Teaching guide 4 (2016)Ejercicio Inglés
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Teaching guide 9.
María Llanos Teaching guide 4. The origin of nation-state: from the American to the French Revolution (1776-1799).
A. Multiple choice.
1.- a) 1776.
2.- b) Constitutional monarchy, and c) constituent assembly.
3.- a) private property, b) an elective assembly of representatives, c) Common law, and d) a local administration.
4.- b) Virginia (first one in 1607), and d) Georgia (last one in 1733).
5.- c) Carolina.
6.- e) The Boston Massacre.
7.- b) East and West Florida.
8.- b) Virginia.
9.- c) 1774.
10.- e) 1781 and 1788.
11.- c) Sieyès declared that only Third Estate represents the Nation (17 June 1789).
12.- b) September 1791.
13.- d) Tennis Court oath (18 June 1789).
14.- e) 14 July 1790.
15.- c) The Convention.
16.- b) 14 July 1789, c) 6 October 1789, and e) 10 August 1792.
17.- d) July 27, 1794.
18.- d) August 10, 1792 to July 27, 1794.
19.- b) 1791, c) 1793, and d) 1795.
20.- c) September 22, 1792.
B. Concrete questions.
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María Llanos 1.- The three principles that marked liberal revolutions were the election of a constituent assembly in order to create a new constitution; the believe that people are sovereign; and the believe that people have some fundamental rights that the state has to protect.
2.- Both led to revolutionary assemblies drafting social pacts recorded in written constitutions; the people was represented in those assemblies and created nations which claimed the power (sovereignty) to decide the type of political regime they would have; and they wanted to sweep away the old order and create a new one.
3.- The four concrete acts that each free and independent nation may of right do are to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, and establish commerce.
4.- They are republican revolutions rather than democratic revolutions as there were republican principles and ideas the ones that ultimately destroyed monarchical society, and not democratic principles.
5.- The three models that inspired the foundation of the 13 colonies were the religious, royal, and private.
The last one was under royal authorization, but it was developed under private investment.
6.- Each colony had its own constitutional system based on the political instrument through which it had been founded. In most cases there were other rules and regulations stipulated in the royal charters laying down the basic legal framework which was to govern colonial life, as was the case of Carolina's Fundamental Constitutions or Pennsylvania's Charter of Privileges.
7.- It means that until that point the British Crown just acted as the official owner of the colonies, without caring about their degree of independence as far as they did not go against it. However, things changed when in 1754 the British Crown clashed with the French settled in nowadays Canada.
8.- George III decided to restore his royal authority through all his kingdom and make the Americans pay for the war against the French. For doing so, he decided the governors were to be paid directly by the Crown, which meant an increasing in the expenses. Thus, he decided to pass some indirect taxes that were to be applied to the colonies.
9.-. According to the colonists, the British could not levy taxes on them because they had no representation in the parliament. That means, they could not pay taxes they had not agreed to.
10.- It feared US independence because Spain's colonies in North America, though sparsely populated and weakly defended, were important as a territorial barrier to protect its more valuable colony of Mexico.
11.- The essence of the liberal state is private enterprise, respect for private property, constitutional limitations to government's actions, rejection of absolutism, and the non-intervention of the state in economic, social, or political issues.
12.- The only institution that could make binding decisions upon all states was the national Congress.
13.- The Estates General was an assembly formed by representatives of the nobles, the clergy and the Third Estate. Each of these groups had a vote and deliberated in different rooms. It was a legislative and consultative assembly, whose function was to advise the king.
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María Llanos 14.- The difference concerns the way of making decisions and the voting system. In the Estates General, each group deliberated on their own and had one vote, while in the National Assembly each man had one vote and they all deliberated together in the same chamber.
15.- A Constituent Assembly is the one in charge of creating a new constitution for the kingdom, while a Legislative Assembly is constituted after the approval of the Constitution and is in charge of passing laws that do not go against the Constitution.
16.- It was different in the sense that it did not proclaim the rights of just the state’s people, as was the case with the English or American, but it proclaimed that those rights were universal, for all people in all times.
17.- It was crucial because it manifests the national sentiment uniting all the French people and because, thanks to that sentiment, the territorial organization of France remains a centralized state, divided in departments.
18.- It was a coup d’état within the French Revolution against the Jacobin leaders. It was triggered by a vote of the National Convention to execute Robespierre and other leading members, and ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
19.- Tocqueville thought the French Revolution was a reinforcement of the state, especially in what concerns the administrative centralization. Besides, absolute monarchy gave way to an assembly-based or democratic absolutism.
20.- The principles of the French Revolution spread all over Europe through war, with France trying to become an imperial power under the hands of Napoleon.
Royal Colonies. Those colonies ruled or administered by officials responsible to and appointed by the reigning sovereign of Great Britain. Most specifically, by a royal governor and a council appointed by the British Crown. Besides, they had a representative assembly elected by the people. The first colony of this kind was Virginia.
