed through experience leading a function or department, and they set the stage for more complex executive positions.
o Customer orientation o Developing people o Inspiring others o Business health and results Visionary Leadership Competencies. These competencies develop as executives take on responsibilities that require them to operate beyond the boundaries of a particular organizational unit, and they are used extensively in higher-level positions.
o Global perspective o Vision and strategy o Nurturing innovation o Building alliances o Organizational agility Person needs analysis It identifies the gap between a person’s current capabilities and those that are necessary or desirable using: Performance measures(i.e. productivity) Self-assessed training needs Employee and customer surveys Components of a tool kit for individual career development 1. Overview of the Individual Development Process a. Assess individual competencies and values.
b. Define personal strengths, development needs, and options for career growth.
c. Identify developmental actions.
d. Craft individual development plan.
e. Meet with manager to decide a course of action (based on preceding analysis).
f. Accept the challenge of implementing the plan 2. Worksheets for Individual Assessment a. Competency assessment worksheet: assesses strengths and weaknesses for a specified set of competencies.
b. Personal values survey: assesses preferences for types of work environments, work relationships, work tasks, lifestyle needs, & personal needs.
c. Development activities chart: describes on-the-job & off -the-job learning opportunities that can be used to develop key competencies.
d. Global training grid: lists all formal training programs offered by the company & explains how each relates to key competencies.
e. Individual development plan: developed by the employee, this describes specific development goals and a course of action to be taken to achieve the goals.
3. Defining & Understanding Global Competencies a. This section of the tool kit is like a dictionary. It lists all the competencies considered to be important for various types of jobs throughout the company & describes the meaning of each competency. This section serves as a reference guide & encourages people across the company to use a common set of terms when discussing competencies & career development issues.
Demographic needs analysis It is used to determine needs of specific populations of workers. It may be used to determine if all are given equal access to growth experiences and developmental challenges.
Designing training and development activities Creating right conditions: 1. Need to learn 2. Motivation 3. New skills and knowledge 4. Real world practice 5. Accountability Deciding who provides Supervisors & Other Managers. On-the-job training (OJT) and Mentoring.
Co-workers. Paired-training, coaching.
Experts. Subject matter experts.
Employee. Computer-based, self-paced instruction Stating the learning objectives Cognitive knowledge Includes information that people have (what they know), the way people organize information and strategies for using information. Most training addresses what people know.
Topics covered by training focusing on cognitive knowledge Company policies and practices. Orientation programs Basic knowledge and the Three R’s. Correct deficiencies in basic skills The big picture. Organization structure, products, services, business strategies and environment.
Developing employee’s skills Skills demonstrated by behaviours. Learning involves practicing desired behaviours such as technical, motor & communication skills, interpersonal and language.
Influencing affective responses The objective is to change motivation, attitudes and values. An example of objectives could be: Build team spirit Enhance self-confidence Build emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship management.) Encouraging ethical behaviour A variety of unethical behaviours occur frequently: Managers are abusive Lied to customers & employees Tolerated safety violations Corporate Social Responsibility.
Take as an example Weyerhaeuse Choosing the program format Traditional Formats.
o On-the-job o On-site, but not on-the-job o Off the job.
e-Learning. New technology allows integration of multiple learning methods. It includes teleconferencing, multimedia, computer-based learning. It can speed communication and cut costs.
Advantages & Disadvantages of several T&D activities TYPE OF PROGRAM ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES ON-THE-JOB E-LEARNING AND Bring employees VIDEO together TELECONFERENCING many locations.
from Speed up and equipment costs are high.
adaptation to a May new reduce learning format.
Start-up May be done on or off the job APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING Does not interfere with real job & ASSISTANTSHIPS performance.
Is expensive Provides May Facilitate transfer Give exposure to Gives be Are not really full Provide vicarious learning exposure to many jobs not jobs.
JOB ROTATION long related to job of learning.
extensive training INTERNSHIPS Takes Allows Involves no sense of responsibility real learning.
full Provides too short a stay in a job.
SUPERVISORY ASSISTANCE AND Is often informal.
Is integrated into effectiveness job.
rests Is expensive.