Religious Colonies. They were those colonies established through a contract between the people who came to America and the crown. In this model, the people elect the lower house, the lower house elects the upper house, and both houses elect the governor. This type of colony was the one enjoying more independence.
Mayflower Compact. It was the first governing document of the Colony of Plymouth, written by separatist Congregationalists who were fleeing from religious persecution by King James of England. It was signed on November 11, 1620.
Proprietors Colonies. They were those territories granted by the English Crown to one or more proprietors who had full governing rights. The charters made the proprietor the effective ruler, albeit one ultimately responsible to English law and the king. This model eased administrative difficulties and allowed the king to focus on Britain.
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María Llanos Boston Tea Party. It was one of the first episodes that preceded the American Revolution. The demonstrators defied the Tea Act of May 10, 1773 by destroying an entire shipment of tea sent by the East India Company.
Continental Congress. It was a convention of the delegates of the Thirteen Colonies which became the governing body of the United States during the American Revolution. It met from 1774 to 1789 in three incarnations.
Constitutions. Document which stipulated the political instrument through which each colony had been formed, and other rules and regulations laying down the basic legal framework which was to govern colonial life.
Declaration of Rights. Document through which the Americans recognized some rights and duties common to every Englishman, without taking into account other peoples or nations. The first ones were the Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights of 1689.
Articles of Confederation. It was an agreement among all the thirteen colonies that served as its first constitution. Its ratification was finally completed in early 1781. The Articles provided a system for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War.
Parlements (French meaning). They were provincial appellate courts in the Ancien Régime in France. In 1789 there were 13. They were not legislative bodies, but rather provincial high courts which heard appeals from the lower courts of record, being the court of final appeal of the judicial system.
Provincial States. They were the provincial assemblies of France under the Ancien Régime. In them, the three estates were convened under the same rules as the Estates General. They had some political and administrative functions.
Estates General. Gathering of the representatives of the Third Estate, the nobles and the clergy where they counsel and advice the King. Each social group had one vote and deliberated separately, in one room each.
Révolte des Privilégiés. On 4 August 1789 the National Assembly abolished the feudal system entirely and the old rules, taxes and privileges left over from it. It also suspended the old judicial system, founded on the 13 regional parlements, in November of that year, and finally abolished it in 1790.
Books of Grievances. Places where the people of France wrote down all the things the king had to change, and until he had not changed them the Estates General would not give him what he wanted.
Estate Voting. System used in the Estates General in which each social class had one vote. To do so, each social class had to discuss the issue separately from the others and then agree to what they, as a social class, would vote.
National Assembly. It emerged out of the Estates General. New system in which each person had one vote, thus enhancing the representative system and making it fairer for the Third Estate. All issues were discussed in the Assembly.
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María Llanos Tennis Court Oath. On 20 June 1789, the representatives of the Third Estate gathered in Versailles and proclaimed themselves as the representatives of the sovereign French nation, and swore not to separate until a constitution had been approved for the kingdom. All this happened in a Tennis Court, as they found their meeting room closed by order of the king. By doing so, they established the National Assembly.
Constituent Assembly. Meeting of all the representatives in which they give form to the constitution of the state. They have to develop and agree on all the laws that will be part of the new constitution.
Legislative Assembly. Gathering of all the representatives where they discuss and pass laws, all of them in accordance with the constitution they previously have approved. The representatives forming it would have been elected through the means established in the constitution.
Convention. Single-chamber assembly in France from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly and founded the First Republic after the insurrection of 10 August 1792. It imposed a dictatorship directed by the most radical people.
Directory. It took place between 1795 and 1799, when the republic was controlled by a bourgeois oligarchy. It was characterized by a huge social instability, with the army intervening almost each time there were elections, and with their support been needed in order to maintain in force the new constitution, that of 1795.
Sans culottes. They were part of the Third Estate. They were called as such because they did not wear the short trousers (culottes) which extended to right below the knee that were the attire typical of the nobility and the high bourgeoisie.
Fête de la Féderation. Celebration that was held for the first time on July 14, 1790. It was repeated then every year on the same date, with delegations from all over France meeting in Paris to celebrate their “national” brotherhood. It celebrated the union of all the French people in a single and indivisible nation.
It was the origin of French nationalism.
The flight to Varennes. King Louis XVI of France, his queen, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. It happened during the night of 2021 June 1791.
Valmy. The Battle that took place on Valmy was the first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars that followed the French Revolution. It took place on 20 September 1792, when French troops stopped the Prussian advance near the northern village of Valmy.
The Terror. Most radical phase of the French Revolution that started with the assault on the royal palace.
During it the revolutionaries decided to abolish monarchy and call for new elections to choose a new constituent assembly.
Thermidorian Reaction. It was a coup d’état within the French Revolution against the Jacobin leaders. It was triggered by a vote of the National Convention to execute Robespierre and other leading members, and ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution.