MENTORING Means with the May not be done by all supervisors TYPE OF PROGRAM ON-SITE, BUT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES NOT ON-THE-JOB CORPORATE UNIVERSITIES Tailored to company needs.
Can be costly.
Require management Support company vision skilled and culture.
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION ON AN INTRANET OR THE Reduces travel costs.
INTERNET Can be just-in- Provides timeto develop.
for & Is cost-effective only feedback.
Is consuming individualized learning appropriate for some skills.
Not for large groups.
Provides for fast learning Often no support to assist trainee when faces learning problems.
Convey Costly to develop.
consistent Do not provide for information to individual employees in feedback diverse locations.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES TYPE OF PROGRAM TYPICALLY-OFF-SITE FORMAL COURSES Are inexpensive for many.
Do not interfere ASSESSMENT CENTRES AND BOARD GAMES Inhibit transfer of learning Helps transfer of learning.
with job SIMULATION Require Cannot always duplicate Creates real situations exactly.
lifelike situations Costly to develop Provide a realistic Costly to develop.
Take Create time to administer lifelike situations ROLE-PLAYING • Is good for Cannot interpersonal real skills.
exactly; Gives create situations is still playing.
insights into others.
SENSITIVITY TRAINING Is good for self- awareness.
Gives to job.
insights into others.
WILDERNESS TRIPS May not relate to job Can build teams.
Can build May not transfer to administer.
self- esteem Costly Physically challenging On the job On-the-Job training. Employees learn their jobs under direct supervision.
Apprenticeships, internships & assistantships.
Job Experiences. Job rotation and developmental job assignments.
Supervisory assistance & mentoring.
Coaching Components of a developmental job assignment Unfamiliar responsibilities Responsibility for creating change.
High levels of responsibility.
Dealing with diversity.
On-site, but not on-the-job training Corporate universities & executive education programs. Interactive video training combines programmed instruction with video.
Off-site job training Typical formats o Formal courses o Simulation o Assessment centres o Business board games o Wilderness trips and outdoor training Disadvantages o Costs o Transfer of training Maximizing learning 1. Setting the stage for learning. It’s about providing clear instructions and model appropriate behaviour.
2. Increasing learning during training.
a. Responsive to country culture. Be aware of culture traditions and language.
b. Active participation. Better performance through involvement.
It promotes self-efficacy beliefs about task-specific abilities. Segment, sequence and shape learning of tasks. Set proximal goals to increase mastery perceptions.
d. Feedback. Specific, timely, diagnostic, practical feedback.
e. Practice. Provide opportunities for practice of new behaviours to make them consistent and permanent.
3. Maintaining performance after training.
a. Develop learning points to assist retention.
b. Set specific goals c. Identify reinforcers d. Train significant others to reinforce behaviour.
e. Teach trainees self-management skills for self-reinforcement.
Examples of experiential team training activities Challenging activity Teamwork lesson Juggle several objects simultaneously Although everyone has a different (e.g., tennis balls, hackey sacs, & role, each person touches & affects koosh balls) as a team.
Find the path hidden in a carpet maze Teams must find & use each & move each member through it in a individual’s hidden strengths (e.g., a limited amount of time.
good memory & the ability to move quickly). Doing so allows the team as a whole to succeed.
Balance 14 nails on the head of a nail Things that may seem impossible can that has been pounded into a be achieved when people work supporting block of wood, creating a together free-standing structure without supports Draw a vehicle that represents the Each member has different strengths, training teams & signify which part of & bringing these strengths together the vehicle each member represents.
leads to task success Team training and development Training to develop team cohesiveness.
Training in team procedures.
Training for team leaders o Supporting disagreement o Managing meetings.
Current issues: Diversity training for employees Cultural Awareness Training o How own culture (ethnic background, age, socioeconomic status, religion, etc.) differs from that of other workers.
o Understanding impact of stereotypes.
Building Competencies. Practice interpersonal skills.
Supplementing Diversity Training. Considering diversity in all aspects of HR management (recruitment, selection, rewards).
Global leadership training and development Managers need to manage operations in several countries at once. Training and development may include: Expatriate assignments Action learning projects Cross-cultural team assignments Classroom training.
Behaviours for global learners ...