D. General questions.
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María Llanos 1.- It is called revolution because subjects of His Gracious Majesty agreed to separate, voluntarily and unilaterally, from British sovereignty to found a new nation, and monarchy was thrown off in favour of republicanism, as it had never been done before. It also was a revolution as it declared the rights of all Englishmen. Besides, their revolution would set a precedent and inspire other republican revolutions that took place in the XVIII century, as the French Revolution.
2.- The English model of colonial rule in America was uniform, although the colonies were not very dependent on the Crown. The three types had in common the English political and legal institutions; common law; the concept of private property; the election of an assembly of representatives to discuss common issues; and the development of local administrative systems. Another thing they shared is that none of them had representation in the British parliament. Each colony also had its own governor, although the way of electing it varied. He was in charge of applying the laws, appointing intermediatelevel officials, summoning and dissolving the assemblies, and taking the lead proposing legislation.
As we have seen, the English model of American colonization was a deeply decentralized one, with a margin of autonomy for the colonies. However, this was not the case with the Spanish colonization, which was characterized by tightly control of the territories by the king, who exercised a monopoly. Each expedition was organized by the crown and each territory discovered was owned by the king and governed and administrated by his officers.
3.- The origin of the revolts is placed on the willing of the British Crown to make the colonists pay for the small army the Crown had placed in America and for the payment of the governors by the Crown, which allow it to better control them. So, in order to do so, it first repressed smuggling to increase revenue from customs duties and then, the Westminster Parliament voted to levy a series of indirect taxes collected via the Stamp Act. But the colonists said that, according to the constitutional principles of the United Kingdom, they were not obligated to pay any tax which they had not approved. So, as they had no representation in the British Parliament, this body had no right to impose taxes on them.
4.- They were a joint constitutional accord approved in November 1777, which granted a certain degree of authority, though limited, to a national Congress. Under these articles, the insurgents fought the Revolutionary War, which concluded with victory over England. However, they were not satisfactory for the new nation born in 1783 because they needed that their institutional ties and the executive had to be reinforced. That is why they called for a federal government featuring broader powers for Congress and a more powerful Executive.
5.- We call it the first liberal state because it was the first to guarantee the exercise of men’s basic natural rights; and the first to embrace private enterprise and with a profound respect for private property. It also adopted a model of state based on constitutional limitations curtailing government’s actions in the pursuit of law and order and a rejection of absolutism; and it establish the principle that the state in no way was to intervene in matters of an economic, social or political nature. Because of all these reasons it became the prototype of the liberal state that then spread throughout Europe.
6.- The representatives of the Third Estate started the French Revolution, as they had hoped that the king would give some steps towards the approval of a constitution but, as he did not gave them and as the representatives of the nobility and the clergy were not to support them, they revolted. So in the Tennis Court Oath they promised not to separate until a constitution had been approved for the kingdom and, on June 23, they decided not to obey the king and stay in the chamber, what made the King to change his 6 Teaching guide 9.
María Llanos mind and order all the representatives (nobility, clergy, and Third Estate) to form a single assembly in which all individual votes would be counted.
7.- The Estates General became a National Assembly when the king, tired of the pressures of the representatives of the Third Estate, ordered the representatives of the nobility and the clergy to unite with the representative of the people to form a single assembly in which all individual voted would be counted and all issues would be discussed among them all. It also was made even clearer when they decided to establish as a Constituent Assembly and began to discuss the task of drafting a constitution.
After the constitution was approved, the National Assembly became the legislative body of the French state.
8.- The periods of the French Revolution, in terms of monarchy and republic are 3. The first one encompasses from 1789 till August 10, 1792, when the king was jailed, tried and guillotined. The second period was the republic, which lasted from 1792 until 1802 when Napoleon proclaimed himself emperor and when the third period started.
In terms of constituent and legislative assemblies, we can distinguish six periods. The two firsts are the Constituent Assembly (1789-1791) and the Legislative one (1791-1792), both under the constitutional monarchy. Then, and under the first stage of the first republic, known as the Convention, we have one Constituent Assembly and one Legislative, in the period from 1792 till 1795. Finally, in the lasts years of the republic, known as the Directory, we have two new Constituent and Legislative Assemblies, from 1795 until 1799.
9.- They celebrated that all French citizens were part of the same nation when they celebrated the Fête de la Fédération on July 14, 1790. This event was repeated every year on the same date, with delegations from all over France meeting in Paris to celebrate their national brotherhood. Other examples of Revolutionary France becoming a nation-state may be the coming together of all the representatives (clergy, nobility and Third Estate) in order to approve the constitution, or the joining of forces of the French army in order to fight and defeat the Prussians and expel them from France.
10.- European kingdoms revolted against revolutionary France because they saw it as a threat to their internal regimes, and even more if we take into account that at that time Europe was ruled by absolute monarchs. They saw the principles of the French Revolution as something threatening their internal stability, and even obliging them to do some concessions in order to avoid revolts like the French one in their territories. The French Declaration of Rights was another important issue affecting them, as it recognized the rights of all the people, regardless of their nationality, something that they had not in their own state and that was worth to fight for.